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Issue Cover for Volume 11, Number 5—May 2005

Volume 11, Number 5—May 2005

[PDF - 7.33 MB - 147 pages]

THEME ISSUE
Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

Persistent Emergence of Dengue [PDF - 27 KB - 2 pages]
C. H. Calisher
EID Calisher CH. Persistent Emergence of Dengue. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):738-739. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050195
AMA Calisher CH. Persistent Emergence of Dengue. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):738-739. doi:10.3201/eid1105.050195.
APA Calisher, C. H. (2005). Persistent Emergence of Dengue. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 738-739. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050195.

More Dengue, More Questions [PDF - 34 KB - 2 pages]
S. B. Halstead
EID Halstead SB. More Dengue, More Questions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):740-741. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050346
AMA Halstead SB. More Dengue, More Questions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):740-741. doi:10.3201/eid1105.050346.
APA Halstead, S. B. (2005). More Dengue, More Questions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 740-741. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050346.

Dengue Fever, Hawaii, 2001–2002 [PDF - 378 KB - 8 pages]
P. V. Effler et al.

Autochthonous dengue infections were last reported in Hawaii in 1944. In September 2001, the Hawaii Department of Health was notified of an unusual febrile illness in a resident with no travel history; dengue fever was confirmed. During the investigation, 1,644 persons with locally acquired denguelike illness were evaluated, and 122 (7%) laboratory-positive dengue infections were identified; dengue virus serotype 1 was isolated from 15 patients. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever or shock syndrome were reported. In 3 instances autochthonous infections were linked to a person who reported denguelike illness after travel to French Polynesia. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Hawaiian isolates were closely associated with contemporaneous isolates from Tahiti. Aedes albopictus was present in all communities surveyed on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai; no Ae. aegypti were found. This outbreak underscores the importance of maintaining surveillance and control of potential disease vectors even in the absence of an imminent disease threat.

EID Effler PV, Pang L, Kitsutani P, Vorndam V, Nakata M, Ayers T, et al. Dengue Fever, Hawaii, 2001–2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):742-749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041063
AMA Effler PV, Pang L, Kitsutani P, et al. Dengue Fever, Hawaii, 2001–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):742-749. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041063.
APA Effler, P. V., Pang, L., Kitsutani, P., Vorndam, V., Nakata, M., Ayers, T....Gubler, D. J. (2005). Dengue Fever, Hawaii, 2001–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 742-749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041063.

Dengue Risk among Visitors to Hawaii during an Outbreak [PDF - 289 KB - 7 pages]
C. E. Smith et al.

Despite the high rates of dengue in many tropical destinations frequented by tourists, limited information is available on the risk for infection among short-term visitors. We retrospectively surveyed 4,000 persons who arrived in Hawaii during the peak of the 2001–2002 dengue outbreak and collected follow-up serologic test results for those reporting denguelike illness. Of 3,064 visitors who responded, 94 (3%) experienced a denguelike illness either during their trip or within 14 days of departure; 34 of these persons were seen by a physician, and 2 were hospitalized. Twenty-seven visitors with denguelike illness provided a serum specimen; all specimens were negative for anti-dengue immunoglobulin G antibodies. The point estimate of dengue incidence was zero infections per 358 person-days of exposure with an upper 95% confidence limit of 3.0 cases per person-year. Thus, the risk for dengue infection for visitors to Hawaii during the outbreak was low.

EID Smith CE, Tom T, Sasaki J, Ayers T, Effler PV. Dengue Risk among Visitors to Hawaii during an Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):750-756. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041064
AMA Smith CE, Tom T, Sasaki J, et al. Dengue Risk among Visitors to Hawaii during an Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):750-756. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041064.
APA Smith, C. E., Tom, T., Sasaki, J., Ayers, T., & Effler, P. V. (2005). Dengue Risk among Visitors to Hawaii during an Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 750-756. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041064.

Dengue Type 3 Virus, Saint Martin, 2003–2004 [PDF - 202 KB - 7 pages]
C. N. Peyrefitte et al.

We describe the spread of a dengue virus during an outbreak in Saint Martin island (French West Indies) during winter 2003–2004. Dengue type 3 viruses were isolated from 6 patients exhibiting clinical symptoms. This serotype had not been detected on the island during the preceding 3 years. Genome sequence determinations and analyses showed a common origin with dengue type 3 viruses isolated in Martinique 2 years earlier.

