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Issue Cover for Volume 11, Number 3—March 2005

Volume 11, Number 3—March 2005

[PDF - 9.69 MB - 163 pages]

Perspective

Fly Transmission of Campylobacter [PDF - 315 KB - 4 pages]
G. L. Nichols
EID Nichols GL. Fly Transmission of Campylobacter. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):361-364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040460
AMA Nichols GL. Fly Transmission of Campylobacter. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):361-364. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040460.
APA Nichols, G. L. (2005). Fly Transmission of Campylobacter. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 361-364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040460.
Research

Disease Risks from Foods, England and Wales, 1996–2000 [PDF - 146 KB - 8 pages]
G. K. Adak et al.
EID Adak GK, Meakins SM, Yip H, Lopman BA, O'Brien SJ. Disease Risks from Foods, England and Wales, 1996–2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):365-372. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040191
AMA Adak GK, Meakins SM, Yip H, et al. Disease Risks from Foods, England and Wales, 1996–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):365-372. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040191.
APA Adak, G. K., Meakins, S. M., Yip, H., Lopman, B. A., & O'Brien, S. J. (2005). Disease Risks from Foods, England and Wales, 1996–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 365-372. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040191.

Rapid Identification of Emerging Pathogens: Coronavirus [PDF - 333 KB - 7 pages]
R. Sampath et al.

We describe a new approach for infectious disease surveillance that facilitates rapid identification of known and emerging pathogens. The process uses broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify nucleic acid targets from large groupings of organisms, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for accurate mass measurements of PCR products, and base composition signature analysis to identify organisms in a sample. We demonstrate this principle by using 14 isolates of 9 diverse Coronavirus spp., including the severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We show that this method could identify and distinguish between SARS and other known CoV, including the human CoV 229E and OC43, individually and in a mixture of all 3 human viruses. The sensitivity of detection, measured by using titered SARS-CoV spiked into human serum, was ≈1 PFU/mL. This approach, applicable to the surveillance of bacterial, viral, fungal, or protozoal pathogens, is capable of automated analysis of >900 PCR reactions per day.

EID Sampath R, Hofstadler SA, Blyn LB, Eshoo MW, Hall TA, Massire C, et al. Rapid Identification of Emerging Pathogens: Coronavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):373-379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040629
AMA Sampath R, Hofstadler SA, Blyn LB, et al. Rapid Identification of Emerging Pathogens: Coronavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):373-379. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040629.
APA Sampath, R., Hofstadler, S. A., Blyn, L. B., Eshoo, M. W., Hall, T. A., Massire, C....Ecker, D. J. (2005). Rapid Identification of Emerging Pathogens: Coronavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 373-379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040629.

Antimicrobial Drug Prescribing for Pneumonia in Ambulatory Care [PDF - 115 KB - 5 pages]
C. MacDougall et al.

To determine patterns and predictors of antimicrobial drug use for outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia, we examined office visit and pharmacy claims data of 4 large third-party payer organizations from 2000 to 2002. After patients with coexisting conditions were excluded, 4,538 patients were studied. Despite lack of coexisting conditions, fluoroquinolone use was commonly observed and increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 2000 to 2002 (24%–39%), while macrolide use decreased (55%–44%). Increased age correlated with increased fluoroquinolone use: 18–44 years (22%), 45–64 years (33%), and >65 years (40%) (p < 0.001). Increased use of fluoroquinolones occurred in healthy young and old patients alike, which suggests a lack of selectivity in reserving fluoroquinolones for higher risk patients. Clear and consistent guidelines are needed to address the role of fluoroquinolones in treatment of outpatient community-acquired pneumonia.

EID MacDougall C, Guglielmo B, Maselli J, Gonzales R. Antimicrobial Drug Prescribing for Pneumonia in Ambulatory Care. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):380-384. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040819
AMA MacDougall C, Guglielmo B, Maselli J, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Prescribing for Pneumonia in Ambulatory Care. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):380-384. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040819.
APA MacDougall, C., Guglielmo, B., Maselli, J., & Gonzales, R. (2005). Antimicrobial Drug Prescribing for Pneumonia in Ambulatory Care. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 380-384. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040819.

Ebola Virus Antibody Prevalence in Dogs and Human Risk [PDF - 199 KB - 6 pages]
L. Allela et al.

