Volume 10, Number 7—July 2004
Q Fever Outbreak in Industrial Setting
||Approx. 12 mo
||Conclusive evidence: 586 d
Some evidence: 6 and 8 y
|Not recorded||–65||8 y|
- Williams J, Sanchez V. Q fever and coxiellosis. In: Beran G, Steele J, editors. Handbook of zoonoses. 2nd ed. London: CRC Press; 1994. p. 429–46.
- Salmon M, Howells B, Glencross E, Evans A, Palmer S. Q fever in an urban area. Lancet. 1982;1:1002–4.
- Hawker JI, Ayres JG, Blair I, Evans MR, Smith DL, Smith EG, A large outbreak of Q fever in the West Midlands: windborne spread into a metropolitan area? Commun Dis Public Health. 1998;1:180–7.
- Welsh H, Lennette E, Abinanti F, Winn J. Q fever in California: IV. Occurrence of Coxiella burnetii in the birth fluids of naturally infected sheep. Am J Hyg. 1953;58:385–8.
- Christie A. Infectious diseases. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1987.
- Philip C. Observations on experimental Q fever. J Parasitol. 1948;34:457–64.
- Williams J. Virulence and pathogenicity of Coxiella burnetii for various hosts. In: Williams J, Thompson H, editors. The biology of Coxiella burnetii. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 1991.
- Hellenbrand W, Breuer T, Petersen L. Changing epidemiology of Q fever in Germany, 1947–1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:789–96.
- Kennedy F. Q fever is Scotland 1985. Aberdeen, Scotland: Aberdeen University; 1994.
- Marmion B, Stoker M. The epidemiology of Q fever in Great Britain, an analysis of the findings and some conclusions. BMJ. 1958;2:809–16.
- Thomas DR, Treweek L, Salmon RL, Kench SM, Coleman TJ, Meadows D, The risk of acquiring Q fever on farms: a seroepidemiological study. Occup Environ Med. 1995;52:644–7.
- Gregg M. Field epidemiology. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2002.
- Mehta C, Patel N, Gray R. Exact confidence limits. J Am Stat Assoc. 1985;78:969–73.
- Smith DL, Ayres JG, Blair I, Burge PS, Carpenter MJ, Caul EO, A large Q fever epidemic in the West Midlands: clinical features. Respir Med. 1993;87:509–16.
- Choiniere Y. Munroe J. Farm workers’ health problems related to air quality inside livestock barns. Ontario, Canada: Canadian Government Publishing, Health Canada; 2001.
- Hazard prevention and control in the work environment: airborne dust. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1999.
- Harvey M. An outbreak of Q fever in East Kent. Lancet. 1951;2:1152–7.
- McCaul T. The developmental cycle of Coxiella burnetii. In: Williams J, Thompson H, editors. The biology of Coxiella burnetii. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 1991. p. 42–8.
- Material safety data sheet—infectious substances, section i—infectious agent, name: Bacillus anthracis. Ontario, Canada: Canadian Government Publishing, Health Canada; 2003.
- Webster JP. Wild brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) as a zoonotic risk on farms in England and Wales. Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev. 1996;6:R46–9.
- Comer JA, Paddock CD, Childs JE. Urban zoonoses caused by Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001;1:91–118.
- Holland W, Rowson K, Taylor C, Allen A, French-Constant M, Smelt C. Q fever in the RAF in Great Brittain in 1958. BMJ. 1960;▪▪▪:387–90.
- Meiklejohn G, Reimer LG, Graves PS, Helmick C. Cryptic epidemic of Q fever in a medical school. J Infect Dis. 1981;144:107–13.
- Rustscheff S, Norlander L, Macellaro A, Sjostedt A, Vene S, Carlsson M. A case of Q fever acquired in Sweden and isolation of the probable etiological agent, Coxiella burnetii from an indigenous source. Scand J Infect Dis. 2000;32:605–7.
- Oliphant J, Gordon D, Meis A, Parker R. Q fever in laundry workers, presumably transmitted from contaminated clothing. Am J Hyg. 1949;49:76.
- Reilly S, Northwood JL, Caul EO. Q fever in Plymouth, 1972–88. A review with particular reference to neurological manifestations. Epidemiol Infect. 1990;105:391–408.
- Robbins F, Gauld R, Warner F. Q fever in the Mediterranean area: report of its occurrence in Allied troops. II. Epidemiology. Am J Hyg. 1946;44:23–43.
- Ruach AM, Tanner M, Pacer RE, Barrett MJ, Brokopp CD, Schonberger LB. Sheep-associated outbreak of Q fever, Idaho. Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:341–4.
- Serbezov VS, Kazar J, Novkirishki V, Gatcheva N, Kovacova E, Voynova V. Q fever in Bulgaria and Slovakia. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:388–94.
- Varga V. An explosive outbreak of Q-fever in Jedl’ove Kostol’any, Slovakia. Cent Eur J Public Health. 1997;5:180–2.
- DeFilippis V. An outbreak of Q fever in a community in the province of Varese (Italy). Trop Dis Bull. 1955;52:527.
- Gutscher V, Nufer K. Ueber eine Queensland fever—endemie in Brenigarten (Kt. Aargan). Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1948;78:1064.
- Giroud P, Goulon M. The Derrick-Burnet disease of Q fever in France. Bull Inst Natl Hyg. 1952;7:877.
- Kaizl L. Q fever epidemic in cotton spinners. Lekarstri (Praha). 1956;8:300.
- Mimoume G, Pierron N, Vastil G, Marc P. A large explosive outbreak of Q fever among young French soldiers in Batna, (Algeria). Trop Dis Bull. 1956;53:738.
- Sigel MM, Scott TFM, Henle W, Janton OH. Q fever in a wool and hair processing plant. Am J Public Health. 1950;40:524.
- Colbeck I. Physical and chemical properties of aerosols. London: Blackie Academic Press; 1998.
- Commission on acute respiratory diseases. Epidemics of Q fever among troops returning from Italy in the spring of 1945. Am J Hyg. 1946;44:88–102.
- Wegmann T. Ueber eine Q-fever (Queensland fieber)—epidemie in Graubunder. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1948;78:529.
- Greene CM, Reefhuis J, Tan C, Fiore AE, Goldstein S, Beach MJ, Epidemiologic investigations of bioterrorism-related anthrax, New Jersey, 2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:1048–55.
- Palmer SR. Epidemiology in search of infectious diseases: methods in outbreak investigation. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1989;43:311–4.
- Health and Safety Executive Statistics. Table RIDDOR01: Cases of occupational disease reported under RIDDOR (a). Sheffield, United Kingdom: Health and Safety Executive; 2002.
- Wood dust: hazards and precautions. Woodworking Sheet No 1 (revised). Sheffield, United Kingdom: Health and Safety Executive; 2001.
- Selection of respiratory protective equipment suitable for use with wood dust WIS14. Sheffield, United Kingdom: HSE Books; 1991.
- Industrial Injuries Advisory Council. Chlamydiosis and Q fever: report by the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council in accordance with SI 41 of the Social Security Act 1975 etc. London: Department of Social Security; 1989.
- Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations. (1988) Approved Code of Practice. 2nd ed. Norwich, United Kingdom: HMSO; 1988.
- Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens. Second supplement to: categorisation of biological agents according to hazard and categories of containment. 4th ed. Norwich, United Kingdom: HMSO; 2000.
Page created: June 16, 2011
Page updated: June 16, 2011
Page reviewed: June 16, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.