EID Peyrefitte CN, Pastorino B, Bessaud M, Gravier P, Tock F, Couissinier-Paris P, et al. Dengue Type 3 Virus, Saint Martin, 2003–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):757-761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040959
AMA Peyrefitte CN, Pastorino B, Bessaud M, et al. Dengue Type 3 Virus, Saint Martin, 2003–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):757-761. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040959.
APA Peyrefitte, C. N., Pastorino, B., Bessaud, M., Gravier, P., Tock, F., Couissinier-Paris, P....Tolou, H. J. (2005). Dengue Type 3 Virus, Saint Martin, 2003–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 757-761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040959.

Dengue Antibody Prevalence in German Travelers [PDF - 131 KB - 4 pages]
O. Wichmann et al.

We studied 2,259 German citizens after they returned from dengue-endemic countries from 1996 to 2004. Serotype-specific dengue antibodies indicated acute infections in 51 (4.7%) travelers with recent fever and 13 (1.1%) travelers with no recent fever, depending largely on destination and epidemic activity in the countries visited.

EID Wichmann O, Lauschke A, Frank C, Shu P, Niedrig M, Huang J, et al. Dengue Antibody Prevalence in German Travelers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):762-765. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050097
AMA Wichmann O, Lauschke A, Frank C, et al. Dengue Antibody Prevalence in German Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):762-765. doi:10.3201/eid1105.050097.
APA Wichmann, O., Lauschke, A., Frank, C., Shu, P., Niedrig, M., Huang, J....Jelinek, T. (2005). Dengue Antibody Prevalence in German Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 762-765. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050097.

Leptospirosis during Dengue Outbreak, Bangladesh [PDF - 110 KB - 4 pages]
R. C. LaRocque et al.

We collected acute-phase serum samples from febrile patients at 2 major hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during an outbreak of dengue fever in 2001. A total of 18% of dengue-negative patients tested positive for leptospirosis. The case-fatality rate among leptospirosis patients (5%) was higher than among dengue fever patients (1.2%).

EID LaRocque RC, Breiman RF, Ari MD, Morey RE, Janan F, Hayes J, et al. Leptospirosis during Dengue Outbreak, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):766-769. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041212
AMA LaRocque RC, Breiman RF, Ari MD, et al. Leptospirosis during Dengue Outbreak, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):766-769. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041212.
APA LaRocque, R. C., Breiman, R. F., Ari, M. D., Morey, R. E., Janan, F., Hayes, J....Levett, P. N. (2005). Leptospirosis during Dengue Outbreak, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 766-769. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041212.

Retinal Hemorrhages in 4 Patients with Dengue Fever [PDF - 124 KB - 3 pages]
M. Chlebicki et al.

We report 4 patients with retinal hemorrhages that developed during hospitalization for dengue fever. Onset of symptoms coincided with resolution of fever and the nadir of thrombocytopenia. Retinal hemorrhages may reflect the rising incidence of dengue in Singapore or may be caused by changes in the predominant serotype of the dengue virus.

EID Chlebicki M, Ang B, Barkham T, Laude A. Retinal Hemorrhages in 4 Patients with Dengue Fever. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):770-772. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040992
AMA Chlebicki M, Ang B, Barkham T, et al. Retinal Hemorrhages in 4 Patients with Dengue Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):770-772. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040992.
APA Chlebicki, M., Ang, B., Barkham, T., & Laude, A. (2005). Retinal Hemorrhages in 4 Patients with Dengue Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 770-772. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040992.

Dengue Virus Type 3, Cuba, 2000–2002 [PDF - 76 KB - 2 pages]
R. Rodriguez-Roche et al.
EID Rodriguez-Roche R, Alvarez M, Holmes EC, Bernardo L, Kouri G, Gould EA, et al. Dengue Virus Type 3, Cuba, 2000–2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):773-774. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040916
AMA Rodriguez-Roche R, Alvarez M, Holmes EC, et al. Dengue Virus Type 3, Cuba, 2000–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):773-774. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040916.
APA Rodriguez-Roche, R., Alvarez, M., Holmes, E. C., Bernardo, L., Kouri, G., Gould, E. A....Guzmán, M. G. (2005). Dengue Virus Type 3, Cuba, 2000–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 773-774. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040916.

