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Issue Cover for Volume 13, Number 9—September 2007

Volume 13, Number 9—September 2007

[PDF - 10.80 MB - 167 pages]

Synopses

Threat of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome to Field Biologists Working with Small Mammals [PDF - 66 KB - 3 pages]
D. A. Kelt et al.

Low risk for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) has been reported among biologists engaged in fieldwork with rodents. The overall probability of acquiring HPS when working with rodents appears to be 1 in 1,412 (0.00071). Nonetheless, a causal link between HPS and lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) use is suggested by some investigators. However, supporting data are incomplete and consequently misleading. A recent HPS case was assumed to be acquired during rodent-handling activities, although substantial peridomestic exposure was evident. Regulatory groups interpret inadequate data as evidence of the need for rigorous PPE, which can hamper field research and instructional efforts. PPE recommendations should be reviewed and revised to match the risk associated with different types of fieldwork with small mammals.

EID Kelt DA, Van Vuren DH, Hafner MS, Danielson BJ, Kelly MJ. Threat of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome to Field Biologists Working with Small Mammals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1285. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070445
AMA Kelt DA, Van Vuren DH, Hafner MS, et al. Threat of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome to Field Biologists Working with Small Mammals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1285. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070445.
APA Kelt, D. A., Van Vuren, D. H., Hafner, M. S., Danielson, B. J., & Kelly, M. J. (2007). Threat of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome to Field Biologists Working with Small Mammals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1285. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070445.
Research

Frequent Travelers and Rate of Spread of Epidemics [PDF - 244 KB - 7 pages]
T. D. Hollingsworth et al.

A small proportion of air travelers make disproportionately more journeys than the rest of travelers. They also tend to interact predominantly with other frequent travelers in hotels and airport lounges. This group has the potential to accelerate global spread of infectious respiratory diseases. Using an epidemiologic model, we simulated exportation of cases from severe acute respiratory syndrome–like and influenza-like epidemics in a population for which a small proportion travel more frequently than the rest. Our simulations show that frequent travelers accelerate international spread of epidemics only if they are infected early in an outbreak and the outbreak does not expand rapidly. If the epidemic growth rate is high, as is likely for pandemic influenza, heterogeneities in travel are frequently overwhelmed by the large number of infected persons in the majority population and the resulting high probability that some of these persons will take an international flight.

EID Hollingsworth TD, Ferguson NM, Anderson RM. Frequent Travelers and Rate of Spread of Epidemics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070081
AMA Hollingsworth TD, Ferguson NM, Anderson RM. Frequent Travelers and Rate of Spread of Epidemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1288. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070081.
APA Hollingsworth, T. D., Ferguson, N. M., & Anderson, R. M. (2007). Frequent Travelers and Rate of Spread of Epidemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070081.

Detection of Group 1 Coronaviruses in Bats in North America [PDF - 286 KB - 6 pages]
S. R. Dominguez et al.

The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People’s Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be reservoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse transcription–PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found coronavirus RNA in 6 of 28 fecal specimens from bats of 2 of 7 species tested. The prevalence of viral RNA shedding was high: 17% in Eptesicus fuscus and 50% in Myotis occultus. Sequence analysis of a 440-bp amplicon in gene 1b showed that these Rocky Mountain bat coronaviruses formed 3 clusters in phylogenetic group 1 that were distinct from group 1 coronaviruses of Asian bats. Because of the potential for bat coronaviruses to cause disease in humans and animals, further surveillance and characterization of bat coronaviruses in North America are needed.

EID Dominguez SR, O’Shea TJ, Oko LM, Holmes KV. Detection of Group 1 Coronaviruses in Bats in North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1295. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070491
AMA Dominguez SR, O’Shea TJ, Oko LM, et al. Detection of Group 1 Coronaviruses in Bats in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1295. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070491.
APA Dominguez, S. R., O’Shea, T. J., Oko, L. M., & Holmes, K. V. (2007). Detection of Group 1 Coronaviruses in Bats in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1295. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070491.

Landscape Elements and Hantaan Virus–related Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, People’s Republic of China [PDF - 286 KB - 6 pages]
L. Yan et al.

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in the People’s Republic of China, accounting for 90% of human cases reported globally. In this study, a landscape epidemiologic approach, combined with geographic information system and remote sensing techniques, was applied to increase our understanding of HFRS due to Hantaan virus and its relationship with landscape elements in China. The landscape elements considered were elevation, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, annual cumulative air temperature, land surface temperature, soil type, and land use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HFRS incidence was remarkably associated with elevation, NDVI, precipitation, annual cumulative air temperature, semihydromorphic soils, timber forests, and orchards. These findings have important applications for targeting HFRS interventions in mainland China.