During the 2001–2002 outbreak in Gabon, we observed that several dogs were highly exposed to Ebola virus by eating infected dead animals. To examine whether these animals became infected with Ebola virus, we sampled 439 dogs and screened them by Ebola virus–specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G assay, antigen detection, and viral polymerase chain reaction amplification. Seven (8.9%) of 79 samples from the 2 main towns, 15 (15.2%) of 14 the 99 samples from Mekambo, and 40 (25.2%) of 159 samples from villages in the Ebola virus–epidemic area had detectable Ebola virus–IgG, compared to only 2 (2%) of 102 samples from France. Among dogs from villages with both infected animal carcasses and human cases, seroprevalence was 31.8%. A significant positive direct association existed between seroprevalence and the distances to the Ebola virus–epidemic area. This study suggests that dogs can be infected by Ebola virus and that the putative infection is asymptomatic.

EID Allela L, Bourry O, Pouillot R, Délicat A, Yaba P, Kumulungui B, et al. Ebola Virus Antibody Prevalence in Dogs and Human Risk. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):385-390. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040981
AMA Allela L, Bourry O, Pouillot R, et al. Ebola Virus Antibody Prevalence in Dogs and Human Risk. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):385-390. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040981.
APA Allela, L., Bourry, O., Pouillot, R., Délicat, A., Yaba, P., Kumulungui, B....Leroy, E. M. (2005). Ebola Virus Antibody Prevalence in Dogs and Human Risk. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 385-390. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040981.

Probable Psittacosis Outbreak Linked to Wild Birds [PDF - 114 KB - 7 pages]
B. L. Telfer et al.

In autumn 2002, an outbreak of probable psittacosis occurred among residents of the Blue Mountains district, Australia. We conducted a case-control study to determine independent risk factors for psittacosis by comparing exposures between hospitalized patients and other residents selected randomly from the telephone directory. Of the 59 case-patients with laboratory results supportive of psittacosis, 48 participated in a case-control study with 310 controls. Independent risk factors were residence in the upper Blue Mountains (odds ratio [OR] = 15.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.6–41.7), age of 50–64 years (OR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.5–10.5), direct contact with wild birds (OR = 7.4, 95% CI 2.5–22), and mowing lawns without a grass catcher (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.3–8.0). Protective equipment is recommended for residents in areas frequented by free-ranging birds if contact with birds and their droppings is likely when performing outdoor activities such as lawn mowing.

EID Telfer BL, Moberley SA, Hort KP, Branley JM, Dwyer DE, Muscatello DJ, et al. Probable Psittacosis Outbreak Linked to Wild Birds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):391-397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040601
AMA Telfer BL, Moberley SA, Hort KP, et al. Probable Psittacosis Outbreak Linked to Wild Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):391-397. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040601.
APA Telfer, B. L., Moberley, S. A., Hort, K. P., Branley, J. M., Dwyer, D. E., Muscatello, D. J....McAnulty, J. M. (2005). Probable Psittacosis Outbreak Linked to Wild Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 391-397. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040601.

Effect of Regulation and Education on Reptile-associated Salmonellosis [PDF - 230 KB - 6 pages]
B. de Jong et al.

Reptiles have become increasingly common as domestic pets, and with them reptile-associated Salmonella infections in humans. From 1990 to 2000, a total of 339 reptile-associated Salmonella cases were reported in Sweden. In 1996, as part of its efforts to adapt its import regulations to those of the European Union, Sweden no longer required certificates stating that imported animals were free of Salmonella. A subsequent increase was noted in the incidence of reptile-associated cases from 0.15/100,000 in the period 1990–1994 to 0.79/100,000 in 1996 and 1997. After a public education campaign directed toward the general public was begun through the news media, the incidence dropped to 0.46/100,000. Children were the most affected age group among patients (incidence 1.3/100,000). Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was the most frequent serotype (24% of isolates), followed by S. Typhimurium (9% of isolates). Import restrictions and public information campaigns are effective public health measures against reptile-associated salmonellosis.

EID de Jong B, Andersson Y, Ekdahl K. Effect of Regulation and Education on Reptile-associated Salmonellosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):398-403. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040694
AMA de Jong B, Andersson Y, Ekdahl K. Effect of Regulation and Education on Reptile-associated Salmonellosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):398-403. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040694.
APA de Jong, B., Andersson, Y., & Ekdahl, K. (2005). Effect of Regulation and Education on Reptile-associated Salmonellosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 398-403. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040694.

SARS Risk Perceptions in Healthcare Workers, Japan [PDF - 134 KB - 7 pages]
T. Imai et al.