Nosocomial Dengue by Mucocutaneous Transmission [PDF - 16 KB - 1 page]
L. H. Chen and M. E. Wilson
EID Chen LH, Wilson ME. Nosocomial Dengue by Mucocutaneous Transmission. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):775. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040934
AMA Chen LH, Wilson ME. Nosocomial Dengue by Mucocutaneous Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):775. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040934.
APA Chen, L. H., & Wilson, M. E. (2005). Nosocomial Dengue by Mucocutaneous Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 775. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040934.
Volume 11, Number 5—May 2005 - Continued

Research

Adenovirus Type 7 Peptide Diversity during Outbreak, Korea, 1995–2000 [PDF - 163 KB - 6 pages]
E. Choi et al.

To understand the molecular basis of observed regional shifts in the genome types of adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) isolated in Korea during nationwide outbreaks from 1995 to 2000, the genetic variabilities of Ad7d and Ad7l were studied by sequence analysis of hexon, fiber, E3, and E4 open reading frame (ORF) 6/7 peptides. One amino acid change in the receptor-binding domain of fiber and 6 amino acid variations in E4 ORF 6/7 were identified between 2 genome types, while no variations were found in hexon and E3. Phylogenetic trees based on hexon, fiber, and E4 suggested that the Ad7 epidemic was probably caused by the introduction of the Japanese Ad7d strains. Our data also provide evidence that the rapid divergence of Ad7d to a novel genome type Ad7l could have been due to viral strategies involving multiple sequence changes in E4. This result suggests fiber and E4 ORF 6/7 peptides participate in the evolution of Ad7.

EID Choi E, Kim H, Eun B, Kim B, Choi J, Lee H, et al. Adenovirus Type 7 Peptide Diversity during Outbreak, Korea, 1995–2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):649-654. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041211
AMA Choi E, Kim H, Eun B, et al. Adenovirus Type 7 Peptide Diversity during Outbreak, Korea, 1995–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):649-654. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041211.
APA Choi, E., Kim, H., Eun, B., Kim, B., Choi, J., Lee, H....Inada, T. (2005). Adenovirus Type 7 Peptide Diversity during Outbreak, Korea, 1995–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 649-654. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041211.

Risk Factors for Kala-Azar in Bangladesh [PDF - 261 KB - 8 pages]
C. Bern et al.

Since 1990, South Asia has experienced a resurgence of kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). To determine risk factors for kala-azar, we performed cross-sectional surveys over a 3-year period in a Bangladeshi community. By history, active case detection, and serologic screening, 155 of 2,356 residents had kala-azar with onset from 2000 to 2003. Risk was highest for persons 3–45 years of age, and no significant difference by sex was seen. In age-adjusted multivariable models, 3 factors were identified: proximity to a previous kala-azar patient (odds ratio [OR] 25.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 15–44 within household; OR 3.2 95% CI 1.7–6.1 within 50 m), bed net use in summer (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.53–0.93), and cattle per 1,000 m2 (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.70–0.94]). No difference was seen by income, education, or occupation; land ownership or other assets; housing materials and condition; or keeping goats or chickens inside bedrooms. Our data confirm strong clustering and suggest that insecticide-treated nets could be effective in preventing kala-azar.

EID Bern C, Hightower AW, Chowdhury R, Ali M, Amann J, Wagatsuma Y, et al. Risk Factors for Kala-Azar in Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):655-662. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040718
AMA Bern C, Hightower AW, Chowdhury R, et al. Risk Factors for Kala-Azar in Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):655-662. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040718.
APA Bern, C., Hightower, A. W., Chowdhury, R., Ali, M., Amann, J., Wagatsuma, Y....Maguire, J. H. (2005). Risk Factors for Kala-Azar in Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 655-662. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040718.

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection of Spiny Rats [PDF - 228 KB - 7 pages]
A. Carrara et al.

Enzootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) circulate in forested habitats of Mexico, Central, and South America, and spiny rats (Proechimys spp.) are believed to be the principal reservoir hosts in several foci. To better understand the host-pathogen interactions and resistance to disease characteristic of many reservoir hosts, we performed experimental infections of F1 progeny from Proechimys chrysaeolus collected at a Colombian enzootic VEEV focus using sympatric and allopatric virus strains. All animals became viremic with a mean peak titer of 3.3 log10 PFU/mL, and all seroconverted with antibody titers from 1:20 to 1:640, which persisted up to 15 months. No signs of disease were observed, including after intracerebral injections. The lack of detectable disease and limited histopathologic lesions in these animals contrast dramatically with the severe disease and histopathologic findings observed in other laboratory rodents and humans, and support their role as reservoir hosts with a long-term coevolutionary relationship to VEEV.

