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Issue Cover for Volume 13, Number 3—March 2007

Volume 13, Number 3—March 2007

[PDF - 5.87 MB - 167 pages]

Perspective

Bird Migration Routes and Risk for Pathogen Dispersion into Western Mediterranean Wetlands [PDF - 470 KB - 8 pages]
E. Jourdain et al.

Wild birds share with humans the capacity for moving fast over large distances. During migratory movements, birds carry pathogens that can be transmitted between species at breeding, wintering, and stopover places where numerous birds of various species are concentrated. We consider the area of the Camargue (southern France) as an example to highlight how ad hoc information already available on birds’ movements, abundance, and diversity can help assess the introduction and transmission risk for birdborne diseases in the western Mediterranean wetlands. Avian influenza and West Nile viruses are used as examples because birds are central to the epidemiology of these viruses.

EID Jourdain E, Gauthier-Clerc M, Bicout D, Sabatier P. Bird Migration Routes and Risk for Pathogen Dispersion into Western Mediterranean Wetlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):365-372. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060301
AMA Jourdain E, Gauthier-Clerc M, Bicout D, et al. Bird Migration Routes and Risk for Pathogen Dispersion into Western Mediterranean Wetlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):365-372. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060301.
APA Jourdain, E., Gauthier-Clerc, M., Bicout, D., & Sabatier, P. (2007). Bird Migration Routes and Risk for Pathogen Dispersion into Western Mediterranean Wetlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 365-372. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060301.
Synopses

Human and Animal Vaccination Delivery to Remote Nomadic Families, Chad [PDF - 279 KB - 7 pages]
E. Schelling et al.

Vaccination services for people and livestock often fail to achieve sufficient coverages in Africa’s remote rural settings because of financial, logistic, and service delivery constraints. In Chad from 2000 through 2005, we demonstrated the feasibility of combining vaccination programs for nomadic pastoralists and their livestock. Sharing of transport logistics and equipment between physicians and veterinarians reduced total costs. Joint delivery of human and animal health services is adapted to and highly valued by hard-to-reach pastoralists. In intervention zones, for the first time ≈10% of nomadic children (>1–11 months of age) were fully immunized annually and more children and women were vaccinated per day during joint vaccination rounds than during vaccination of persons only and not their livestock (130 vs. 100, p<0.001). By optimizing use of limited logistical and human resources, public health and veterinary services both become more effective, especially at the district level.

EID Schelling E, Bechir M, Ahmed MA, Wyss K, Randolph TF, Zinsstag J. Human and Animal Vaccination Delivery to Remote Nomadic Families, Chad. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):373-379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060391
AMA Schelling E, Bechir M, Ahmed MA, et al. Human and Animal Vaccination Delivery to Remote Nomadic Families, Chad. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):373-379. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060391.
APA Schelling, E., Bechir, M., Ahmed, M. A., Wyss, K., Randolph, T. F., & Zinsstag, J. (2007). Human and Animal Vaccination Delivery to Remote Nomadic Families, Chad. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 373-379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060391.
Research

Worldwide Emergence of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis [PDF - 227 KB - 8 pages]
N. Shah et al.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that are resistant to an increasing number of second-line drugs used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are becoming a threat to public health worldwide. We surveyed the Network of Supranational Reference Laboratories for M. tuberculosis isolates that were resistant to second-line anti-TB drugs during 2000–2004. We defined extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) as MDR-TB with further resistance to ≥3 of the 6 classes of second-line drugs. Of 23 eligible laboratories, 14 (61%) contributed data on 17,690 isolates, which reflected drug susceptibility results from 48 countries. Of 3,520 (19.9%) MDR-TB isolates, 347 (9.9%) met criteria for XDR-TB. Further investigation of population-based trends and expanded efforts to prevent drug resistance and effectively treat patients with MDR-TB are crucial for protection of public health and control of TB.

EID Shah N, Wright A, Bai G, Barrera L, Boulahbal F, Martín-Casabona N, et al. Worldwide Emergence of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):380-387. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061400
AMA Shah N, Wright A, Bai G, et al. Worldwide Emergence of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):380-387. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061400.
APA Shah, N., Wright, A., Bai, G., Barrera, L., Boulahbal, F., Martín-Casabona, N....Cegielski, J. (2007). Worldwide Emergence of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 380-387. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061400.

Tandem Repeat Analysis for Surveillance of Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections [PDF - 339 KB - 8 pages]
M. Torpdahl et al.

In Denmark, as part of the national laboratory-based surveillance system of human enteric infections, all Salmonella Typhimurium isolates are currently subtyped by using phage typing, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We evaluated the value of real-time typing that uses multiple-locus-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to detect possible outbreaks. Because only a few subtypes identified by PFGE and phage typing account for most infections, we included MLVA typing in the routine surveillance in a 2-year period beginning December 2003. The 1,019 typed isolates were separated into 148 PFGE types and 373 MLVA types. Several possible outbreaks were detected and confirmed. MLVA was particularly valuable for discriminating within the most common phage types. MLVA was superior to PFGE for both surveillance and outbreak investigations of S. Typhimurium.

