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Volume 11, Number 3—March 2005


Fly Transmission of Campylobacter

Gordon L. Nichols*Comments to Author 
Author affiliation: *Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom

Main Article


Risk factors that might affect Campylobacter seasonality*

Risk factor Outbreaks Evidence of seasonality Credibility as the main seasonal driver
Barbecuing Yes Medium Low
Birds Yes Strong Low
Bottled water No None Low
Chicken Yes Medium Medium
Cross-contamination Yes None None
Domestic catering No None None
Farm visit Yes None None
Farm animals Yes Weak Low
Flies No Strong High
Food handlers Yes None None
Food packaging No None None
Immunologic response No Weak None
Mains supply drinking water Yes None None
Nosocomial Yes None None
Pets No Weak Low
Pools, lakes, streams No None None
Private drinking water supplies Yes Weak None
Protozoa No None Low
Salads and fruit Yes Weak Low
Stir-fried food Yes None None
The countryside No Weak Medium
Transmission in families Yes None None
Travel abroad No None None
Unpasteurized milk Yes Weak None
Weather/climate No Medium Medium

*Evidence base provided in Appendix.

Main Article