EID Carrara A, Gonzales M, Ferro C, Tamayo M, Aronson J, Paessler S, et al. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection of Spiny Rats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):663-669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041251
AMA Carrara A, Gonzales M, Ferro C, et al. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection of Spiny Rats. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):663-669. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041251.
APA Carrara, A., Gonzales, M., Ferro, C., Tamayo, M., Aronson, J., Paessler, S....Weaver, S. C. (2005). Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection of Spiny Rats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 663-669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041251.

Assessing Parents' Perception of Children's Risk for Recreational Water Illnesses [PDF - 283 KB - 7 pages]
J. McClain et al.

Understanding people's risk perceptions and motivations to adopt preventive behavior is important in preventing the spread of recreational water illnesses (RWI) and other emerging infectious diseases. We developed a comprehensive scale measuring parents' perceived risk of their children contracting RWI. Parents (N = 263) completed a self-administered questionnaire with scale items based on 4 constructs of the Protection Motivation Theory: perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. Exploratory factor analysis identified 7 underlying factors, indicating 7 subscales of perceived risk for RWI. Cronbach α ranged from 0.60 to 0.81. The Precaution Adoption Process Model supported scale construct validity. This study provides the first perceived risk scale for exploring psychosocial factors that may predict or mediate the adoption of behaviors that prevent the spread of infectious diseases contracted by children while swimming. Findings from this study also provide implications for encouraging preventive behavior against other emerging infectious diseases.

EID McClain J, Bernhardt JM, Beach MJ. Assessing Parents' Perception of Children's Risk for Recreational Water Illnesses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):670-676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040779
AMA McClain J, Bernhardt JM, Beach MJ. Assessing Parents' Perception of Children's Risk for Recreational Water Illnesses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):670-676. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040779.
APA McClain, J., Bernhardt, J. M., & Beach, M. J. (2005). Assessing Parents' Perception of Children's Risk for Recreational Water Illnesses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 670-676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040779.

Avian Influenza Risk Perception, Hong Kong [PDF - 93 KB - 6 pages]
R. Fielding et al.

A telephone survey of 986 Hong Kong households determined exposure and risk perception of avian influenza from live chicken sales. Householders bought 38,370,000 live chickens; 11% touched them when buying, generating 4,220,000 exposures annually; 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 33%–39%) perceived this as risky, 9% (7%–11%) estimated >50% likelihood of resultant sickness, whereas 46% (43%–49%) said friends worried about such sickness. Recent China travel (adjusted odds ratio 0.35; CI 0.13–0.91), traditional beliefs (1.20, 1.06–1.13), willingness to change (0.29, 0.11–0.81) and believing cooking protects against avian influenza (8.66, 1.61-46.68) predicted buying. Birth in China (2.79, 1.43–5.44) or overseas (4.23, 1.43–12.53) and unemployment (3.87, 1.24–12.07) predicted touching. Age, avian influenza contagion worries, husbandry threat, avian influenza threat, and avian influenza anxiety predicted perceived sickness risk. High population exposures to live chickens and low perceived risk are potentially important health threats in avian influenza.

EID Fielding R, Lam W, Ho E, Lam T, Hedley AJ, Leung GM. Avian Influenza Risk Perception, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):677-682. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041225
AMA Fielding R, Lam W, Ho E, et al. Avian Influenza Risk Perception, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):677-682. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041225.
APA Fielding, R., Lam, W., Ho, E., Lam, T., Hedley, A. J., & Leung, G. M. (2005). Avian Influenza Risk Perception, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 677-682. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041225.

Low Diversity of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Saudi Arabia, 1994–1999 [PDF - 228 KB - 6 pages]
R. N. Charrel et al.

Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (genus Flavivirus, AHFV) was recently identified as the agent of a viral hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia and characterized serologically and genetically as a variant genotype of Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV). Since viral diagnosis and vaccine development may be hindered by genetic diversity, this study was intended to address AHFV genetic heterogeneity. Eleven strains isolated from hospitalized patients from 1994 to 1999 in Saudi Arabia were sequenced in the envelope, NS3, and NS5 genes. Homologous sequences were compared and used to look for patterns reflecting specific evolution associated with spatiality, temporality, infection pathway, and disease prognosis. Genetic analyses showed low diversity, which suggests a slow microevolution. Evaluation of divergence times showed that AHFV and KFDV ancestral lineage diverged 66–177 years ago, and the diversity observed within the studied AHFV strains reflected a 4- to 72-year period of evolution.

EID Charrel RN, Zaki A, Fakeeh M, Yousef A, de Chesse R, Attoui H, et al. Low Diversity of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Saudi Arabia, 1994–1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):683-688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041298
AMA Charrel RN, Zaki A, Fakeeh M, et al. Low Diversity of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Saudi Arabia, 1994–1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):683-688. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041298.
APA Charrel, R. N., Zaki, A., Fakeeh, M., Yousef, A., de Chesse, R., Attoui, H....de Lamballerie, X. (2005). Low Diversity of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Saudi Arabia, 1994–1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 683-688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041298.

Travel-associated Rabies in Austrian Man [PDF - 147 KB - 3 pages]
R. Krause et al.

Rabies developed in an Austrian man after he was bitten by a dog in Agadir, Morocco. Diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The patient's girlfriend was bitten by the same dog, but she did not become ill.

EID Krause R, Bagó Z, Revilla-Fernández S, Loitsch A, Allerberger F, Kaufmann P, et al. Travel-associated Rabies in Austrian Man. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):719-721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041289
AMA Krause R, Bagó Z, Revilla-Fernández S, et al. Travel-associated Rabies in Austrian Man. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):719-721. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041289.
APA Krause, R., Bagó, Z., Revilla-Fernández, S., Loitsch, A., Allerberger, F., Kaufmann, P....Krejs, G. J. (2005). Travel-associated Rabies in Austrian Man. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 719-721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041289.
Historical Review

Osler and the Infected Letter [PDF - 257 KB - 5 pages]
C. T. Ambrose

The spread of infectious agents through the mail has concerned public health officials for 5 centuries. The dissemination of anthrax spores in the US mail in 2001 was a recent example. In 1901, two medical journals reported outbreaks of smallpox presumably introduced by letters contaminated with variola viruses. The stability and infectivity of the smallpox virus are reviewed from both a historical (anecdotal) perspective and modern virologic studies. Bubonic plague was the contagious disease that led to quarantines as early as the 14th century in port cities in southern Europe. Later, smallpox, cholera, typhus, and yellow fever were recognized as also warranting quarantine measures. Initially, attempts were made to decontaminate all goods imported from pestilential areas, particularly mail. Disinfection of mail was largely abandoned in the early 20th century with newer knowledge about the spread and stability of these 5 infectious agents.

EID Ambrose CT. Osler and the Infected Letter. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):689-693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040616
AMA Ambrose CT. Osler and the Infected Letter. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):689-693. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040616.
APA Ambrose, C. T. (2005). Osler and the Infected Letter. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 689-693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040616.
Dispatches

Salmonella Derby Clonal Spread from Pork [PDF - 625 KB - 5 pages]
S. Valdezate et al.

The genetic diversity of the Derby serotype of Salmonella enterica in Spain was examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Out of 24 identified PFGE profiles, a major clone was detected in 19% of strains from humans, 52% from food, and 62% from swine. This clone (clone 1) was isolated from pork products, suggesting swine as its source.

EID Valdezate S, Vidal A, Herrera-León S, Pozo J, Rubio P, Usera MA, et al. Salmonella Derby Clonal Spread from Pork. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):694-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041042
AMA Valdezate S, Vidal A, Herrera-León S, et al. Salmonella Derby Clonal Spread from Pork. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):694-698. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041042.
APA Valdezate, S., Vidal, A., Herrera-León, S., Pozo, J., Rubio, P., Usera, M. A....Echeita, M. (2005). Salmonella Derby Clonal Spread from Pork. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 694-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041042.

Probable Tiger-to-Tiger Transmission of Avian Influenza H5N1 [PDF - 111 KB - 3 pages]
R. Thanawongnuwech et al.