EID Torpdahl M, Sørensen G, Lindstedt B, Nielsen E. Tandem Repeat Analysis for Surveillance of Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060460
AMA Torpdahl M, Sørensen G, Lindstedt B, et al. Tandem Repeat Analysis for Surveillance of Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):388. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060460.
APA Torpdahl, M., Sørensen, G., Lindstedt, B., & Nielsen, E. (2007). Tandem Repeat Analysis for Surveillance of Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060460.

In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses [PDF - 389 KB - 8 pages]
T. M. Straub et al.

Human noroviruses cause severe, self-limiting gastroenteritis that typically lasts 24–48 hours. Because of the lack of suitable tissue culture or animal models, the true nature of norovirus pathogenesis remains unknown. We show that noroviruses can infect and replicate in a 3-dimensional (3-D), organoid model of human small intestinal epithelium. Cells grown on porous collage-coated beads under fluid shear conditions in rotating wall vessel bioreactors differentiate into 3-D architectures resembling both the morphologic and physiologic function of in vivo tissues. Microscopy, PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization provided evidence of norovirus infection. Cytopathic effect and norovirus RNA were detected at each of the 5 cell passages for genogroup I and II viruses. Our results demonstrate that the highly differentiated 3-D cell culture model can support the natural growth of human noroviruses, whereas previous attempts that used differentiated monolayer cultures failed.

EID Straub TM, Höner zu Bentrup K, Coghlan PO, Dohnalkova A, Mayer BK, Bartholomew RA, et al. In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):396. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060549
AMA Straub TM, Höner zu Bentrup K, Coghlan PO, et al. In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):396. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060549.
APA Straub, T. M., Höner zu Bentrup, K., Coghlan, P. O., Dohnalkova, A., Mayer, B. K., Bartholomew, R. A....Nickerson, C. A. (2007). In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 396. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060549.

Surveillance of Influenza Virus A in Migratory Waterfowl in Northern Europe [PDF - 273 KB - 8 pages]
A. Wallensten et al.

We conducted large-scale, systematic sampling of influenza type A virus in migratory waterfowl (mostly mallards [Anas platyrhynchos]) at Ottenby Bird Observatory, southeast Sweden. As with previous studies, we found a higher prevalence in fall than spring, and among juveniles compared with adults. However, in contrast to other studies, we found that prevalence in spring was sometimes high (mean 4.0%, highest 9.5%). This finding raises the possibility that ducks are capable of perpetuating influenza A virus of different subtypes and subtype combinations throughout the year and from 1 year to the next. Isolation of the H5 and H7 subtypes was common, which suggests risk for transmission to sensitive domestic animals such as poultry. We argue that wild bird screening can function as a sentinel system, and we give an example of how it could have been used to forecast a remote and deadly outbreak of influenza A in poultry.

EID Wallensten A, Munster VJ, Latorre-Margalef N, Brytting M, Elmberg J, Fouchier R, et al. Surveillance of Influenza Virus A in Migratory Waterfowl in Northern Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):404. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061130
AMA Wallensten A, Munster VJ, Latorre-Margalef N, et al. Surveillance of Influenza Virus A in Migratory Waterfowl in Northern Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):404. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061130.
APA Wallensten, A., Munster, V. J., Latorre-Margalef, N., Brytting, M., Elmberg, J., Fouchier, R....Olsen, B. (2007). Surveillance of Influenza Virus A in Migratory Waterfowl in Northern Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 404. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061130.

Risk for Infection with Highly Pathogenic Influenza A Virus (H5N1) in Chickens, Hong Kong, 2002 [PDF - 210 KB - 7 pages]
N. Y. Kung et al.

We used epidemiologic evaluation, molecular epidemiology, and a case-control study to identify possible risk factors for the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) in chicken farms during the first quarter of 2002 in Hong Kong. Farm profiles, including stock sources, farm management, and biosecurity measures, were collected from 16 case and 46 control chicken farms by using a pretested questionnaire and personal interviews. The risk of influenza A (H5N1) infection was assessed by using adjusted odds ratios based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Retail marketing of live poultry was implicated as the main source of exposure to infection on chicken farms in Hong Kong during this period. Infection control measures should be reviewed and upgraded as necessary to reduce the spread of influenza A (H5N1) related to live poultry markets, which are commonplace across Asia.

EID Kung NY, Morris RS, Perkins NR, Sims LD, Ellis TM, Bissett L, et al. Risk for Infection with Highly Pathogenic Influenza A Virus (H5N1) in Chickens, Hong Kong, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):412. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060365
AMA Kung NY, Morris RS, Perkins NR, et al. Risk for Infection with Highly Pathogenic Influenza A Virus (H5N1) in Chickens, Hong Kong, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):412. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060365.
APA Kung, N. Y., Morris, R. S., Perkins, N. R., Sims, L. D., Ellis, T. M., Bissett, L....Peiris, M. (2007). Risk for Infection with Highly Pathogenic Influenza A Virus (H5N1) in Chickens, Hong Kong, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 412. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060365.