In coping with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), infection control measures are a key aspect of protecting healthcare workers. We conducted a survey concerning perception of risk and countermeasures for SARS in 7 tertiary hospitals in Japan from July through September 2003, immediately after the SARS epidemic in neighboring countries. Based on 7,282 respondents out of 9,978 questionnaires administered, we found the perception of risk to be relatively high and the perception of countermeasures at the institutional level to be relatively low. Knowledge of preventive measures, concept of (opinions regarding) institutional measures, and perception of risk differed substantially among the 3 job categories, notably between physicians and nurses. The concept of institutional measures was the most important predictor of individual perception of risk. In view of the potential for future epidemics, planning and implementing institutional measures should be given a high priority.

EID Imai T, Takahashi K, Hoshuyama T, Hasegawa N, Lim M, Koh D. SARS Risk Perceptions in Healthcare Workers, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):404-410. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040631
AMA Imai T, Takahashi K, Hoshuyama T, et al. SARS Risk Perceptions in Healthcare Workers, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):404-410. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040631.
APA Imai, T., Takahashi, K., Hoshuyama, T., Hasegawa, N., Lim, M., & Koh, D. (2005). SARS Risk Perceptions in Healthcare Workers, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 404-410. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040631.

Longitudinally Profiling Neutralizing Antibody Response to SARS Coronavirus with Pseudotypes [PDF - 203 KB - 6 pages]
N. J. Temperton et al.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike protein (S) is a major target for neutralizing antibodies. Retroviral SARS-CoV S pseudotypes have been constructed and used to develop an in vitro microneutralization assay that is both sensitive and specific for SARS-CoV neutralizing antibodies. Neutralization titers measured by this assay are highly correlated to those measured by an assay using replication-competent SARS-CoV. No cross-neutralization occurred with human sera known to contain antibodies to coronavirus strains OC43 and 229E. The pseudotype assay was used to profile neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV S in sequential serum samples taken from 41 confirmed SARS patients during the 2003 outbreak in Hong Kong and shows long-lasting immunity in most recovered patients. The pseudotype assay does not require handling live SARS virus; it is a useful tool to determine neutralizing titers during natural infection and the preclinical evaluation of candidate vaccines.

EID Temperton NJ, Chan PK, Simmons G, Zambon MC, Tedder RS, Takeuchi Y, et al. Longitudinally Profiling Neutralizing Antibody Response to SARS Coronavirus with Pseudotypes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):411-416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040906
AMA Temperton NJ, Chan PK, Simmons G, et al. Longitudinally Profiling Neutralizing Antibody Response to SARS Coronavirus with Pseudotypes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):411-416. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040906.
APA Temperton, N. J., Chan, P. K., Simmons, G., Zambon, M. C., Tedder, R. S., Takeuchi, Y....Weiss, R. A. (2005). Longitudinally Profiling Neutralizing Antibody Response to SARS Coronavirus with Pseudotypes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 411-416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040906.

SARS-related Perceptions in Hong Kong [PDF - 168 KB - 8 pages]
J. Lau et al.

To understand different aspects of community responses related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), 2 population-based, random telephone surveys were conducted in June 2003 and January 2004 in Hong Kong. More than 70% of respondents would avoid visiting hospitals or mainland China to avoid contracting SARS. Most respondents believed that SARS could be transmitted through droplets, fomites, sewage, and animals. More than 90% believed that public health measures were efficacious means of prevention; 40.4% believed that SARS would resurge in Hong Kong; and ≈70% would then wear masks in public places. High percentages of respondents felt helpless, horrified, and apprehensive because of SARS. Approximately 16% showed signs of posttraumatic symptoms, and ≈40% perceived increased stress in family or work settings. The general public in Hong Kong has been very vigilant about SARS but needs to be more psychologically prepared to face a resurgence of the epidemic.

EID Lau J, Yang X, Pang E, Tsui H, Wong E, Wing Y. SARS-related Perceptions in Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):417-424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040675
AMA Lau J, Yang X, Pang E, et al. SARS-related Perceptions in Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):417-424. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040675.
APA Lau, J., Yang, X., Pang, E., Tsui, H., Wong, E., & Wing, Y. (2005). SARS-related Perceptions in Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 417-424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040675.

West Nile Virus Risk Assessment and the Bridge Vector Paradigm [PDF - 194 KB - 5 pages]
A. Kilpatrick et al.

In the northeast United States, control of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors has been unfocused because of a lack of accurate knowledge about the roles different mosquitoes play in WNV transmission. We analyzed the risk posed by 10 species of mosquitoes for transmitting WNV to humans by using a novel risk-assessment measure that combines information on the abundance, infection prevalence, vector competence, and biting behavior of vectors. This analysis suggests that 2 species (Culex pipiens L. and Cx. restuans Theobald [Diptera: Cilicidae]) not previously considered important in transmitting WNV to humans may be responsible for up to 80% of human WNV infections in this region. This finding suggests that control efforts should be focused on these species which may reduce effects on nontarget wetland organisms. Our risk measure has broad applicability to other regions and diseases and can be adapted for use as a predictive tool of future human WNV infections.