During the second outbreak of avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand, probable horizontal transmission among tigers was demonstrated in the tiger zoo. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of those viruses showed no differences from the first isolate obtained in January 2004. This finding has implications for influenza virus epidemiology and pathogenicity in mammals.

EID Thanawongnuwech R, Amonsin A, Tantilertcharoen R, Damrongwatanapokin S, Theamboonlers A, Payungporn S, et al. Probable Tiger-to-Tiger Transmission of Avian Influenza H5N1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):699-701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050007
AMA Thanawongnuwech R, Amonsin A, Tantilertcharoen R, et al. Probable Tiger-to-Tiger Transmission of Avian Influenza H5N1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):699-701. doi:10.3201/eid1105.050007.
APA Thanawongnuwech, R., Amonsin, A., Tantilertcharoen, R., Damrongwatanapokin, S., Theamboonlers, A., Payungporn, S....Poovorawan, Y. (2005). Probable Tiger-to-Tiger Transmission of Avian Influenza H5N1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 699-701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050007.

Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Smuggled Thai Eagles, Belgium [PDF - 226 KB - 4 pages]
S. Van Borm et al.

We report the isolation and characterization of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 virus from Crested Hawk-Eagles smuggled into Europe by air travel. A screening performed in human and avian contacts indicated no dissemination occurred. Illegal movements of birds are a major threat for the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza.

EID Van Borm S, Thomas I, Hanquet G, Lambrecht B, Boschmans M, Dupont G, et al. Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Smuggled Thai Eagles, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):702-705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050211
AMA Van Borm S, Thomas I, Hanquet G, et al. Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Smuggled Thai Eagles, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):702-705. doi:10.3201/eid1105.050211.
APA Van Borm, S., Thomas, I., Hanquet, G., Lambrecht, B., Boschmans, M., Dupont, G....van den Berg, T. (2005). Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Smuggled Thai Eagles, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 702-705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050211.

Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Molecular Variants, Vanuatu, Melanesia [PDF - 405 KB - 5 pages]
O. Cassar et al.

Four of 391 Ni-Vanuatu women were infected with variants of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Melanesian subtype C. These strains had env nucleotide sequences ≈99% similar to each other and diverging from the main molecular subtypes of HTLV-1 by 6% to 9%. These strains were likely introduced during ancient human population movements in Melanesia.

EID Cassar O, Capuano C, Meertens L, Chungue E, Gessain A. Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Molecular Variants, Vanuatu, Melanesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):706-710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041015
AMA Cassar O, Capuano C, Meertens L, et al. Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Molecular Variants, Vanuatu, Melanesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):706-710. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041015.
APA Cassar, O., Capuano, C., Meertens, L., Chungue, E., & Gessain, A. (2005). Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Molecular Variants, Vanuatu, Melanesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 706-710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041015.

Clonal Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Healthy Pig Farmers, Human Controls, and Pigs [PDF - 167 KB - 4 pages]
L. Armand-Lefevre et al.

Pig farming is a risk factor for increased nasal Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Using sequence typing and phylogenetic comparisons, we showed that overcolonization of farmers was caused by a few bacterial strains that were not present in nonfarmers but often caused swine infections. This finding suggests a high rate of strain exchange between pigs and farmers.

EID Armand-Lefevre L, Ruimy R, Andremont A. Clonal Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Healthy Pig Farmers, Human Controls, and Pigs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):711-714. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040866
AMA Armand-Lefevre L, Ruimy R, Andremont A. Clonal Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Healthy Pig Farmers, Human Controls, and Pigs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):711-714. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040866.
APA Armand-Lefevre, L., Ruimy, R., & Andremont, A. (2005). Clonal Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Healthy Pig Farmers, Human Controls, and Pigs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 711-714. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040866.

Human Pythiosis, Brazil [PDF - 442 KB - 4 pages]
S. Bosco et al.

Pythiosis, caused by Pythium insidiosum, occurs in humans and animals and is acquired from aquatic environments that harbor the emerging pathogen. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical and histopathologic features are not pathognomonic. We report the first human case of pythiosis from Brazil, diagnosed by using culture and rDNA sequencing.

EID Bosco S, Bagagli E, Araújo J, Candeias J, Fabiano de Franco M, Marques M, et al. Human Pythiosis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):715-718. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040943
AMA Bosco S, Bagagli E, Araújo J, et al. Human Pythiosis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):715-718. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040943.
APA Bosco, S., Bagagli, E., Araújo, J., Candeias, J., Fabiano de Franco, M., Marques, M....Marques, S. (2005). Human Pythiosis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 715-718. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040943.