EID Yan L, Liu W, Huang H, Zhang L, Feng D, Zhao W, et al. Landscape Elements and Hantaan Virus–related Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1301. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061481
AMA Yan L, Liu W, Huang H, et al. Landscape Elements and Hantaan Virus–related Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1301. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061481.
APA Yan, L., Liu, W., Huang, H., Zhang, L., Feng, D., Zhao, W....Cao, W. (2007). Landscape Elements and Hantaan Virus–related Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1301. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061481.

Precautionary Behavior in Response to Perceived Threat of Pandemic Influenza [PDF - 176 KB - 7 pages]
M. Z. Sadique et al.

Faced with an epidemic of an infectious disease, persons may take precautionary actions to try to reduce their risk. Such actions include avoiding situations that persons perceive to be risky, which can have negative health and economic effects. Therefore, we conducted a population-based survey of persons’ precautionary actions in response to a hypothetical influenza pandemic. For the 5 European and 3 Asian regions that had been affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome, the pattern of reported precautionary action was broadly similar across the regions; ≈75% of respondents reported that they would avoid public transportation and 20%–30% would try to stay indoors. Some regional differences were noted; Europeans were more likely than Asians to avoid places of entertainment, and Asians were more likely to avoid seeing physicians. This international survey provides insight into what might be expected during an influenza pandemic.

EID Sadique MZ, Edmunds W, Smith RD, Meerding WJ, de Zwart O, Brug J, et al. Precautionary Behavior in Response to Perceived Threat of Pandemic Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070372
AMA Sadique MZ, Edmunds W, Smith RD, et al. Precautionary Behavior in Response to Perceived Threat of Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1307. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070372.
APA Sadique, M. Z., Edmunds, W., Smith, R. D., Meerding, W. J., de Zwart, O., Brug, J....Beutels, P. (2007). Precautionary Behavior in Response to Perceived Threat of Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070372.

Simian Foamy Virus Transmission from Apes to Humans, Rural Cameroon [PDF - 275 KB - 7 pages]
S. Calattini et al.

Simian virus infections of humans are an increasing public health concern. Simian foamy virus (SFV) infections have been reported in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates and in a few hunters in Cameroon. To better understand this retroviral zoonosis in natural settings, we studied persons who lived in southern Cameroon, near nonhuman primate habitats. First we studied a general population of 1,164 adults; 4 were SFV positive according to serologic and molecular assays. Then we studied 85 persons who reported having been bitten or scratched by nonhuman primates; 7/29 (24.1%) of those who had contact with apes (gorillas or chimpanzees) were SFV positive, compared with only 2/56 (3.6%) of those who had had contact with monkeys. These data demonstrate efficient transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings in central Africa, specifically following ape bites, and viral persistence in the human host.

EID Calattini S, Betsem EB, Froment A, Mauclère P, Tortevoye P, Schmitt C, et al. Simian Foamy Virus Transmission from Apes to Humans, Rural Cameroon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061162
AMA Calattini S, Betsem EB, Froment A, et al. Simian Foamy Virus Transmission from Apes to Humans, Rural Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1314. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061162.
APA Calattini, S., Betsem, E. B., Froment, A., Mauclère, P., Tortevoye, P., Schmitt, C....Gessain, A. (2007). Simian Foamy Virus Transmission from Apes to Humans, Rural Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061162.

Family Clustering of Viliuisk Encephalomyelitis in Traditional and New Geographic Regions [PDF - 209 KB - 6 pages]
V. A. Vladimirtsev et al.

Viliuisk encephalomyelitis is an acute, often fatal, meningoencephalitis that tends to develop into a prolonged chronically progressive panencephalitis. Clinical, neuropathologic, and epidemiologic data argue for an infectious cause, although multiple attempts at pathogen isolation have been unsuccessful. To assess mechanisms of disease transmission and spread, we studied 6 multiplex families. Secondary cases occurred among genetically related and unrelated persons in a setting of prolonged intrahousehold contact with a patient manifesting the disease. Transmission to unrelated persons was documented in a densely populated region around the city of Yakutsk in which Viliuisk encephalomyelitis had not been previously known. Initially identified in a small Yakut-Evenk population on the Viliui River of eastern Siberia, the disease subsequently spread through human contacts to new geographic areas, thus characterizing Viliuisk encephalomyelitis as an emerging infectious disease.