EID Kilpatrick A, Kramer LD, Campbell SR, Alleyne E, Dobson AP, Daszak P. West Nile Virus Risk Assessment and the Bridge Vector Paradigm. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):425-429. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040364
AMA Kilpatrick A, Kramer LD, Campbell SR, et al. West Nile Virus Risk Assessment and the Bridge Vector Paradigm. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):425-429. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040364.
APA Kilpatrick, A., Kramer, L. D., Campbell, S. R., Alleyne, E., Dobson, A. P., & Daszak, P. (2005). West Nile Virus Risk Assessment and the Bridge Vector Paradigm. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 425-429. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040364.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Horses and Horse Personnel, 2000–2002 [PDF - 191 KB - 6 pages]
J. Weese et al.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection was identified in 2 horses treated at a veterinary hospital in 2000, prompting a study of colonization rates of horses and associated persons. Seventy-nine horses and 27 persons colonized or infected with MRSA were identified from October 2000 to November 2002; most isolations occurred in a 3-month period in 2002. Twenty-seven (34%) of the equine isolates were from the veterinary hospital, while 41 (51%) were from 1 thoroughbred farm in Ontario. Seventeen (63%) of 27 human isolates were from the veterinary hospital, and 8 (30%) were from the thoroughbred farm. Thirteen (16%) horses and 1 (4%) person were clinically infected. Ninety-six percent of equine and 93% of human isolates were subtypes of Canadian epidemic MRSA-5, spa type 7 and possessed SCCmecIV. All tested isolates from clinical infections were negative for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. Equine MRSA infection may be an important emerging zoonotic and veterinary disease.

EID Weese J, Archambault M, Dick H, Hearn P, Kreiswirth B, Said-Salim B, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Horses and Horse Personnel, 2000–2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):430-435. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040481
AMA Weese J, Archambault M, Dick H, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Horses and Horse Personnel, 2000–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):430-435. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040481.
APA Weese, J., Archambault, M., Dick, H., Hearn, P., Kreiswirth, B., Said-Salim, B....Low, D. (2005). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Horses and Horse Personnel, 2000–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 430-435. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040481.

Malaria Risk in Travelers [PDF - 123 KB - 6 pages]
H. Askling et al.

Imported malaria has been an increasing problem in several Western countries in the last 2 decades. To calculate the risk factors of age, sex, and travel destination in Swedish travelers, we used data from the routine reporting system for malaria (mixture of patients with and without adequate prophylaxis), a database on travel patterns, and in-flight or visa data on Swedish travelers of 1997 to 2003. The crude risk for travelers varied from 1 per 100,000 travelers to Central America and the Caribbean to 357 per 100,000 in central Africa. Travelers to East Africa had the highest adjusted odds ratio (OR = 341; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 134–886) for being reported with malaria, closely followed by travelers to central Africa and West Africa. Male travelers as well as children <1–6 years of age had a higher risk of being reported with malaria (OR = 1,7; 95% CI 1.3–2.3 and OR = 4,8; 95%CI 1.5–14.8) than women and other age groups.

EID Askling H, Nilsson J, Tegnell A, Janzon R, Ekdahl K. Malaria Risk in Travelers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):436-441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040677
AMA Askling H, Nilsson J, Tegnell A, et al. Malaria Risk in Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):436-441. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040677.
APA Askling, H., Nilsson, J., Tegnell, A., Janzon, R., & Ekdahl, K. (2005). Malaria Risk in Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 436-441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040677.
Policy Review

Notifiable Disease Surveillance and Practicing Physicians [PDF - 62 KB - 4 pages]
G. Krause et al.

Primary care physicians in Germany are essential participants in infectious disease surveillance through mandatory reporting. Feedback on such surveillance should reflect the needs and attitudes of these physicians. These issues were investigated in a questionnaire survey among 8,550 randomly sampled physicians in Germany in 2001. Of the 1,320 respondents, 59.3% claimed not to have received any feedback on infectious disease surveillance, and 3.7% perceived feedback as not important. Logistic regression analysis showed that physicians in the former East Germany were 2.2 times more likely to have received feedback than those in the former West Germany. Physicians preferred to receive occasional reports (e.g., in case of outbreaks, 31.6%) as opposed to actively having to search for constantly updated information on the Internet (7.8%). The preferred formats were fax (31.7%), mail (30.9%), and the official organ of the German Medical Association (Deutsches Arzteblatt) (30.5%). Feedback of surveillance data to physicians should be delivered through occasional nonelectronic reports on current issues of local public health importance.