Antibody Testing and Lyme Disease Risk [PDF - 288 KB - 3 pages]
E. G. Stone et al.

Lyme disease test results for >9,000 dogs were collected from participating veterinary clinics. Testing was conducted by using the IDEXX 3Dx kit, used widely by Maine veterinarians to screen clinically normal dogs during heartworm season. This study demonstrates how this test can be a valuable public health disease surveillance tool.

EID Stone EG, Lacombe EH, Rand PW. Antibody Testing and Lyme Disease Risk. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):722-724. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040381
AMA Stone EG, Lacombe EH, Rand PW. Antibody Testing and Lyme Disease Risk. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):722-724. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040381.
APA Stone, E. G., Lacombe, E. H., & Rand, P. W. (2005). Antibody Testing and Lyme Disease Risk. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 722-724. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040381.

Incident Tuberculosis among Recent US Immigrants and Exogenous Reinfection [PDF - 128 KB - 4 pages]
T. Cohen and M. Murray

Mathematical models and molecular epidemiologic investigation support the argument that exogenous reinfection plays an important role in tuberculosis transmission in high-incidence regions. We offer additional data from tuberculosis cases among recent US immigrants which strengthen the claim that reinfection in areas of intense transmission is common.

EID Cohen T, Murray M. Incident Tuberculosis among Recent US Immigrants and Exogenous Reinfection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):725-728. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041107
AMA Cohen T, Murray M. Incident Tuberculosis among Recent US Immigrants and Exogenous Reinfection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):725-728. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041107.
APA Cohen, T., & Murray, M. (2005). Incident Tuberculosis among Recent US Immigrants and Exogenous Reinfection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 725-728. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041107.

Emergency Survey Methods in Acute Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak [PDF - 64 KB - 3 pages]
L. M. Fox et al.

In August 2003, a communitywide outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in Kansas. We conducted a case-control study to assess risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium infection by using the telephone survey infrastructure of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Using existing state-based infrastructure provides an innovative means for investigating acute outbreaks.

EID Fox LM, Ocfemia M, Hunt D, Blackburn BG, Neises D, Kent W, et al. Emergency Survey Methods in Acute Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):729-731. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040871
AMA Fox LM, Ocfemia M, Hunt D, et al. Emergency Survey Methods in Acute Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):729-731. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040871.
APA Fox, L. M., Ocfemia, M., Hunt, D., Blackburn, B. G., Neises, D., Kent, W....Pezzino, G. (2005). Emergency Survey Methods in Acute Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 729-731. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040871.

Media Effects on Students during SARS Outbreak [PDF - 146 KB - 3 pages]
S. L. Bergeron and A. L. Sanchez

A few months after the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, a sample of Canadian undergraduate university students completed a questionnaire that showed that, despite believing media coverage of the outbreak was excessive, they had little anxiety about acquiring SARS. Additionally, 69% of participants failed a SARS-specific knowledge section of the questionnaire.

EID Bergeron SL, Sanchez AL. Media Effects on Students during SARS Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):732-734. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040512
AMA Bergeron SL, Sanchez AL. Media Effects on Students during SARS Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):732-734. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040512.
APA Bergeron, S. L., & Sanchez, A. L. (2005). Media Effects on Students during SARS Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 732-734. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040512.
Commentaries

Are Noroviruses Emerging? [PDF - 185 KB - 3 pages]
M. Widdowson et al.
EID Widdowson M, Monroe SS, Glass RI. Are Noroviruses Emerging?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):735-737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041090
AMA Widdowson M, Monroe SS, Glass RI. Are Noroviruses Emerging?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):735-737. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041090.
APA Widdowson, M., Monroe, S. S., & Glass, R. I. (2005). Are Noroviruses Emerging?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 735-737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041090.
Letters

Barriers to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Autopsies, California [PDF - 22 KB - 2 pages]
K. B. Nolte
EID Nolte KB. Barriers to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Autopsies, California. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):775-776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041133
AMA Nolte KB. Barriers to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Autopsies, California. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):775-776. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041133.
APA Nolte, K. B. (2005). Barriers to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Autopsies, California. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 775-776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041133.

