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Volume 10, Number 6—June 2004

Environmental Exposure and Leptospirosis, Peru

Michael A.S. Johnson*†, Hannah Smith†, Priya Joseph†, Robert H. Gilman*†, Christian T. Bautista*‡, Kalina J. Campos*§, Michelle Cespedes†, Peter Klatsky†, Carlos Vidal¶, Hilja Terry†, Maritza M. Calderon*§, Carlos Coral†, Lilia Cabrera†, Paminder S. Parmar†, and Joseph M. Vinetz#Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Asociación Benéfica Prisma, Lima, Peru; †Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; ‡U.S. Naval Medical Center Research Detachment, Lima, Peru; §Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; ¶Ministry of Health, Iquitos, Peru; #University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, USA

Main Article

Table 4

Characteristics of rats in Belen and Las Pampas de San Juan de Mirafloresa

Risk factor Pampas San Juan Belen Comparison of sites

% (pos/total)b
% (PCR positive/total)b
p value
No. rats tested
4.9 (2/41)
10.6 (25/235)
p = 0.392

6.3 (1/16)
11.6 (15/129)
p = 0.999
4.0 (1/25)
8.5 (8/94)
p = 0.683
M vs. F comparison
p = 0.999
p = 0.594

Age groups

3.9 (2/41)
12.0 (18/150)
p = 0.255
Young (presexual)
8.8 (6/68)
p = NA
5.9 (1/17)
p = NA
p = NA
p = 0.328


Rattus norvegicus
4.9 (2/41)
21.7 (18/83)
p = 0.019
R. rattus
4.6 (7/151)
p = NA
Comparison of rat species p = NA p < 0.001

aPCR, polymerase chain reaction; NA, not applicable.
bLeptospirosis prevalence (number of positive rats/total of rats tested).
cSex was not known for 12 infants.

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Page updated: February 22, 2011
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