EID Krause G, Ropers G, Stark K. Notifiable Disease Surveillance and Practicing Physicians. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):442-445. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040361
AMA Krause G, Ropers G, Stark K. Notifiable Disease Surveillance and Practicing Physicians. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):442-445. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040361.
APA Krause, G., Ropers, G., & Stark, K. (2005). Notifiable Disease Surveillance and Practicing Physicians. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 442-445. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040361.
Dispatches

SARS-associated Coronavirus Transmitted from Human to Pig [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
W. Chen et al.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated

coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was isolated from a pig during a survey for possible routes of viral transmission after a SARS epidemic. Sequence and epidemiology analyses suggested that the pig was infected by a SARS-CoV of human origin.

EID Chen W, Yan M, Yang L, Ding B, He B, Wang Y, et al. SARS-associated Coronavirus Transmitted from Human to Pig. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):446-448. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040824
AMA Chen W, Yan M, Yang L, et al. SARS-associated Coronavirus Transmitted from Human to Pig. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):446-448. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040824.
APA Chen, W., Yan, M., Yang, L., Ding, B., He, B., Wang, Y....Wang, J. (2005). SARS-associated Coronavirus Transmitted from Human to Pig. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 446-448. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040824.

Mimivirus in Pneumonia Patients [PDF - 248 KB - 4 pages]
B. La Scola et al.

Mimivirus, the largest virus known to date, is an amebal pathogen like Legionella spp. When mimivirus was used as an antigen in a migration inhibition factor assay, seroconversion was found in patients with both community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Mimivirus DNA was found in respiratory samples of patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia.

EID La Scola B, Marrie TJ, Auffray J, Raoult D. Mimivirus in Pneumonia Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):449-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040538
AMA La Scola B, Marrie TJ, Auffray J, et al. Mimivirus in Pneumonia Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):449-452. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040538.
APA La Scola, B., Marrie, T. J., Auffray, J., & Raoult, D. (2005). Mimivirus in Pneumonia Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 449-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040538.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit [PDF - 218 KB - 4 pages]
G. Regev-Yochay et al.

A neonatal intensive care unit outbreak was caused by a strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus previously found in the community (ST45-MRSA-IV). Fifteen infected neonates were identified, 2 of whom died. This outbreak illustrates how a rare community pathogen can rapidly spread through nosocomial transmission.

EID Regev-Yochay G, Rubinstein E, Barzilai A, Carmeli Y, Kuint J, Etienne J, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):453-456. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040470
AMA Regev-Yochay G, Rubinstein E, Barzilai A, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):453-456. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040470.
APA Regev-Yochay, G., Rubinstein, E., Barzilai, A., Carmeli, Y., Kuint, J., Etienne, J....Keller, N. (2005). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 453-456. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040470.

Inquilinus limosus in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis, Germany [PDF - 61 KB - 3 pages]
N. Wellinghausen et al.

We identified Inquilinus limosus, a recently described α-proteobacterium, in sputum of 2 patients with cystic fibrosis whose respiratory tracts were persistently colonized for >9 months. We present data on the epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular characteristics of I. limosus.

EID Wellinghausen N, Essig A, Sommerburg O. Inquilinus limosus in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):457-459. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.041078
AMA Wellinghausen N, Essig A, Sommerburg O. Inquilinus limosus in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):457-459. doi:10.3201/eid1103.041078.
APA Wellinghausen, N., Essig, A., & Sommerburg, O. (2005). Inquilinus limosus in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 457-459. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.041078.

Fever Screening at Airports and Imported Dengue [PDF - 57 KB - 3 pages]
P. Shu et al.

Airport fever screening in Taiwan, July 2003–June 2004, identified 40 confirmed dengue cases. Results obtained by capture immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG enzyme-linked immunoassay, real time 1-step polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation showed that 33 (82.5%) of 40 patients were viremic. Airport fever screening can thus quickly identify imported dengue cases.

EID Shu P, Chien L, Chang S, Su C, Kuo Y, Liao T, et al. Fever Screening at Airports and Imported Dengue. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):460-462. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040420
AMA Shu P, Chien L, Chang S, et al. Fever Screening at Airports and Imported Dengue. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):460-462. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040420.
APA Shu, P., Chien, L., Chang, S., Su, C., Kuo, Y., Liao, T....Huang, J. (2005). Fever Screening at Airports and Imported Dengue. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 460-462. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040420.

