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Volume 11, Number 5—May 2005


Risk Factors for Kala-Azar in Bangladesh

Caryn Bern*Comments to Author , Allen W. Hightower*, Rajib Chowdhury†, Mustakim Ali†, Josef Amann*, Yukiko Wagatsuma†, Rashidul Haque†, Katie Kurkjian*, Louise E. Vaz*, Moarrita Begum†, Tangin Akter†, Catherine B. Cetre-Sossah*, Indu B. Ahluwalia*, Ellen Dotson*, W. Evan Secor*, Robert F. Breiman*†, and James H. Maguire*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Table 4

Multivariable model of factors associated with kala-azar (KA), adjusted for household clustering

Factor OR (95% CI)* p value
Always uses net in summer 0.69 (0.52–0.92) 0.01
Uses net sometimes or never Referent
Distance from previous KA case
Within household 25.6 (15.0–43.7) <0.0001
<50 m 2.9 (1.6–5.4) 0.0006
>50 m Referent
Each cow per 1,000 m2 0.81 (0.70–0.94) 0.005
No cattle Referent
Age (y)
<3 0.7 (0.2–2.0) 0.46
3–14 3.6 (1.7–7.5) 0.0008
15–45 3.8 (1.9–7.8) 0.0002
>45 Referent

*OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

Main Article