Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 12, Number 3—March 2006
Perspective

Cost-effectiveness of West Nile Virus Vaccination

Armineh Zohrabian*Comments to Author , Edward B. Hayes†, and Lyle R. Petersen†
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

Main Article

Table A1

Cost components and probabilities of incurring a given cost for a patient with neuroinvasive West Nile virus illness used to estimate weighted average cost of illness

Cost category Average values in 2004 dollars* Probability of incurring given cost†
Inpatient treatment 19,197 1.00
Inpatient rehabilitation treatment 14,977 0.14
Outpatient hospital cost 316 0.32
Outpatient medical visits 426 1.00
Outpatient physical rehabilitation 3,859 0.22
Outpatient occupational rehabilitation 3,822 0.07
Outpatient speech therapy 556 0.01
Nursing home 8,113 0.04
Productivity losses, temporary 8,442‡ 0.40
Productivity losses, caregiver 2,406 0.26
Transportation cost 64 1.00
Miscellaneous 1,534 0.14

*Estimated from Zohrabian et al. (14). These estimates were in 2002 dollars and adjusted for inflation for 2004, i.e., the latest year for which the appropriate consumer price indices were available.
†Relative frequencies estimated from Zohrabian et al. (14).
‡Average number of days missed (estimated from Zohrabian et al. [14]) multiplied by the national average cost of a missed workday, including salary, loss of household services, fringe benefits, and payroll taxes.

Main Article

References
  1. Mostashari  F, Bunning  ML, Kitsutani  PT, Singer  DA, Nash  D, Cooper  MJ, Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York, 1999: results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. Lancet. 2001;358:2614. DOIPubMed
  2. Dauphin  G, Zientara  S, Zeller  H, Murgue  B. West Nile: worldwide current situation in animals and humans. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004;27:34355. DOIPubMed
  3. Petersen  LR, Hayes  EB. Westward ho? The spread of West Nile virus. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:22579. DOIPubMed
  4. O'Leary  DR, Marfin  AA, Montgomery  SP, Kipp  AM, Lehman  JA, Biggerstaff  BJ, The epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States, 2002. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2004;4:6170. DOIPubMed
  5. Pepperell  C, Rau  N, Krajden  S, Kern  R, Humar  A, Mederski  B, West Nile virus infection in 2002: morbidity and mortality among patients admitted to hospital in southcentral Ontario. CMAJ. 2003;168:1399405.PubMed
  6. Klee  AL, Maidin  B, Edwin  B, Poshni  I, Mostashari  F, Fine  A, Long-term prognosis for clinical West Nile virus infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:140511.PubMed
  7. Petersen  LR, Marfin  AA, Gubler  DJ. West Nile virus. JAMA. 2003;290:5248. DOIPubMed
  8. Chang  GJ, Kuno  G, Purdy  DE, Davis  BS. Recent advancement in flavivirus vaccine development. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004;3:199220. DOIPubMed
  9. Hall  RA, Khromykh  AA. West Nile virus vaccines. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2004;4:1295305. DOIPubMed
  10. Monath  TP. Prospects for development of a vaccine against the West Nile virus. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;951:112. DOIPubMed
  11. Cetron  MS, Marfin  AA, Julian  KG, Gubler  DJ, Sharp  DJ, Barwick  RS, Yellow fever vaccine. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2002. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2002;51:111.PubMed
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 1993;42:115.PubMed
  13. Grosse  SD. Appendix I. Productivity loss tables. In: Haddix AC, Teutsch SM, Corso PS, editors. Prevention effectiveness. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 255–7.
  14. Zohrabian  A, Meltzer  MI, Ratard  R, Billah  K, Molinari  NA, Roy  K, West Nile virus economic impact, Louisiana, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:173644.PubMed
  15. Bureau of Labor Statistics. US Department of Labor. Consumer price index—all urban consumers. Medical Care. 2003 [cited 2005 May 20]. Available from http://www.bls.gov/cpi/home.htm
  16. Bureau of Labor Statistics. US Department of Labor. National employment, hours and earnings. 2004 [cited 2005 May 20]. Available from http://www.bls.gov/ces/home.htm
  17. Taylor  TN, Davis  PH, Torner  JC, Holmes  J, Meyer  JW, Jacobson  MF. Lifetime cost of stroke in the United States. Stroke. 1996;27:145966. DOIPubMed
  18. Weiss  D, Carr  D, Kellachan  J, Tan  C, Phillips  M, Bresnitz  E, Clinical findings of West Nile virus infection in hospitalized patients, New York and New Jersey, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:6548. DOIPubMed
  19. Sejvar  JJ, Haddad  MB, Tierney  BC, Campbell  GL, Marfin  AA, van Gerpen  JA, Neurologic manifestations and outcome of West Nile virus infection. JAMA. 2003;290:5115. DOIPubMed
  20. Hoerger  TJ, Harris  R, Hicks  KA, Donahue  K, Sorensen  S, Engelgau  M. Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:68999.PubMed
  21. Mandelblatt  J, Saha  S, Teutsch  S, Hoerger  T, Siu  AL, Atkins  D, The cost-effectiveness of screening mammography beyond age 65 years: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:83542.PubMed
  22. Prosser  LA, Ray  GT, O'Brien  M, Kleinman  K, Santoli  J, Lieu  TA. Preferences and willingness to pay for health states prevented by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatrics. 2004;113:28390. DOIPubMed
  23. Reiter  P, Lathrop  S, Bunning  M, Biggerstaff  B, Singer  D, Tiwari  T, Texas lifestyle limits transmission of dengue virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:869.PubMed
  24. Hayes  EB, O'Leary  DR. West Nile virus infection: a pediatric perspective. Pediatrics. 2004;113:137581. DOIPubMed
  25. Herrington  JE Jr. Pre-West Nile virus outbreak: perceptions and practices to prevent mosquito bites and viral encephalitis in the United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2003;3:15773. DOIPubMed
  26. Corso  PS, Haddix  AC. Time effects. In: Haddix AC, Teutsch SM, Corso PS, editors. Prevention effectiveness. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 94–5.
  27. Grosse  SD. Appendix I. Productivity loss tables. In: Haddix AC, Teutsch SM, Corso PS, editors. Prevention effectiveness. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 255–7.
  28. Taylor  TN, Davis  PH, Torner  JC, Holmes  J, Meyer  JW, Jacobson  MF. Lifetime cost of stroke in the United States. Stroke. 1996;27:145966. DOIPubMed
  29. O'Leary  DR, Marfin  AA, Montgomery  SP, Kipp  AM, Lehman  JA, Biggerstaff  BJ, The epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States, 2002. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2004;4:6170. DOIPubMed
  30. Kalra  L, Evans  A, Perez  I, Melbourn  A, Patel  A, Knapp  M, Training carers of stroke patients: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2004;328:1099. DOIPubMed
  31. Bureau of Labor Statistics. US Department of Labor. Consumer price index—all urban consumers. Medical Care. 2003 [cited 2005 May 20]. Available from http://www.bls.gov/cpi/home.htm
  32. Bureau of Labor Statistics. US Department of Labor. National employment, hours and earnings. 2004 [cited 2005 May 20]. Available from http://www.bls.gov/ces/home.htm

Main Article

Page created: January 27, 2012
Page updated: January 27, 2012
Page reviewed: January 27, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external