Rumor Surveillance and Avian Influenza H5N1 [PDF - 176 KB - 4 pages]
G. Samaan et al.

We describe the enhanced rumor surveillance during the avian influenza H5N1 outbreak in 2004. The World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Regional Office identified 40 rumors; 9 were verified to be true. Rumor surveillance informed immediate public health action and prevented unnecessary and costly responses.

EID Samaan G, Patel M, Olowokure B, Roces MC, Oshitani H. Rumor Surveillance and Avian Influenza H5N1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):463-466. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040657
AMA Samaan G, Patel M, Olowokure B, et al. Rumor Surveillance and Avian Influenza H5N1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):463-466. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040657.
APA Samaan, G., Patel, M., Olowokure, B., Roces, M. C., & Oshitani, H. (2005). Rumor Surveillance and Avian Influenza H5N1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 463-466. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040657.

Human Metapneumovirus RNA in Encephalitis Patient [PDF - 230 KB - 4 pages]
O. Schildgen et al.

We describe a fatal case of encephalitis that might be correlated with primary human metapneumovirus (HMPV) encephalitis. Postmortem HMPV RNA was detected in brain and lung tissue samples from the patient. Furthermore, HMPV RNA was found in culture fluids from cells coincubated with lung tissue.

EID Schildgen O, Glatzel T, Geikowski T, Scheibner B, Simon A, Bindl L, et al. Human Metapneumovirus RNA in Encephalitis Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):467-470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040676
AMA Schildgen O, Glatzel T, Geikowski T, et al. Human Metapneumovirus RNA in Encephalitis Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):467-470. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040676.
APA Schildgen, O., Glatzel, T., Geikowski, T., Scheibner, B., Simon, A., Bindl, L....Matz, B. (2005). Human Metapneumovirus RNA in Encephalitis Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 467-470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040676.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Meningitis Patients, Japan [PDF - 112 KB - 3 pages]
M. Kuwayama et al.

Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 57 patients diagnosed with meningitis were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and amplified. Two products had highest homology with Nakayama strain and 2 with Ishikawa strain. Results suggest that Japanese encephalitis virus causes some aseptic meningitis in Japan.

EID Kuwayama M, Ito M, Takao S, Shimazu Y, Fukuda S, Miyazaki K, et al. Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Meningitis Patients, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):471-473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040285
AMA Kuwayama M, Ito M, Takao S, et al. Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Meningitis Patients, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):471-473. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040285.
APA Kuwayama, M., Ito, M., Takao, S., Shimazu, Y., Fukuda, S., Miyazaki, K....Takasaki, T. (2005). Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Meningitis Patients, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 471-473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040285.

Identifying Relapsing Fever Borrelia, Senegal [PDF - 42 KB - 2 pages]
H. Brahim et al.

We describe a nested polymerase chain reaction for the identification of Borrelia species from serum of patients with unidentified fevers. This technique, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, was used to test blood samples from 7,750 patients, 33 of whom were diagnosed with spirochete infections. Borrelia crocidurae was the only species identified.

EID Brahim H, Perrier-Gros-Claude J, Postic D, Baranton G, Jambou R. Identifying Relapsing Fever Borrelia, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):474-475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040506
AMA Brahim H, Perrier-Gros-Claude J, Postic D, et al. Identifying Relapsing Fever Borrelia, Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):474-475. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040506.
APA Brahim, H., Perrier-Gros-Claude, J., Postic, D., Baranton, G., & Jambou, R. (2005). Identifying Relapsing Fever Borrelia, Senegal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 474-475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040506.

Babesia microti, Upstate New York [PDF - 68 KB - 3 pages]
S. J. Kogut et al.

Five cases of human babesiosis were reported in the Lower Hudson Valley Region of New York State in 2001. An investigation to determine if Babesia microti was present in local Ixodes scapularis ticks yielded 5 positive pools in 123 pools tested, the first detection of B. microti from field-collected I. scapularis in upstate New York.

EID Kogut SJ, Thill CD, Prusinski MA, Lee J, Backenson P, Coleman JL, et al. Babesia microti, Upstate New York. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):476-478. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040599
AMA Kogut SJ, Thill CD, Prusinski MA, et al. Babesia microti, Upstate New York. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):476-478. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040599.
APA Kogut, S. J., Thill, C. D., Prusinski, M. A., Lee, J., Backenson, P., Coleman, J. L....White, D. J. (2005). Babesia microti, Upstate New York. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 476-478. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040599.

Pythiosis in Africa [PDF - 192 KB - 3 pages]
C. Rivierre et al.