Behavioral Risks for West Nile Virus Disease, Northern Colorado, 2003 [PDF - 274 KB - 7 pages]
I. B. Gujral et al.

In 2003, residents in 2 adjacent cities in northern Colorado (Loveland and Fort Collins) had severe outbreaks of human West Nile virus (WNV) disease. Unexpectedly, age-adjusted neuroinvasive disease rates were higher in Loveland (38.6 vs. 15.9 per 100,000), which had a more extensive mosquito control program and fewer mosquitoes. A survey was conducted to assess differences in personal protection and risk practices by each city's residents. During May and June 2004, a random-digit dial telephone survey was conducted among adults to assess personal protection behavioral practices used to prevent WNV infection during the 2003 outbreak. After we adjusted for identified risk factors, Loveland residents were 39% more likely to report seldom or never using N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), and ≈30% were more likely to report being outdoors during prime mosquito-biting hours than Fort Collins residents. Personal protective practices may directly influence rates of WNV infection and remain important even when comprehensive community mosquito control measures are implemented.

EID Gujral IB, Zielinski-Gutierrez EC, LeBailly A, Nasci RS. Behavioral Risks for West Nile Virus Disease, Northern Colorado, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060941
AMA Gujral IB, Zielinski-Gutierrez EC, LeBailly A, et al. Behavioral Risks for West Nile Virus Disease, Northern Colorado, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):419. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060941.
APA Gujral, I. B., Zielinski-Gutierrez, E. C., LeBailly, A., & Nasci, R. S. (2007). Behavioral Risks for West Nile Virus Disease, Northern Colorado, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 419. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060941.

Matrix Protein 2 Vaccination and Protection against Influenza Viruses, Including Subtype H5N1 [PDF - 431 KB - 10 pages]
S. M. Tompkins et al.

Changes in influenza viruses require regular reformulation of strain-specific influenza vaccines. Vaccines based on conserved antigens provide broader protection. Influenza matrix protein 2 (M2) is highly conserved across influenza A subtypes. To evaluate its efficacy as a vaccine candidate, we vaccinated mice with M2 peptide of a widely shared consensus sequence. This vaccination induced antibodies that cross-reacted with divergent M2 peptide from an H5N1 subtype. A DNA vaccine expressing full-length consensus-sequence M2 (M2-DNA) induced M2-specific antibody responses and protected against challenge with lethal influenza. Mice primed with M2-DNA and then boosted with recombinant adenovirus expressing M2 (M2-Ad) had enhanced antibody responses that cross-reacted with human and avian M2 sequences and induced T-cell responses. This M2 prime-boost vaccination conferred broad protection against challenge with lethal influenza A, including an H5N1 strain. Vaccination with M2, with key sequences represented, may provide broad protection against influenza A.

EID Tompkins SM, Zhao Z, Lo C, Misplon JA, Liu T, Ye Z, et al. Matrix Protein 2 Vaccination and Protection against Influenza Viruses, Including Subtype H5N1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061125
AMA Tompkins SM, Zhao Z, Lo C, et al. Matrix Protein 2 Vaccination and Protection against Influenza Viruses, Including Subtype H5N1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):426. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061125.
APA Tompkins, S. M., Zhao, Z., Lo, C., Misplon, J. A., Liu, T., Ye, Z....Epstein, S. L. (2007). Matrix Protein 2 Vaccination and Protection against Influenza Viruses, Including Subtype H5N1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 426. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061125.

Diversity and Distribution of Borrelia hermsii [PDF - 280 KB - 7 pages]
T. G. Schwan et al.

Borrelia hermsii is the most common cause of tickborne relapsing fever in North America. DNA sequences of the 16S–23S rDNA noncoding intergenic spacer (IGS) region were determined for 37 isolates of this spirochete. These sequences distinguished the 2 genomic groups of B. hermsii identified previously with other loci. Multiple IGS genotypes were identified among isolates from an island, which suggested that birds might play a role in dispersing these spirochetes in nature. In support of this theory, all stages of the tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi fed successfully on birds in the laboratory and advanced in their life cycle. B. hermsii produced a detectable spirochetemia in 1 chicken inoculated subcutaneously. Additional work is warranted to explore the role of birds as enzootic hosts for this relapsing fever spirochete.

EID Schwan TG, Raffel SJ, Schrumpf ME, Porcella SF. Diversity and Distribution of Borrelia hermsii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060958
AMA Schwan TG, Raffel SJ, Schrumpf ME, et al. Diversity and Distribution of Borrelia hermsii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):436. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060958.
APA Schwan, T. G., Raffel, S. J., Schrumpf, M. E., & Porcella, S. F. (2007). Diversity and Distribution of Borrelia hermsii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060958.