EID Vladimirtsev VA, Nikitina RS, Renwick N, Ivanova AA, Danilova AP, Platonov FA, et al. Family Clustering of Viliuisk Encephalomyelitis in Traditional and New Geographic Regions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061585
AMA Vladimirtsev VA, Nikitina RS, Renwick N, et al. Family Clustering of Viliuisk Encephalomyelitis in Traditional and New Geographic Regions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1321. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061585.
APA Vladimirtsev, V. A., Nikitina, R. S., Renwick, N., Ivanova, A. A., Danilova, A. P., Platonov, F. A....Goldfarb, L. G. (2007). Family Clustering of Viliuisk Encephalomyelitis in Traditional and New Geographic Regions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061585.

HIV, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B Infections and Associated Risk Behavior in Injection Drug Users, Kabul, Afghanistan [PDF - 281 KB - 5 pages]
C. S. Todd et al.

Limited prevalence data for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) exist for Afghanistan. We studied a cross-sectional sample of adult injection drug users (IDUs) in Kabul, Afghanistan, from June 2005 through June 2006. Study participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and underwent testing for HIV, antibody to HCV, and HBsAg. Overall prevalences of HIV, HCV, and HBsAg were 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7%–5.1%), 36.6% (95% CI 32.2%–41.0%), and 6.5% (95% CI 4.2%–8.7%), respectively (N = 464). Among male IDUs (n = 463), risky behavior, including sharing syringes (50.4%), paying women for sex (76.2%), and having sex with men or boys (28.3%), were common. Needle sharing, injecting for >3 years, and receiving injections from nonmedical providers were independently associated with increased risk for HCV infection. The high prevalence of risky behavior indicate that Kabul is at risk for an HIV epidemic. Scale-up of harm-reducing interventions is urgently needed.

EID Todd CS, Abed AM, Strathdee SA, Scott PT, Botros BA, Safi N, et al. HIV, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B Infections and Associated Risk Behavior in Injection Drug Users, Kabul, Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070036
AMA Todd CS, Abed AM, Strathdee SA, et al. HIV, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B Infections and Associated Risk Behavior in Injection Drug Users, Kabul, Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1327. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070036.
APA Todd, C. S., Abed, A. M., Strathdee, S. A., Scott, P. T., Botros, B. A., Safi, N....Earhart, K. C. (2007). HIV, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B Infections and Associated Risk Behavior in Injection Drug Users, Kabul, Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070036.

Spectrum of Infection and Risk Factors for Human Monkeypox, United States, 2003 [PDF - 193 KB - 8 pages]
M. G. Reynolds et al.

For the 2003 monkeypox virus (MPXV) outbreak in the United States, interhuman transmission was not documented and all case-patients were near or handled MPXV-infected prairie dogs. We initiated a case–control study to evaluate risk factors for animal-to-human MPXV transmission. Participants completed a questionnaire requesting exposure, clinical, and demographic information. Serum samples were obtained for analysis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM to orthopoxvirus. When data were adjusted for smallpox vaccination, case-patients were more likely than controls to have had daily exposure to a sick animal (odds ratio [OR] 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–13.4), cleaned cages and bedding of a sick animal (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.4–20.7), or touched a sick animal (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.2–13.4). These findings demonstrate that human MPXV infection is associated with handling of MPXV-infected animals and suggest that exposure to excretions and secretions of infected animals can result in infection.

EID Reynolds MG, Davidson WB, Curns AT, Conover CS, Huhn G, Davis JP, et al. Spectrum of Infection and Risk Factors for Human Monkeypox, United States, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070175
AMA Reynolds MG, Davidson WB, Curns AT, et al. Spectrum of Infection and Risk Factors for Human Monkeypox, United States, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1332. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070175.
APA Reynolds, M. G., Davidson, W. B., Curns, A. T., Conover, C. S., Huhn, G., Davis, J. P....Damon, I. K. (2007). Spectrum of Infection and Risk Factors for Human Monkeypox, United States, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070175.

Effect of Interventions on Influenza A (H9N2) Isolation in Hong Kong’s Live Poultry Markets, 1999–2005 [PDF - 414 KB - 8 pages]
E. Lau et al.

Live poultry markets (LPMs) are a recognized source of influenza viruses. Since 2001 and 2003, respectively, a first and second monthly “rest-day” has been implemented in Hong Kong’s LPMs, when stalls are cleared of unsold poultry and disinfected. We assessed the incremental effectiveness of each rest-day and the banning of live quail sales in 2002 in reducing (H9N2) subtype isolation rates for chickens and minor poultry, by using a multivariable Poisson generalized linear model. There was a 58% reduction (p = 0.001) in virus isolation after 1 monthly rest-day in minor poultry compared with 27% (p = 0.22) in chickens. Combining 1 rest-day with the removal of quails further reduced virus isolation in chickens but not in minor poultry. However, an additional rest-day each month did not appear to affect isolation rates for either species.