Q Fever Wildlife Reservoir [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
M. G. Madariaga
EID Madariaga MG. Q Fever Wildlife Reservoir. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):776-777. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041272
AMA Madariaga MG. Q Fever Wildlife Reservoir. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):776-777. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041272.
APA Madariaga, M. G. (2005). Q Fever Wildlife Reservoir. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 776-777. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041272.

Vaccine–derived Poliovirus, Thailand, 2003 [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
P. Tharmaphornpilas
EID Tharmaphornpilas P. Vaccine–derived Poliovirus, Thailand, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):777-778. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040528
AMA Tharmaphornpilas P. Vaccine–derived Poliovirus, Thailand, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):777-778. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040528.
APA Tharmaphornpilas, P. (2005). Vaccine–derived Poliovirus, Thailand, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 777-778. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040528.

Toscana Virus and Acute Meningitis, France [PDF - 43 KB - 3 pages]
C. N. Peyrefitte et al.
EID Peyrefitte CN, Devetakov I, Pastorino B, Villeneuve L, Bessaud M, Stolidi P, et al. Toscana Virus and Acute Meningitis, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):778-780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041122
AMA Peyrefitte CN, Devetakov I, Pastorino B, et al. Toscana Virus and Acute Meningitis, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):778-780. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041122.
APA Peyrefitte, C. N., Devetakov, I., Pastorino, B., Villeneuve, L., Bessaud, M., Stolidi, P....Grandadam, M. (2005). Toscana Virus and Acute Meningitis, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 778-780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041122.

Helicobacter pylori, Republic of Georgia [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
K. Kretsinger et al.
EID Kretsinger K, Sobel J, Tarkhashvili N, Chakvetadze N, Moistrafishvili M, Sikharulidze M, et al. Helicobacter pylori, Republic of Georgia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):780-781. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040755
AMA Kretsinger K, Sobel J, Tarkhashvili N, et al. Helicobacter pylori, Republic of Georgia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):780-781. doi:10.3201/eid1105.040755.
APA Kretsinger, K., Sobel, J., Tarkhashvili, N., Chakvetadze, N., Moistrafishvili, M., Sikharulidze, M....Imnadze, P. (2005). Helicobacter pylori, Republic of Georgia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 780-781. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.040755.

Botulism and Preserved Green Olives [PDF - 51 KB - 2 pages]
A. Cawthorne et al.
EID Cawthorne A, Celentano L, D'Ancona F, Bella A, Massari M, Anniballi F, et al. Botulism and Preserved Green Olives. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):781-782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041088
AMA Cawthorne A, Celentano L, D'Ancona F, et al. Botulism and Preserved Green Olives. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):781-782. doi:10.3201/eid1105.041088.
APA Cawthorne, A., Celentano, L., D'Ancona, F., Bella, A., Massari, M., Anniballi, F....Salmaso, S. (2005). Botulism and Preserved Green Olives. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 781-782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.041088.
Books and Media

Medical Bacteriology: a Practical Approach [PDF - 14 KB - 1 page]
R. S. Weyant
EID Weyant RS. Medical Bacteriology: a Practical Approach. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):783. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050224
AMA Weyant RS. Medical Bacteriology: a Practical Approach. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):783. doi:10.3201/eid1105.050224.
APA Weyant, R. S. (2005). Medical Bacteriology: a Practical Approach. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 783. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050224.

Cases in Human Parasitology [PDF - 35 KB - 2 pages]
M. L. Eberhard
EID Eberhard ML. Cases in Human Parasitology. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):783-784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050203
AMA Eberhard ML. Cases in Human Parasitology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):783-784. doi:10.3201/eid1105.050203.
APA Eberhard, M. L. (2005). Cases in Human Parasitology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 783-784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.050203.
About the Cover

Landscape Transformation and Disease Emergence [PDF - 111 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Landscape Transformation and Disease Emergence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(5):786-787. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.ac1105
AMA Potter P. Landscape Transformation and Disease Emergence. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(5):786-787. doi:10.3201/eid1105.ac1105.
APA Potter, P. (2005). Landscape Transformation and Disease Emergence. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(5), 786-787. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1105.ac1105.
Conference Summaries

Symposium on Infectious Diseases of Animals and Quarantine
M. Kamiya et al.
Page created: April 24, 2012
Page updated: April 24, 2012
Page reviewed: April 24, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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