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Volume 13, Number 9—September 2007


HIV, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B Infections and Associated Risk Behavior in Injection Drug Users, Kabul, Afghanistan

Catherine S. Todd*, Abdullah M.S. Abed†, Steffanie A. Strathdee*, Paul T. Scott‡Comments to Author , Boulos A. Botros§, Naqibullah Safi†, and Kenneth C. Earhart§
Author affiliations: *University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA; †Ministry of Public Health, Kabul, Afghanistan; ‡Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Rockville, Maryland, USA; §United States Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt;

Main Article


Factors independently associated with HCV infection (n = 170) by multivariable analysis in 463 male injection drug users, Kabul, Afghanistan*

Factor Value
HCV prevalence 107 (36.8)
Demographic factors
Married 0.60 (0.40–0.92)
Higher educational level 0.51 (0.29–0.88)
Drug practices
Ever shared needle or syringe 2.60 (1.71–3.96)
Duration injection drug use >3 y 3.28 (2.17–4.96)
Medical encounters
Injections by a nonmedical provider   2.71 (1.26–5.82)

*HCV, hepatitis C virus. Values are no. (%) or adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval). Analysis was adjusted for marital status, educational level, duration of injecting, sharing needles or syringes, and injections by a nonmedical provider.

Main Article