EID Lau E, Leung Y, Zhang LJ, Cowling BJ, Mak SP, Guan Y, et al. Effect of Interventions on Influenza A (H9N2) Isolation in Hong Kong’s Live Poultry Markets, 1999–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061549
AMA Lau E, Leung Y, Zhang LJ, et al. Effect of Interventions on Influenza A (H9N2) Isolation in Hong Kong’s Live Poultry Markets, 1999–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1340. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061549.
APA Lau, E., Leung, Y., Zhang, L. J., Cowling, B. J., Mak, S. P., Guan, Y....Peiris, J. S. (2007). Effect of Interventions on Influenza A (H9N2) Isolation in Hong Kong’s Live Poultry Markets, 1999–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061549.

Detecting Human-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) [PDF - 1.49 MB - 6 pages]
Y. Yang et al.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) subtype H5N1 has caused family case clusters, mostly in Southeast Asia, that could be due to human-to-human transmission. Should this virus, or another zoonotic influenza virus, gain the ability of sustained human-to-human transmission, an influenza pandemic could result. We used statistical methods to test whether observed clusters of HPAI (H5N1) illnesses in families in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, and eastern Turkey were due to human-to-human transmission. Given that human-to-human transmission occurs, we estimate the infection secondary attack rates (SARs) and the local basic reproductive number, R0. We find statistical evidence of human-to-human transmission (p = 0.009) in Sumatra but not in Turkey (p = 0.114). For Sumatra, the estimated household SAR was 29% (95% confidence interval [CI] 15%–51%). The estimated lower limit on the local R0 was 1.14 (95% CI 0.61–2.14). Effective HPAI (H5N1) surveillance, containment response, and field evaluation are essential to monitor and contain potential pandemic strains.

EID Yang Y, Halloran M, Sugimoto JD, Longini IM. Detecting Human-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza A (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1348. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070111
AMA Yang Y, Halloran M, Sugimoto JD, et al. Detecting Human-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1348. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070111.
APA Yang, Y., Halloran, M., Sugimoto, J. D., & Longini, I. M. (2007). Detecting Human-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1348. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070111.
Dispatches

Reduced Sensitivity of Influenza A (H5N1) to Oseltamivir [PDF - 264 KB - 4 pages]
J. L. McKimm-Breschkin et al.

We tested the neuraminidase drug sensitivity of clade 1 and clade 2 influenza A virus (H5N1). All viruses demonstrated similar sensitivity to zanamivir, but compared to the 2004 clade 1 viruses, the Cambodian 2005 viruses were 6-fold less sensitive and the Indonesian clade 2 viruses were up to 30-fold less sensitive to oseltamivir.

EID McKimm-Breschkin JL, Selleck PW, Usman TB, Johnson MA. Reduced Sensitivity of Influenza A (H5N1) to Oseltamivir. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070164
AMA McKimm-Breschkin JL, Selleck PW, Usman TB, et al. Reduced Sensitivity of Influenza A (H5N1) to Oseltamivir. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1354. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070164.
APA McKimm-Breschkin, J. L., Selleck, P. W., Usman, T. B., & Johnson, M. A. (2007). Reduced Sensitivity of Influenza A (H5N1) to Oseltamivir. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1354. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070164.

New Clinicoepidemiologic Profile of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Morocco [PDF - 159 KB - 3 pages]
M. Rhajaoui et al.

During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. We describe distribution of Leishmania major and L. tropica in Morocco and a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum. We recommend using molecular techniques to diagnose suspected leishmaniasis cases.

EID Rhajaoui M, Nasereddin A, Fellah H, Azmi K, Amarir F, Al-Jawabreh A, et al. New Clinicoepidemiologic Profile of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1358. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.060946
AMA Rhajaoui M, Nasereddin A, Fellah H, et al. New Clinicoepidemiologic Profile of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1358. doi:10.3201/eid1309.060946.
APA Rhajaoui, M., Nasereddin, A., Fellah, H., Azmi, K., Amarir, F., Al-Jawabreh, A....Abdeen, Z. (2007). New Clinicoepidemiologic Profile of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1358. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.060946.

Tuberculosis in Children and Adolescents, Taiwan, 1996–2003 [PDF - 246 KB - 3 pages]
P. Chan et al.

Analysis of data from Taiwan’s National Tuberculosis (TB) Registry showed that incidence of TB in persons <20 years of age was 9.61/100,000 person-years, biphasic, and age-relevant, with a major peak in persons slightly >12 years. Aboriginal children were 8.1–17.4× more likely to have TB than non-Aboriginal children.