Population-based Laboratory Surveillance for AmpC β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli, Calgary [PDF - 215 KB - 6 pages]
J. Pitout et al.

In the Calgary Health Region during 2000–2003, prospective, active, population-based laboratory surveillance for all cefoxitin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates was performed. Isolates were screened with an inhibitor-based disk test, and plasmid-mediated types were identified by multiplex PCR with sequencing. A total of 369 AmpC β-lactamase–producing E. coli isolates were identified; annual incidence rates were 1.7, 4.3, 11.2, and 15 per 100,000 residents for each year, respectively. AmpC β-lactamase–producing E. coli was 5× more likely to be isolated from female than male patients across all age groups except <1 year. Of these isolates, 83% were community onset, and urine was the principal site of isolation (90% of patients). PCR showed that 125 (34%) were positive for blacmy genes; sequencing identified these enzymes to be CMY-2. In this large Canadian region, AmpC β-lactamase–producing E. coli is an emerging community pathogen that commonly causes urinary tract infections in older women.

EID Pitout J, Gregson DB, Church DL, Laupland KB. Population-based Laboratory Surveillance for AmpC β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli, Calgary. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):443. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060447
AMA Pitout J, Gregson DB, Church DL, et al. Population-based Laboratory Surveillance for AmpC β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli, Calgary. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):443. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060447.
APA Pitout, J., Gregson, D. B., Church, D. L., & Laupland, K. B. (2007). Population-based Laboratory Surveillance for AmpC β-Lactamase–producing Escherichia coli, Calgary. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 443. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060447.

Effectiveness of Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Preventing Staff Absenteeism during Pandemic Influenza [PDF - 284 KB - 9 pages]
V. J. Lee and M. I. Chen

We used a deterministic SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed) meta-population model, together with scenario, sensitivity, and simulation analyses, to determine stockpiling strategies for neuraminidase inhibitors that would minimize absenteeism among healthcare workers. A pandemic with a basic reproductive number (R0) of 2.5 resulted in peak absenteeism of 10%. Treatment decreased peak absenteeism to 8%, while 8 weeks’ prophylaxis reduced it to 2%. For pandemics with higher R0, peak absenteeism exceeded 20% occasionally and 6 weeks’ prophylaxis reduced peak absenteeism by 75%. Insufficient duration of prophylaxis increased peak absenteeism compared with treatment only. Earlier pandemic detection and initiation of prophylaxis may render shorter prophylaxis durations ineffective. Eight weeks’ prophylaxis substantially reduced peak absenteeism under a broad range of assumptions for severe pandemics (peak absenteeism >10%). Small investments in treatment and prophylaxis, if adequate and timely, can reduce absenteeism among essential staff.

EID Lee VJ, Chen MI. Effectiveness of Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Preventing Staff Absenteeism during Pandemic Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):449. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060309
AMA Lee VJ, Chen MI. Effectiveness of Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Preventing Staff Absenteeism during Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):449. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060309.
APA Lee, V. J., & Chen, M. I. (2007). Effectiveness of Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Preventing Staff Absenteeism during Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 449. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060309.
Dispatches

Environmental Burkholderia cepacia Complex Isolates from Human Infections [PDF - 199 KB - 4 pages]
A. Baldwin et al.

Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), found in many environments, are associated with clinical infections. Examining diverse species and strains from different environments with multilocus sequence typing, we identified >20% of 381 clinical isolates as indistinguishable from those in the environment. This finding links the natural environment with the emergence of many Bcc infections.

EID Baldwin A, Mahenthiralingam E, Drevinek P, Vandamme P, Govan JR, Waine DJ, et al. Environmental Burkholderia cepacia Complex Isolates from Human Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060403
AMA Baldwin A, Mahenthiralingam E, Drevinek P, et al. Environmental Burkholderia cepacia Complex Isolates from Human Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):458. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060403.
APA Baldwin, A., Mahenthiralingam, E., Drevinek, P., Vandamme, P., Govan, J. R., Waine, D. J....Dowson, C. G. (2007). Environmental Burkholderia cepacia Complex Isolates from Human Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 458. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060403.

Cryptosporidium hominis Infection of the Human Respiratory Tract [PDF - 122 KB - 3 pages]
R. Mercado et al.

Cryptosporidium oocysts, observed in a natural sputum sample of a patient with HIV, were further studied by using DNA markers to determine the species of the parasite. C. hominis was identified as the species infecting the patient’s respiratory tract, a finding that strengthens evidence regarding this pathogen’s role in human disease.

EID Mercado R, Buck GA, Manque PA, Ozaki L. Cryptosporidium hominis Infection of the Human Respiratory Tract. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):462-464. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060394
AMA Mercado R, Buck GA, Manque PA, et al. Cryptosporidium hominis Infection of the Human Respiratory Tract. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):462-464. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060394.
APA Mercado, R., Buck, G. A., Manque, P. A., & Ozaki, L. (2007). Cryptosporidium hominis Infection of the Human Respiratory Tract. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 462-464. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060394.

