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Volume 11, Number 12—December 2005

Host Range and Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens

Mark E.J. Woolhouse*Comments to Author  and Sonya Gowtage-Sequeria*
Author affiliations: *Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Main Article


Main categories of drivers associated with emergence and reemergence of human pathogens

Rank* Driver
1 Changes in land use or agricultural practices
2 Changes in human demographics and society
3 Poor population health (e.g., HIV, malnutrition)
4 Hospitals and medical procedures
5 Pathogen evolution (e.g., antimicrobial drug resistance, increased virulence)
6 Contamination of food sources or water supplies
7 International travel
8 Failure of public health programs
9 International trade
10 Climate change

*Ranked by the number of pathogen species associated with them (most to least).

Main Article

Page created: February 02, 2012
Page updated: April 05, 2012
Page reviewed: April 05, 2012
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