Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 13, Number 3—March 2007

Surveillance of Influenza Virus A in Migratory Waterfowl in Northern Europe

Anders Wallensten*†, Vincent J. Munster‡, Neus Latorre-Margalef§, Mia Brytting¶, Johan Elmberg#, Ron A.M. Fouchier‡, Thord Fransson**, Paul D. Haemig§, Malin Karlsson¶, Åke Lundkvist¶, Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus‡, Martin Stervander††, Jonas Waldenström§‡‡, and Björn Olsen§§§Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Smedby Health Center, Kalmar, Sweden; †Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; ‡Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; §Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden; ¶Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden; #Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden; **Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden; ††Ottenby Bird Observatory, Degerhamn, Sweden; ‡‡Lund University, Lund, Sweden; §§Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden;

Main Article

Table 4

Comparison of multiyear influenza A virus screening studies of ducks in North America (2), Germany (16) and Sweden (present study)*

Study regionSwedenGermanyNorth America
Prevalence during fall15.0% (in mallards)8.7%22.2%
Prevalence during spring4.0% (in mallards)No data0.03%
Most prevalent HA subtypesH4, H6, H7H4, H2, H1, H6, H7H6, H3, H4
HA subtypes not foundH9, H13–16H5, H12–16H13–16
Most prevalent NA subtypesN2, N6, N7N1, N3, N6N8, N2, N6
NA subtypes foundN1–9N1–9N1–9
Most prevalent subtype combinationsH4N6, H7N7, H6N2H2N3, H4N6, H1N1, H6N2, H7N7H3N8, H6N2, H4N6

*HA, hemagglutinin; NA,neuraminidase.

Main Article

  1. Webster RG, Bean WJ, Gorman OT, Chambers TM, Kawaoka Y. Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses.Microbiol Rev. 1992;56:15279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Krauss S, Walker D, Pryor SP, Niles L, Chenghong L, Hinshaw VS, Influenza A viruses of migrating wild aquatic birds in North America.Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2004;4:17789. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Donis RO, Bean WJ, Kawaoka Y, Webster RG. Distinct lineages of influenza virus H4 hemagglutinin genes in different regions of the world.Virology. 1989;169:40817. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Schafer JR, Kawaoka Y, Bean WJ, Suss J, Senne D, Webster RG. Origin of the pandemic 1957 H2 influenza A virus and the persistence of its possible progenitors in the avian reservoir.Virology. 1993;194:7818. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker K. Identification guide to European non-passerines: BTO guide 24. Thetford (UK): British Trust for Ornithology; 1993.
  6. Munster VJ, Wallensten A, Baas C, Rimmelzwaan GF, Schutten M, Olsen B, Mallards and highly pathogenic avian influenza ancestral viruses, northern Europe.Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:154551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Fouchier RA, Munster V, Wallensten A, Bestebroer TM, Herfst S, Smith D, Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls.J Virol. 2005;79:281422. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hoffmann E, Stech J, Guan Y, Webster RG, Perez DR. Universal primer set for the full-length amplification of all influenza A viruses.Arch Virol. 2001;146:227589. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hall A. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT.Nucleic Acids Symp Ser. 1999;41:958.
  10. von Schultz R. Ottenby andfänge. In: Engström B, editor. Ölands södra udde–klassisk fågelmark. Uppsala: Ottenby fågelstation; 1986. p. 137–49.
  11. Cramp SC, Simmons KEL. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa Birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1977.
  12. Perdeck AC. The analysis of ringing data; pitfalls and prospects.Vogelwarte.1977;29:334.
  13. Olsen B, Munster V, Wallensten A, Waldenstrom J, Osterhaus A, Fouchier R. Global patterns of influenza A viruses in wild birds.Science. 2006;312:3848. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bentz P-G. Studies on some urban Mallard Anas platyrhynchos populations in Scandinavia. Part I: causes of death, mortality and longetivity among Malmö Mallards as shown by ringing recoveries. Fauna Norvegica Series C. Cinclus.1985;8:4456.
  15. Suss J, Schafer J, Sinnecker H, Webster RG. Influenza virus subtypes in aquatic birds of eastern Germany.Arch Virol. 1994;135:10114. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hanson BA, Stallknecht DE, Swayne DE, Lewis LA, Senne DA. Avian influenza viruses in Minnesota ducks during 1998–2000.Avian Dis. 2003;47(Suppl):86771. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hanson BA, Swayne DE, Senne DA, Lobpries DS, Hurst J, Stallknecht DE. Avian influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses in wintering and resident ducks in Texas.J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:6248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Stallknecht DE, Shane SM, Zwank PJ, Senne DA, Kearney MT. Avian influenza viruses from migratory and resident ducks of coastal Louisiana.Avian Dis. 1990;34:398405. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ito T, Okazaki K, Kawaoka Y, Takada A, Webster RG, Kida H. Perpetuation of influenza A viruses in Alaskan waterfowl reservoirs.Arch Virol. 1995;140:116372. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kawaoka Y, Chambers TM, Sladen WL, Webster RG. Is the gene pool of influenza viruses in shorebirds and gulls different from that in wild ducks?Virology. 1988;163:24750. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Okazaki K, Takada A, Ito T, Imai M, Takakuwa H, Hatta M, Precursor genes of future pandemic influenza viruses are perpetuated in ducks nesting in Siberia.Arch Virol. 2000;145:88593. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. De Marco MA, Foni GE, Campitelli L, Raffini E, Di Trani L, Delogu M, Circulation of influenza viruses in wild waterfowl wintering in Italy during the 1993–99 period: evidence of virus shedding and seroconversion in wild ducks.Avian Dis. 2003;47(Suppl):8616. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hinshaw VS, Webster RG, Turner B. The perpetuation of orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in Canadian waterfowl.Can J Microbiol. 1980;26:6229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fouchier RA, Schneeberger PM, Rozendaal FW, Broekman JM, Kemink SA, Munster V, Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:135661. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

Page created: June 29, 2010
Page updated: June 29, 2010
Page reviewed: June 29, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.