Cocirculation of 2 Genotypes of Toscana Virus, Southeastern France [PDF - 278 KB - 4 pages]
R. N. Charrel et al.

Toscana virus (TOSV), an arthropodborne phlebovirus transmitted by sandflies, can cause febrile illness and meningitis. The vector of TOSV in France was unknown. We detected TOSV RNA in 2 (female Phlebotomus perniciosus) of 61 pools of sandflies captured in southeastern France. Two genotypes of TOSV were identified.

EID Charrel RN, Izri A, Temmam S, Delaunay P, Toga I, Dumon H, et al. Cocirculation of 2 Genotypes of Toscana Virus, Southeastern France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):465-468. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061086
AMA Charrel RN, Izri A, Temmam S, et al. Cocirculation of 2 Genotypes of Toscana Virus, Southeastern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):465-468. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061086.
APA Charrel, R. N., Izri, A., Temmam, S., Delaunay, P., Toga, I., Dumon, H....Parola, P. (2007). Cocirculation of 2 Genotypes of Toscana Virus, Southeastern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 465-468. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061086.

Rapidly Fatal Acanthamoeba Encephalitis and Treatment of Cryoglobulinemia [PDF - 197 KB - 3 pages]
W. Meersseman et al.

We describe a 66-year-old woman with therapy-refractory cryoglobulinemia treated with rituximab, plasmapheresis, and steroids; a case of fatal meningoencephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba spp. then developed. Such infections are rare and show an unusually rapid course (possibly related to rituximab).

EID Meersseman W, Lagrou K, Sciot R, de Jonckheere J, Haberler C, Walochnik J, et al. Rapidly Fatal Acanthamoeba Encephalitis and Treatment of Cryoglobulinemia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061001
AMA Meersseman W, Lagrou K, Sciot R, et al. Rapidly Fatal Acanthamoeba Encephalitis and Treatment of Cryoglobulinemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):469. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061001.
APA Meersseman, W., Lagrou, K., Sciot, R., de Jonckheere, J., Haberler, C., Walochnik, J....van Wijngaerden, E. (2007). Rapidly Fatal Acanthamoeba Encephalitis and Treatment of Cryoglobulinemia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 469. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061001.

Mouse-to-Human Transmission of Variant Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus [PDF - 204 KB - 4 pages]
S. Emonet et al.

A case of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection led to investigation of the reservoir. LCMV was detected in mice trapped at the patient's home, and 12 isolates were recovered. Genetic analysis showed that human and mouse LCMVs were identical and that this LCMV strain was highly divergent from previously characterized LCMV.

EID Emonet S, Retornaz K, Gonzalez J, de Lamballerie X, Charrel RN. Mouse-to-Human Transmission of Variant Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):472-475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061141
AMA Emonet S, Retornaz K, Gonzalez J, et al. Mouse-to-Human Transmission of Variant Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):472-475. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061141.
APA Emonet, S., Retornaz, K., Gonzalez, J., de Lamballerie, X., & Charrel, R. N. (2007). Mouse-to-Human Transmission of Variant Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 472-475. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061141.

Leishmania donovani and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka [PDF - 74 KB - 3 pages]
H. V. Siriwardana et al.

To investigate the relationship of cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates from Sri Lanka to known species, we performed DNA sequencing and microsatellite analyses. We identified Leishmania donovani as the agent of Sri Lanka cutaneous leishmaniasis and showed that these parasites are closely related to those causing visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent.

EID Siriwardana HV, Noyes HA, Beeching NJ, Chance ML, Karunaweera ND, Bates PA. Leishmania donovani and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060242
AMA Siriwardana HV, Noyes HA, Beeching NJ, et al. Leishmania donovani and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):476. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060242.
APA Siriwardana, H. V., Noyes, H. A., Beeching, N. J., Chance, M. L., Karunaweera, N. D., & Bates, P. A. (2007). Leishmania donovani and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060242.

Depression after Infection with West Nile Virus [PDF - 74 KB - 3 pages]
K. O. Murray et al.

Previous reports have noted depression after West Nile virus (WNV) infection. We further measured this outcome and found that 31% of patients reported new-onset depression and 75% of these had Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scores indicative of mild-to-severe depression. Physicians should be aware of neuropsychiatric consequences of WNV in patients.

EID Murray KO, Resnick M, Miller V. Depression after Infection with West Nile Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060602
AMA Murray KO, Resnick M, Miller V. Depression after Infection with West Nile Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):479. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060602.
APA Murray, K. O., Resnick, M., & Miller, V. (2007). Depression after Infection with West Nile Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060602.

Detection of G12 Human Rotaviruses in Nepal [PDF - 103 KB - 3 pages]
S. B. Pun et al.