EID Chan P, Huang L, Wu Y, Yang H, Chang I, Lu C, et al. Tuberculosis in Children and Adolescents, Taiwan, 1996–2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061020
AMA Chan P, Huang L, Wu Y, et al. Tuberculosis in Children and Adolescents, Taiwan, 1996–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1361. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061020.
APA Chan, P., Huang, L., Wu, Y., Yang, H., Chang, I., Lu, C....Chang, L. (2007). Tuberculosis in Children and Adolescents, Taiwan, 1996–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061020.

Risk Factors for Hantavirus Infection in Germany, 2005 [PDF - 195 KB - 3 pages]
M. Abu Sin et al.

In 2005, a marked increase in hantavirus infections was observed in Germany. Large cities and areas where hantaviruses were not known to be endemic were affected. A case–control study identified the following independent risk factors for infection: occupational exposure for construction workers, living <100 m from forested areas, and exposure to mice.

EID Abu Sin M, Stark K, van Treeck U, Dieckmann H, Uphoff H, Hautmann W, et al. Risk Factors for Hantavirus Infection in Germany, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070552
AMA Abu Sin M, Stark K, van Treeck U, et al. Risk Factors for Hantavirus Infection in Germany, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1364. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070552.
APA Abu Sin, M., Stark, K., van Treeck, U., Dieckmann, H., Uphoff, H., Hautmann, W....Koch, J. (2007). Risk Factors for Hantavirus Infection in Germany, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070552.

Coronavirus Antibodies in African Bat Species [PDF - 206 KB - 4 pages]
M. A. Müller et al.

Asian bats have been identified as potential reservoir hosts of coronaviruses associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). We detected antibody reactive with SARS-CoV antigen in 47 (6.7%) of 705 bat serum specimens comprising 26 species collected in Africa; thus, African bats may harbor agents related to putative group 4 CoV.

EID Müller MA, Paweska JT, Leman PA, Park S, Grywna K, Kemp A, et al. Coronavirus Antibodies in African Bat Species. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1367. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070342
AMA Müller MA, Paweska JT, Leman PA, et al. Coronavirus Antibodies in African Bat Species. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1367. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070342.
APA Müller, M. A., Paweska, J. T., Leman, P. A., Park, S., Grywna, K., Kemp, A....Swanepoel, R. (2007). Coronavirus Antibodies in African Bat Species. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1367. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070342.

Mokola Virus in Domestic Mammals, South Africa [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
C. T. Sabeta et al.

We recently identified 2 Mokola viruses from domestic mammals (a dog and a cat) in South Africa. These cases occurred 8 years after the last reported case of infection with this virus. Our findings emphasize the endemicity of rabies-related lyssaviruses in South Africa and the need to better understand the epidemiology of Mokola viruses.

EID Sabeta CT, Markotter W, Mohale DK, Shumba W, Wandeler AI, Nel LH. Mokola Virus in Domestic Mammals, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070466
AMA Sabeta CT, Markotter W, Mohale DK, et al. Mokola Virus in Domestic Mammals, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1371. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070466.
APA Sabeta, C. T., Markotter, W., Mohale, D. K., Shumba, W., Wandeler, A. I., & Nel, L. H. (2007). Mokola Virus in Domestic Mammals, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070466.

Buruli Ulcer Surveillance, Benin, 2003–2005 [PDF - 219 KB - 3 pages]
G. E. Sopoh et al.

We reviewed Buruli ulcer (BU) surveillance in Benin, using the World Health Organization BU02 form. We report results of reliable routine data collected on 2,598 new and recurrent cases from 2003 through 2005.

EID Sopoh GE, Johnson RC, Chauty A, Dossou AD, Aguiar J, Salmon O, et al. Buruli Ulcer Surveillance, Benin, 2003–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061338
AMA Sopoh GE, Johnson RC, Chauty A, et al. Buruli Ulcer Surveillance, Benin, 2003–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1374. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061338.
APA Sopoh, G. E., Johnson, R. C., Chauty, A., Dossou, A. D., Aguiar, J., Salmon, O....Asiedu, K. (2007). Buruli Ulcer Surveillance, Benin, 2003–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061338.

Equine Rhinosporidiosis in United Kingdom [PDF - 247 KB - 3 pages]
G. Leeming et al.

We report 4 cases of equine rhinosporidiosis in the United Kingdom. These cases provide evidence of spread of infectious agents from rhinosporidiosis-endemic areas to nonendemic areas by increased international movement of livestock. Surveillance should continue for this infective agent of potential relevance for numerous species, including humans.