We report the first case of pythiosis from Africa in an 8-month-old dog with a chronic and ulcerative cutaneous lesion. The etiologic agent belonged to the genus Pythium. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in a sister group to the other P. insidiosum strains. However, the isolate may belong to a new Pythium species.

EID Rivierre C, Laprie C, Guiard-Marigny O, Bergeaud P, Berthelemy M, Guillot J. Pythiosis in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):479-481. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040697
AMA Rivierre C, Laprie C, Guiard-Marigny O, et al. Pythiosis in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):479-481. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040697.
APA Rivierre, C., Laprie, C., Guiard-Marigny, O., Bergeaud, P., Berthelemy, M., & Guillot, J. (2005). Pythiosis in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 479-481. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040697.

Hepatitis E Infections, Victoria, Australia [PDF - 73 KB - 3 pages]
B. C. Cowie et al.

In the first half of 2004, acute hepatitis E virus infections diagnosed in Victoria, Australia, increased 7-fold. Of the interviewed patients with highly reactive serologic results, 90% reported recent clinically compatible illness and overseas travel. The increase is compared with a background of exposure in countries in which hepatitis E is endemic.

EID Cowie BC, Adamopoulos J, Carter K, Kelly H. Hepatitis E Infections, Victoria, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):482-484. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040706
AMA Cowie BC, Adamopoulos J, Carter K, et al. Hepatitis E Infections, Victoria, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):482-484. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040706.
APA Cowie, B. C., Adamopoulos, J., Carter, K., & Kelly, H. (2005). Hepatitis E Infections, Victoria, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 482-484. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040706.

Concomitant Tickborne Encephalitis and Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis [PDF - 145 KB - 4 pages]
S. Lotric-Furlan et al.

We report a patient with febrile illness and epidemiologic and clinical findings consistent with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and tickborne encephalitis, in whom infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction and seroconversion. Tickborne encephalitis virus infection was established by serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies.

EID Lotric-Furlan S, Petrovec M, Avsic-Zupanc T, Strle F. Concomitant Tickborne Encephalitis and Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):485-488. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040776
AMA Lotric-Furlan S, Petrovec M, Avsic-Zupanc T, et al. Concomitant Tickborne Encephalitis and Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):485-488. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040776.
APA Lotric-Furlan, S., Petrovec, M., Avsic-Zupanc, T., & Strle, F. (2005). Concomitant Tickborne Encephalitis and Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 485-488. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040776.

Noroviruses in Archival Samples [PDF - 85 KB - 3 pages]
S. Skraber et al.

Application of recent techniques to detect current pathogens in archival effluent samples collected and concentrated in 1987 lead to the characterization of norovirus GGII.6 Seacroft, unrecognized until 1990 in a clinical sample. Retrospective studies will likely increase our knowledge about waterborne transmission of emerging pathogens.

EID Skraber S, Italiaander R, Lodder WJ, Husman A. Noroviruses in Archival Samples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):489-491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040838
AMA Skraber S, Italiaander R, Lodder WJ, et al. Noroviruses in Archival Samples. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):489-491. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040838.
APA Skraber, S., Italiaander, R., Lodder, W. J., & Husman, A. (2005). Noroviruses in Archival Samples. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 489-491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040838.

Pertussis in Soldiers, Israel [PDF - 42 KB - 3 pages]
E. Klement et al.
EID Klement E, Grotto I, Srugo I, Orr N, Gilad J, Cohen D. Pertussis in Soldiers, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):506-508. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040672
AMA Klement E, Grotto I, Srugo I, et al. Pertussis in Soldiers, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):506-508. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040672.
APA Klement, E., Grotto, I., Srugo, I., Orr, N., Gilad, J., & Cohen, D. (2005). Pertussis in Soldiers, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 506-508. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040672.
Commentaries

Emerging Infectious Diseases: 10 Years Running [PDF - 18 KB - 2 pages]
J. E. McDade et al.
EID McDade JE, Potter P, Drotman D. Emerging Infectious Diseases: 10 Years Running. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):497-498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.050191
AMA McDade JE, Potter P, Drotman D. Emerging Infectious Diseases: 10 Years Running. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):497-498. doi:10.3201/eid1103.050191.
APA McDade, J. E., Potter, P., & Drotman, D. (2005). Emerging Infectious Diseases: 10 Years Running. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 497-498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.050191.
Letters

Malaria and Travel to the Dominican Republic [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
J. L. Haro-González et al.
EID Haro-González JL, Bernabeu-Wittel M, Cañas E, Regordán C. Malaria and Travel to the Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):499-500. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040898
AMA Haro-González JL, Bernabeu-Wittel M, Cañas E, et al. Malaria and Travel to the Dominican Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):499-500. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040898.
APA Haro-González, J. L., Bernabeu-Wittel, M., Cañas, E., & Regordán, C. (2005). Malaria and Travel to the Dominican Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 499-500. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040898.