Of 731 stool specimens collected from children with diarrhea in Kathmandu, Nepal, from August 2004 through July 2005, 170 (23.3%) tested positive for rotavirus. Reverse transcription–PCR, including a revised G12-specific primer set, identified 56 (32.9%) as G2P[4] and 39 (23.0%) as G12 with P[6], P[8], or P[4].

EID Pun SB, Nakagomi T, Sherchand JB, Pandey BD, Cuevas LE, Cunliffe NA, et al. Detection of G12 Human Rotaviruses in Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):482. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061367
AMA Pun SB, Nakagomi T, Sherchand JB, et al. Detection of G12 Human Rotaviruses in Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):482. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061367.
APA Pun, S. B., Nakagomi, T., Sherchand, J. B., Pandey, B. D., Cuevas, L. E., Cunliffe, N. A....Nakagomi, O. (2007). Detection of G12 Human Rotaviruses in Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 482. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061367.

Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat, Canada [PDF - 86 KB - 3 pages]
A. Rodriguez-Palacios et al.

Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12 (20%) of 60 retail ground meat samples purchased over a 10-month period in 2005 in Canada. Eleven isolates were toxigenic, and 8 (67%) were classified as toxinotype III. The human health implications of this finding are unclear, but with the virulence of toxinotype III strains further studies are required.

EID Rodriguez-Palacios A, Staempfli HR, Duffield T, Weese J. Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060988
AMA Rodriguez-Palacios A, Staempfli HR, Duffield T, et al. Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):485. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060988.
APA Rodriguez-Palacios, A., Staempfli, H. R., Duffield, T., & Weese, J. (2007). Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060988.

Methicillin-susceptible, Doxycycline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Côte d’Ivoire [PDF - 77 KB - 3 pages]
O. Lesens et al.

We report 2 outbreaks of Panton-Valentine leukocidin–positive, doxycycline-resistant, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections in French soldiers operating in Côte d’Ivoire. In a transssectional survey, nasal carriage of this strain was found in 2.9% of 273 soldiers about to be sent to Côte d’Ivoire and was associated with prior malaria prophylaxis with doxycycline.

EID Lesens O, Haus-Cheymol R, Dubrous P, Verret C, Spiegel A, Bonnet R, et al. Methicillin-susceptible, Doxycycline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Côte d’Ivoire. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):488. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060729
AMA Lesens O, Haus-Cheymol R, Dubrous P, et al. Methicillin-susceptible, Doxycycline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Côte d’Ivoire. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):488. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060729.
APA Lesens, O., Haus-Cheymol, R., Dubrous, P., Verret, C., Spiegel, A., Bonnet, R....Koeck, J. L. (2007). Methicillin-susceptible, Doxycycline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Côte d’Ivoire. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 488. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060729.

Intermediate Vancomycin Susceptibility in a Community-associated MRSA Clone [PDF - 67 KB - 3 pages]
C. J. Graber et al.

We describe a case of treatment failure caused by a strain of USA300 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin and reduced susceptibility to daptomycin. The strain was isolated from the bone of a 56-year-old man with lumbar osteomyelitis after a 6-week treatment course of vancomycin for catheter-associated septic thrombophlebitis.

EID Graber CJ, Wong MK, Carleton HA, Perdreau-Remington F, Haller BL, Chambers HF. Intermediate Vancomycin Susceptibility in a Community-associated MRSA Clone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060960
AMA Graber CJ, Wong MK, Carleton HA, et al. Intermediate Vancomycin Susceptibility in a Community-associated MRSA Clone. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):491. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060960.
APA Graber, C. J., Wong, M. K., Carleton, H. A., Perdreau-Remington, F., Haller, B. L., & Chambers, H. F. (2007). Intermediate Vancomycin Susceptibility in a Community-associated MRSA Clone. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060960.

Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec in MRSA, Taiwan [PDF - 215 KB - 4 pages]
J. Wang et al.

To determine the predominant staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec element in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, we typed 190 isolates from a hospital in Taiwan. We found a shift from type IV to type III SCCmec element during 1992–2003, perhaps caused by selective pressure from indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs.

EID Wang J, Fang C, Chen Y, Wu C, Chen M, Chang S. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec in MRSA, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060247
AMA Wang J, Fang C, Chen Y, et al. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec in MRSA, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):494. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060247.
APA Wang, J., Fang, C., Chen, Y., Wu, C., Chen, M., & Chang, S. (2007). Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec in MRSA, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060247.

Clostridium difficile–associated Disease in New Jersey Hospitals, 2000–2004 [PDF - 75 KB - 3 pages]
E. T. Tan et al.

Recent emergence of a virulent strain of Clostridium difficile demonstrates the importance of tracking C. difficile incidence locally. Our survey of New Jersey hospitals documented increases in the rates of C. difficile disease (by 2-fold), C. difficile–associated complications (by 7-fold), and C. difficile outbreaks (by 12-fold) during 2000–2004.