EID Leeming G, Smith KC, Bestbier ME, Barrelet A, Kipar A. Equine Rhinosporidiosis in United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1377. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070532
AMA Leeming G, Smith KC, Bestbier ME, et al. Equine Rhinosporidiosis in United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1377. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070532.
APA Leeming, G., Smith, K. C., Bestbier, M. E., Barrelet, A., & Kipar, A. (2007). Equine Rhinosporidiosis in United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1377. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070532.

Poultry Drinking Water Used for Avian Influenza Surveillance [PDF - 214 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Leung et al.

Samples of drinking water from poultry cages, which can be collected conveniently and noninvasively, provide higher rates of influenza (H9N2) virus isolation than do samples of fecal droppings. Studies to confirm the usefulness of poultry drinking water for detecting influenza (H5N1) should be conducted in disease-endemic areas.

EID Leung Y, Zhang L, Chow C, Tsang C, Ng C, Wong C, et al. Poultry Drinking Water Used for Avian Influenza Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1380. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070517
AMA Leung Y, Zhang L, Chow C, et al. Poultry Drinking Water Used for Avian Influenza Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1380. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070517.
APA Leung, Y., Zhang, L., Chow, C., Tsang, C., Ng, C., Wong, C....Peiris, J. M. (2007). Poultry Drinking Water Used for Avian Influenza Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1380. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070517.

Endocarditis in Cattle Caused by Bartonella bovis [PDF - 157 KB - 3 pages]
R. Maillard et al.

This study aimed to determine the role of Bartonella as an endocarditis agent in cattle. Bartonella bovis was identified by PCR, gene sequences analysis, and specific internal transcribed spacer amplicon product size in 2 bovine endocarditis cases with high antibody titers, which demonstrates that B. bovis is a pathogen for cattle.

EID Maillard R, Petit E, Chomel BB, Lacroux C, Schelcher F, Vayssier-Taussat M, et al. Endocarditis in Cattle Caused by Bartonella bovis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1383. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070236
AMA Maillard R, Petit E, Chomel BB, et al. Endocarditis in Cattle Caused by Bartonella bovis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1383. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070236.
APA Maillard, R., Petit, E., Chomel, B. B., Lacroux, C., Schelcher, F., Vayssier-Taussat, M....Boulouis, H. (2007). Endocarditis in Cattle Caused by Bartonella bovis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1383. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070236.

Parenteral Transmission of the Novel Human Parvovirus PARV4 [PDF - 244 KB - 3 pages]
P. Simmonds et al.

Transmission routes of PARV4, a newly discovered human parvovirus, were investigated by determining frequencies of persistent infections using autopsy samples from different risk groups. Predominantly parenteral routes of transmission were demonstrated by infection restricted to injection drug users and persons with hemophilia and absence of infection in homosexual men with AIDS and low-risk controls.

EID Simmonds P, Manning A, Kenneil R, Carnie FW, Bell JE. Parenteral Transmission of the Novel Human Parvovirus PARV4. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1386. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070428
AMA Simmonds P, Manning A, Kenneil R, et al. Parenteral Transmission of the Novel Human Parvovirus PARV4. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1386. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070428.
APA Simmonds, P., Manning, A., Kenneil, R., Carnie, F. W., & Bell, J. E. (2007). Parenteral Transmission of the Novel Human Parvovirus PARV4. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1386. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070428.

Norovirus and Gastroenteritis in Hospitalized Children, Italy [PDF - 202 KB - 3 pages]
C. Colomba et al.

Noroviruses were detected in 48.4% of 192 children (<3 years of age) hospitalized for gastroenteritis in Palermo, Italy, during 2004; predominant genotypes were GGIIb/Hilversum and GGII.4 Hunter. Of children with viral enteritis, 19.6% had a mixed norovirus-rotavirus infection. The severity of infection was lower for norovirus than for rotavirus but increased in co-infection.

EID Colomba C, Saporito L, Giammanco GM, De Grazia S, Ramirez S, Arista S, et al. Norovirus and Gastroenteritis in Hospitalized Children, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1389. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061408
AMA Colomba C, Saporito L, Giammanco GM, et al. Norovirus and Gastroenteritis in Hospitalized Children, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1389. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061408.
APA Colomba, C., Saporito, L., Giammanco, G. M., De Grazia, S., Ramirez, S., Arista, S....Titone, L. (2007). Norovirus and Gastroenteritis in Hospitalized Children, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1389. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061408.

Anaplasma platys in Dogs, Chile [PDF - 346 KB - 4 pages]
K. Abarca et al.

