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Volume 12, Number 6—June 2006
Research

Social Behavior and Meningococcal Carriage in British Teenagers

Jenny MacLennan*, George Kafatos†, Keith Neal‡, Nick Andrews†, J. Claire Cameron§, Richard Roberts¶, Meirion R. Evans#, Kathy Cann**, David N. Baxter††, Martin C.J. Maiden*, James M. Stuart‡‡Comments to Author , and on behalf of the United Kingdom Meningococcal Carriage Group
Author affiliations: *University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; †Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom; ‡University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; §Health Protection Services Scotland, Glasgow, United Kingdom; ¶Health Protection Team (North Wales), Mold, United Kingdom; #Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom; **Thames Valley Local Health Protection Unit, Aylesbury, United Kingdom; ††St Thomas' Hospital, Stockport, United Kingdom; ‡‡Health Protection Agency Southwest, Stonehouse, United Kingdom

Main Article

Table 4

Multivariable analysis of independent risk factors for meningococcal carriage in British teenagers, based on 12,437 samples with complete information*

Variable OR (95% CI) p value
Age (y)
15 1.00, reference
16 0.79 (0.61–1.03)
17 0.89 (0.68–1.16)
18, 19 0.98 (0.73–1.32) 0.025
No. cigarettes smoked/day
None 1.00, reference
1–5 1.55 (1.33–1.81)
6–10 1.69 (1.43–2.00)
11–20 1.62 (1.29–2.03)
>21 0.95 (0.41–2.23) <0.001
Other smokers at home
No 1.00, reference
Yes 1.17 (1.05–1.30) 0.004
No. persons kissed in last week
0 1.00, reference
1 1.49 (1.34–1.66)
2 1.25 (1.00–1.57)
3 2.00 (1.44–2.78)
4–5 1.41 (1.05–1.91) <0.001
Nights attended pub or club in last week
0 1.00, reference
1 1.52 (1.33–1.75)
2 1.68 (1.44–1.96)
3 1.84 (1.52–2.21)
4 1.90 (1.50–2.42)
5–7 2.27 (1.79–2.87) <0.001
No. persons/room
0–1 1.00, reference
>1–1.5 1.01 (0.76–1.34)
>1.5 0.57 (0.29–1.12) 0.267
Recent antimicrobial drug
None 1.00, reference
Current 0.51 (0.38–0.67)
Stopped last week 0.81 (0.57–1.13)
Stopped last month 0.66 (0.52–0.83) <0.001
Carstairs score, per unit 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.909
School type
Comprehensive 1.00, reference
Independent/grammar 1.04 (0.67–1.60)
Sixth college 0.67 (0.32–1.40)
College 0.82 (0.49–1.37) 0.681
School size
Small (<200 pupils) 1.00, reference
Medium (200–499) 0.92 (0.65–1.30)
Large (>500) 1.18 (0.6–2.06) 0.617
Center
Cardiff 1.00, reference
Glasgow 0.89 (0.62–1.28)
Bangor 1.33 (0.83–2.14)
Nottingham 1.45 (0.86–2.44)
Oxford 1.46 (0.99–2.16)
Plymouth 0.48 (0.31–0.74)
Stockport 1.99 (1.01–3.90) <0.001

*OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

Main Article

1United Kingdom Meningococcal Carriage Group: S. Ahmed, D.A.A. Ala'aldeen, N. Andrews, R.A. Barnes, D.N. Baxter, J.C. Cameron, K. Cann, A.D. Carr, D. Casey, M. Clacher, S.C. Clarke, D.W. Crook, R. Cunningham, K.T. Dunkin, M.R. Evans, S. Gray, D. Griffiths, S. Harrison, E.B. Kaczmarski, G. Kafatos, J.S. Kroll, Y.K. Lau, G. Lewendon, C. Lewis, J.M. MacLennan, M.C.J. Maiden, P. Marks, R. Mathews, J. Murray, K. Neal, A. Paull, M.E. Ramsay, C. Roberts, J.M. Stuart, D. Turner, R. Urwin, A.M. Walker, S. Welch.

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