EID Tan ET, Robertson CA, Brynildsen S, Bresnitz E, Tan C, McDonald C. Clostridium difficile–associated Disease in New Jersey Hospitals, 2000–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060294
AMA Tan ET, Robertson CA, Brynildsen S, et al. Clostridium difficile–associated Disease in New Jersey Hospitals, 2000–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):498. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060294.
APA Tan, E. T., Robertson, C. A., Brynildsen, S., Bresnitz, E., Tan, C., & McDonald, C. (2007). Clostridium difficile–associated Disease in New Jersey Hospitals, 2000–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060294.
Letters

Drug-resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia, Thailand [PDF - 45 KB - 2 pages]
W. Kulwichit et al.
EID Kulwichit W, Chatsuwan T, Unhasuta C, Pulsrikarn C, Bangtrakulnonth A, Chongthaleong A. Drug-resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061059
AMA Kulwichit W, Chatsuwan T, Unhasuta C, et al. Drug-resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):501. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061059.
APA Kulwichit, W., Chatsuwan, T., Unhasuta, C., Pulsrikarn, C., Bangtrakulnonth, A., & Chongthaleong, A. (2007). Drug-resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Bacteremia, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061059.

Fulminant Supraglottitis from Neisseria meningitidis [PDF - 68 KB - 3 pages]
M. G. Kortepeter et al.
EID Kortepeter MG, Adams BL, Zollinger WD, Gasser RA. Fulminant Supraglottitis from Neisseria meningitidis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061420
AMA Kortepeter MG, Adams BL, Zollinger WD, et al. Fulminant Supraglottitis from Neisseria meningitidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):502. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061420.
APA Kortepeter, M. G., Adams, B. L., Zollinger, W. D., & Gasser, R. A. (2007). Fulminant Supraglottitis from Neisseria meningitidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061420.

gyrA Mutations in Fluoroquinolone-resistant Clostridium difficile PCR-027 [PDF - 39 KB - 2 pages]
D. Drudy et al.
EID Drudy D, Kyne L, O’Mahony R, Fanning S. gyrA Mutations in Fluoroquinolone-resistant Clostridium difficile PCR-027. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060771
AMA Drudy D, Kyne L, O’Mahony R, et al. gyrA Mutations in Fluoroquinolone-resistant Clostridium difficile PCR-027. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):504. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060771.
APA Drudy, D., Kyne, L., O’Mahony, R., & Fanning, S. (2007). gyrA Mutations in Fluoroquinolone-resistant Clostridium difficile PCR-027. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060771.

New Strain of Influenza A Virus (H5N1), Thailand [PDF - 75 KB - 2 pages]
S. Chutinimitkul et al.
EID Chutinimitkul S, Songserm T, Amonsin A, Payungporn S, Suwannakarn K, Damrongwatanapokin S, et al. New Strain of Influenza A Virus (H5N1), Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061103
AMA Chutinimitkul S, Songserm T, Amonsin A, et al. New Strain of Influenza A Virus (H5N1), Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):506. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061103.
APA Chutinimitkul, S., Songserm, T., Amonsin, A., Payungporn, S., Suwannakarn, K., Damrongwatanapokin, S....Poovorawan, Y. (2007). New Strain of Influenza A Virus (H5N1), Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061103.

Kala-azar Control, Uganda [PDF - 94 KB - 3 pages]
J. H. Kolaczinski et al.
EID Kolaczinski JH, Worku DT, Chappuis F, Reithinger R, Kabatereine N, Onapa A, et al. Kala-azar Control, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):507-509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060706
AMA Kolaczinski JH, Worku DT, Chappuis F, et al. Kala-azar Control, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):507-509. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060706.
APA Kolaczinski, J. H., Worku, D. T., Chappuis, F., Reithinger, R., Kabatereine, N., Onapa, A....Brooker, S. (2007). Kala-azar Control, Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 507-509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060706.

Chikungunya Virus Infection in Traveler to Australia [PDF - 26 KB - 2 pages]
J. D. Druce et al.
EID Druce JD, Johnson DF, Tran T, Richards MJ, Birch CJ. Chikungunya Virus Infection in Traveler to Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060761
AMA Druce JD, Johnson DF, Tran T, et al. Chikungunya Virus Infection in Traveler to Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):509. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060761.
APA Druce, J. D., Johnson, D. F., Tran, T., Richards, M. J., & Birch, C. J. (2007). Chikungunya Virus Infection in Traveler to Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060761.

Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Age Distribution in Humans [PDF - 70 KB - 3 pages]
M. Smallman-Raynor and A. D. Cliff
EID Smallman-Raynor M, Cliff AD. Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Age Distribution in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060849
AMA Smallman-Raynor M, Cliff AD. Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Age Distribution in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):510. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060849.
APA Smallman-Raynor, M., & Cliff, A. D. (2007). Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Age Distribution in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060849.