We conducted a 16S rRNA nested PCR for the genus Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia spp. with blood samples from 30 ill dogs in Chile. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by using groESL gene amplification. We identified Anaplasma platys as 1 of the etiologic agents of canine ehrlichiosis.

EID Abarca K, López J, Perret C, Guerrero J, Godoy P, Veloz A, et al. Anaplasma platys in Dogs, Chile. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1392. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070021
AMA Abarca K, López J, Perret C, et al. Anaplasma platys in Dogs, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1392. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070021.
APA Abarca, K., López, J., Perret, C., Guerrero, J., Godoy, P., Veloz, A....Azócar, T. (2007). Anaplasma platys in Dogs, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1392. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070021.

Human Metapneumovirus in Children, Singapore [PDF - 184 KB - 3 pages]
L. H. Loo et al.

Four hundred specimens were collected from pediatric patients hospitalized in Singapore; 21 of these specimens tested positive for human metapneumovirus (HMPV), with the A2 genotype predominating. A 5% infection rate was estimated, suggesting that HMPV is a significant cause of morbidity among the pediatric population of Singapore.

EID Loo LH, Tan B, Ng LM, Tee NW, Lin RT, Sugrue RJ. Human Metapneumovirus in Children, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1396. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070220
AMA Loo LH, Tan B, Ng LM, et al. Human Metapneumovirus in Children, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1396. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070220.
APA Loo, L. H., Tan, B., Ng, L. M., Tee, N. W., Lin, R. T., & Sugrue, R. J. (2007). Human Metapneumovirus in Children, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1396. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070220.

Fecal Viral Concentration and Diarrhea in Norovirus Gastroenteritis [PDF - 166 KB - 3 pages]
N. Lee et al.

Fecal viral concentrations of 40 patients infected with norovirus genogroup GII.4 correlated with diarrhea duration and frequency of vomiting. Higher viral concentration and older age were independently associated with prolonged diarrhea (>4 days). These findings provide information on the pathogenesis and transmission of norovirus infections.

EID Lee N, Chan M, Wong B, Choi K, Sin W, Lui G, et al. Fecal Viral Concentration and Diarrhea in Norovirus Gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1399. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061535
AMA Lee N, Chan M, Wong B, et al. Fecal Viral Concentration and Diarrhea in Norovirus Gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1399. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061535.
APA Lee, N., Chan, M., Wong, B., Choi, K., Sin, W., Lui, G....Leung, W. K. (2007). Fecal Viral Concentration and Diarrhea in Norovirus Gastroenteritis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1399. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061535.

Malaria Reemergence in Northern Afghanistan [PDF - 222 KB - 3 pages]
M. K. Faulde et al.

Field investigations were conducted in Kundoz Province, an Afghan high-risk area, to determine factors responsible for the rapid reemergence of malaria in that country, where 3 million cases were estimated to have occurred during 2002. Results indicate the presence of nonrice-field–dependent Plasmodium falciparum and rice-field–associated P. vivax malaria.

EID Faulde MK, Hoffmann R, Fazilat KM, Hoerauf A. Malaria Reemergence in Northern Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1402. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061325
AMA Faulde MK, Hoffmann R, Fazilat KM, et al. Malaria Reemergence in Northern Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1402. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061325.
APA Faulde, M. K., Hoffmann, R., Fazilat, K. M., & Hoerauf, A. (2007). Malaria Reemergence in Northern Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1402. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061325.

Rickettsia monacensis and Human Disease, Spain [PDF - 191 KB - 3 pages]
I. Jado et al.

We identified Rickettsia monacensis as a cause of acute tickborne rickettsiosis in 2 humans. Its pathogenic role was assessed by culture and detection of the organism in patients’ blood samples. This finding increases the number of recognized human rickettsial pathogens and expands the known geographic distribution of Mediterranean spotted fever–like cases.

EID Jado I, Oteo JA, Aldámiz M, Gil H, Escudero R, Ibarra V, et al. Rickettsia monacensis and Human Disease, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1405. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.060186
AMA Jado I, Oteo JA, Aldámiz M, et al. Rickettsia monacensis and Human Disease, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1405. doi:10.3201/eid1309.060186.
APA Jado, I., Oteo, J. A., Aldámiz, M., Gil, H., Escudero, R., Ibarra, V....Anda, P. (2007). Rickettsia monacensis and Human Disease, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1405. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.060186.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pigs with Exudative Epidermitis [PDF - 210 KB - 3 pages]
E. van Duijkeren et al.

Despite a strict control program for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in human medicine in the Netherlands, MRSA was cultured from exudative epidermitis lesions of 4 piglets on a breeding farm, 20 pigs on a supplier farm, and 2 workers on these farms. The MRSA strains were indistinguishable, suggesting direct transmission.

