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Volume 11, Number 3—March 2005

Human Metapneumovirus RNA in Encephalitis Patient

Oliver Schildgen*1Comments to Author , Thomas Glatzel*1, Tilman Geikowski*, Bärbel Scheibner*, Arne Simon*, Lutz Bindl*, Mark Born*, Sergei Viazov†, Anja Wilkesmann*, Gisela Knöpfle*, Michael Roggendorf†, and Bertfried Matz*
Author affiliations: *University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; †University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany; 1These authors contributed equally to this study.

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Table 2

Virologic tests performed on patient specimens*†

Virus CSF Brain Liver Spleen Kidney Lung Heart Diagnostic methods Tested before death?
HSV (PCR) ND In-house PCR (nested), 
cell culture Yes (from CSF and brain biopsy)
VZV (PCR) ND ND ND ND In-house PCR (nested), 
cell culture Yes (from CSF and brain biopsy)
Adenovirus (PCR) In-house PCR (nested)
HHV-6 (PCR) In-house PCR (nested)
HBV (PCR) In-house PCR (nested)
HCV (PCR) In-house PCR (nested)
ParvoB19 (PCR) In-house PCR (nested)
CMV (PCR) In-house PCR (nested),
 cell culture
Enterovirus (PCR) ND In-house RT-PCR, 
cell culture
RSV (Antigen) ND ND ND ND ND Antigen ELISA, Directigen RSV (Becton Dickinison, Heidelberg, Germany)
RSV (cell culture) Cell culture
Influenza A+B Cell culture
Mumps Cell culture Measles excluded, no symptoms of mumps†
Measles Cell culture
HMPV (PCR) + ND ND ND + ND In-house RT-PCR (5,13)
HMPV (PCR from cell culture supernatant) + ND ND ND + ND In-house RT-PCR (5,13) from Vero-cell culture supernatant

*CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; HSV, herpes simplex virus; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; ND, not done; VZV, varicella–zoster virus; HHV, human herpesvirus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; RT, reverse transcriptase; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HMPV, human metapneumovirus.
†Before death, viral encephalitis induced by HSV and VZV was excluded by nested PCR from the CSF and also from a biopsy. Measles and mumps were excluded by the primary anamnestic protocol (no exanthema or other clinical symptoms). The anamnestic protocol also showed a successful vaccination against those pathogens. Furthermore, no clinical symptoms of mumps were observed. Postmortem specimens from brain, lung, kidney, liver, spleen, and heart were mounted on different cell lines. Detailed PCR protocols are available on request.

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