Toxoplasma gondii, Brazil [PDF - 46 KB - 2 pages]
J. Gomez-Marin
EID Gomez-Marin J. Toxoplasma gondii, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060599
AMA Gomez-Marin J. Toxoplasma gondii, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):512. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060599.
APA Gomez-Marin, J. (2007). Toxoplasma gondii, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060599.

CTX-M Extended-spectrum β-Lactamases, Washington State [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
S. Kim et al.
EID Kim S, Hu J, Gautom R, Kim J, Lee B, Boyle DS. CTX-M Extended-spectrum β-Lactamases, Washington State. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060479
AMA Kim S, Hu J, Gautom R, et al. CTX-M Extended-spectrum β-Lactamases, Washington State. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):513. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060479.
APA Kim, S., Hu, J., Gautom, R., Kim, J., Lee, B., & Boyle, D. S. (2007). CTX-M Extended-spectrum β-Lactamases, Washington State. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060479.

HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection, Cameroon [PDF - 69 KB - 3 pages]
C. Laurent et al.
EID Laurent C, Bourgeois A, Mpoudi M, Butel C, Mpoudi-Ngolé E, Delaporte E. HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection, Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061069
AMA Laurent C, Bourgeois A, Mpoudi M, et al. HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):514. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061069.
APA Laurent, C., Bourgeois, A., Mpoudi, M., Butel, C., Mpoudi-Ngolé, E., & Delaporte, E. (2007). HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061069.

Amebic Liver Abscess in HIV-infected Patients, Republic of Korea [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
W. Park et al.
EID Park W, Choe P, Hyun J, Kim S, Bang J, Kim H, et al. Amebic Liver Abscess in HIV-infected Patients, Republic of Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060894
AMA Park W, Choe P, Hyun J, et al. Amebic Liver Abscess in HIV-infected Patients, Republic of Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):516. doi:10.3201/eid1303.060894.
APA Park, W., Choe, P., Hyun, J., Kim, S., Bang, J., Kim, H....Won Choe, K. (2007). Amebic Liver Abscess in HIV-infected Patients, Republic of Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.060894.

Pregnancy and Emerging Diseases [PDF - 36 KB - 2 pages]
M. Anker
EID Anker M. Pregnancy and Emerging Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):518. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061345
AMA Anker M. Pregnancy and Emerging Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):518. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061345.
APA Anker, M. (2007). Pregnancy and Emerging Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 518. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061345.

Escherichia coli Cluster Evaluation [PDF - 21 KB - 1 page]
J. R. Johnson
EID Johnson JR. Escherichia coli Cluster Evaluation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):520. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.041085
AMA Johnson JR. Escherichia coli Cluster Evaluation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):520. doi:10.3201/eid1303.041085.
APA Johnson, J. R. (2007). Escherichia coli Cluster Evaluation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 520. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.041085.

Novel Hantavirus Sequences in Shrew, Guinea [PDF - 89 KB - 3 pages]
B. Klempa et al.
EID Klempa B, Fichet-Calvet E, Lecompte E, Auste B, Aniskin V, Meisel H, et al. Novel Hantavirus Sequences in Shrew, Guinea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):520. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061198
AMA Klempa B, Fichet-Calvet E, Lecompte E, et al. Novel Hantavirus Sequences in Shrew, Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):520. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061198.
APA Klempa, B., Fichet-Calvet, E., Lecompte, E., Auste, B., Aniskin, V., Meisel, H....Kruger, D. H. (2007). Novel Hantavirus Sequences in Shrew, Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 520. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061198.
Books and Media

Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models [PDF - 95 KB - 1 page]
K. Taylor
EID Taylor K. Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):523. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061488
AMA Taylor K. Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):523. doi:10.3201/eid1303.061488.
APA Taylor, K. (2007). Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 523. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.061488.
About the Cover

The Way Forward Is the Way Back [PDF - 78 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. The Way Forward Is the Way Back. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):524-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.ac1303
AMA Potter P. The Way Forward Is the Way Back. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):524-525. doi:10.3201/eid1303.ac1303.
APA Potter, P. (2007). The Way Forward Is the Way Back. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 524-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.ac1303.
Etymologia

norovirus [PDF - 25 KB - 1 page]
EID norovirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):403. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.e11303
AMA norovirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):403. doi:10.3201/eid1303.e11303.
APA (2007). norovirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 403. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.e11303.
Corrections

Correction, Vol. 13, No. 1 [PDF - 41 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction, Vol. 13, No. 1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.c11303
AMA Correction, Vol. 13, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):522. doi:10.3201/eid1303.c11303.
APA (2007). Correction, Vol. 13, No. 1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.c11303.

Correction, Vol. 13, No. 2 [PDF - 41 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction, Vol. 13, No. 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(3):522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.c21303
AMA Correction, Vol. 13, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(3):522. doi:10.3201/eid1303.c21303.
APA (2007). Correction, Vol. 13, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(3), 522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1303.c21303.
Page created: May 29, 2012
Page updated: May 29, 2012
Page reviewed: May 29, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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