Buruli Ulcer Distribution in Benin [PDF - 28 KB - 2 pages]
R. Johnson et al.
EID Johnson R, Makoutodé M, Sopoh G, Elsen P, Gbovi J, Pouteau L, et al. Buruli Ulcer Distribution in Benin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):500-501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040597
AMA Johnson R, Makoutodé M, Sopoh G, et al. Buruli Ulcer Distribution in Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):500-501. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040597.
APA Johnson, R., Makoutodé, M., Sopoh, G., Elsen, P., Gbovi, J., Pouteau, L....Portaels, F. (2005). Buruli Ulcer Distribution in Benin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 500-501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040597.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance, Abkhazia [PDF - 61 KB - 3 pages]
M. Pardini et al.
EID Pardini M, Iona E, Varaine F, Karakozian H, Arzumanian H, Brunori L, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance, Abkhazia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):501-503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040903
AMA Pardini M, Iona E, Varaine F, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance, Abkhazia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):501-503. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040903.
APA Pardini, M., Iona, E., Varaine, F., Karakozian, H., Arzumanian, H., Brunori, L....Fattorini, L. (2005). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance, Abkhazia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 501-503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040903.

Endogeneity in Logistic Regression Models [PDF - 69 KB - 3 pages]
G. Avery et al.
EID Avery G, Ethelberg S, Mølbak K. Endogeneity in Logistic Regression Models. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):503-505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040462
AMA Avery G, Ethelberg S, Mølbak K. Endogeneity in Logistic Regression Models. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):503-505. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040462.
APA Avery, G., Ethelberg, S., & Mølbak, K. (2005). Endogeneity in Logistic Regression Models. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 503-505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040462.

Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum, France [PDF - 48 KB - 2 pages]
M. Herida et al.
EID Herida M, Sednaoui P, Couturier E, Neau D, Clerc M, Scieux C, et al. Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):505-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040621
AMA Herida M, Sednaoui P, Couturier E, et al. Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):505-506. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040621.
APA Herida, M., Sednaoui, P., Couturier, E., Neau, D., Clerc, M., Scieux, C....de Barbeyrac, B. (2005). Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 505-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040621.

Food Safety for First Responders [PDF - 28 KB - 2 pages]
M. K. Afton et al.
EID Afton MK, Nakata M, Ching-Lee M, Effler PV. Food Safety for First Responders. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):508-509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040700
AMA Afton MK, Nakata M, Ching-Lee M, et al. Food Safety for First Responders. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):508-509. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040700.
APA Afton, M. K., Nakata, M., Ching-Lee, M., & Effler, P. V. (2005). Food Safety for First Responders. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 508-509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040700.

Rickettsiae in Ixodid Ticks, Sicily [PDF - 153 KB - 3 pages]
T. Beninati et al.
EID Beninati T, Genchi C, Torina A, Caracappa S, Bandi C, Lo N. Rickettsiae in Ixodid Ticks, Sicily. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):509-511. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040812
AMA Beninati T, Genchi C, Torina A, et al. Rickettsiae in Ixodid Ticks, Sicily. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):509-511. doi:10.3201/eid1103.040812.
APA Beninati, T., Genchi, C., Torina, A., Caracappa, S., Bandi, C., & Lo, N. (2005). Rickettsiae in Ixodid Ticks, Sicily. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 509-511. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.040812.
Another Dimension

Rats, Lice, and Zinsser [PDF - 110 KB - 5 pages]
G. Weissmann
EID Weissmann G. Rats, Lice, and Zinsser. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):492-496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.ad1103
AMA Weissmann G. Rats, Lice, and Zinsser. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):492-496. doi:10.3201/eid1103.ad1103.
APA Weissmann, G. (2005). Rats, Lice, and Zinsser. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 492-496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.ad1103.
About the Cover

Optics and Biologic Connectedness [PDF - 126 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Optics and Biologic Connectedness. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(3):512-513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.ac1103
AMA Potter P. Optics and Biologic Connectedness. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(3):512-513. doi:10.3201/eid1103.ac1103.
APA Potter, P. (2005). Optics and Biologic Connectedness. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(3), 512-513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1103.ac1103.
Page created: April 25, 2012
Page updated: April 25, 2012
Page reviewed: April 25, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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