EID van Duijkeren E, Jansen MD, Flemming SC, de Neeling H, Wagenaar JA, Schoormans AH, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pigs with Exudative Epidermitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1408. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061268
AMA van Duijkeren E, Jansen MD, Flemming SC, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pigs with Exudative Epidermitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1408. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061268.
APA van Duijkeren, E., Jansen, M. D., Flemming, S. C., de Neeling, H., Wagenaar, J. A., Schoormans, A. H....Fluit, A. C. (2007). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pigs with Exudative Epidermitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1408. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061268.

Molecular Evidence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Israel [PDF - 192 KB - 2 pages]
A. Keysary et al.

Sequences from the Anaplasma phagocytophilum 16S rRNA gene were detected in 5 ticks representing 3 species (Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus turanicus, and Boophilus kohlsi) collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Mount Carmel, Israel. The sequences were all identical to those of Ap-variant 1 strain.

EID Keysary A, Massung RF, Inbar M, Wallach AD, Shanas U, Mumcuoglu KY, et al. Molecular Evidence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1411. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070455
AMA Keysary A, Massung RF, Inbar M, et al. Molecular Evidence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1411. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070455.
APA Keysary, A., Massung, R. F., Inbar, M., Wallach, A. D., Shanas, U., Mumcuoglu, K. Y....Waner, T. (2007). Molecular Evidence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1411. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070455.

Sympatric Occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand [PDF - 370 KB - 4 pages]
M. T. Anantaphruti et al.

We confirmed sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica in western Thailand. DNA analysis of morphologically identified T. saginata, in a dual infection with T. solium, indicated it was T. asiatica. To our knowledge, this report is the first of T. asiatica and a dual Taenia infection from Thailand.

EID Anantaphruti MT, Yamasaki H, Nakao M, Waikagul J, Watthanakulpanich D, Nuamtanong S, et al. Sympatric Occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1413. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061148
AMA Anantaphruti MT, Yamasaki H, Nakao M, et al. Sympatric Occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1413. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061148.
APA Anantaphruti, M. T., Yamasaki, H., Nakao, M., Waikagul, J., Watthanakulpanich, D., Nuamtanong, S....Ito, A. (2007). Sympatric Occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1413. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061148.

Increase in Clostridium difficile–related Mortality Rates, United States, 19992004 [PDF - 157 KB - 3 pages]
M. D. Redelings et al.

Reported mortality rates from Clostridium difficile disease in the United States increased from 5.7 per million population in 1999 to 23.7 per million in 2004. Increased rates may be due to emergence of a highly virulent strain of C. difficile. Rates were higher for whites than for other racial/ethnic groups.

EID Redelings MD, Sorvillo FJ, Mascola L. Increase in Clostridium difficile–related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1417. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061116
AMA Redelings MD, Sorvillo FJ, Mascola L. Increase in Clostridium difficile–related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1417. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061116.
APA Redelings, M. D., Sorvillo, F. J., & Mascola, L. (2007). Increase in Clostridium difficile–related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1417. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061116.

Hantavirus in Northern Short-tailed Shrew, United States [PDF - 2.31 MB - 4 pages]
S. Arai et al.

Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial medium- and large-segment sequences, support an ancient evolutionary origin of a genetically distinct hantavirus detected by reverse transcription–PCR in tissues of northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) captured in Minnesota in August 1998. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hantaviruses harbored by shrews in the Americas.

EID Arai S, Song J, Sumibcay L, Bennett SN, Nerurkar VR, Parmenter C, et al. Hantavirus in Northern Short-tailed Shrew, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070484
AMA Arai S, Song J, Sumibcay L, et al. Hantavirus in Northern Short-tailed Shrew, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1420. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070484.
APA Arai, S., Song, J., Sumibcay, L., Bennett, S. N., Nerurkar, V. R., Parmenter, C....Yanagihara, R. (2007). Hantavirus in Northern Short-tailed Shrew, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1420. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070484.
Letters

Imported Fatal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome [PDF - 100 KB - 2 pages]
S. Reynolds et al.
EID Reynolds S, Galanis E, Krajden M, Morshed M, Bowering D, Abelson W, et al. Imported Fatal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070708
AMA Reynolds S, Galanis E, Krajden M, et al. Imported Fatal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1424. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070708.
APA Reynolds, S., Galanis, E., Krajden, M., Morshed, M., Bowering, D., Abelson, W....Kollmann, T. R. (2007). Imported Fatal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070708.

Disseminated Bocavirus Infection after Stem Cell Transplant [PDF - 89 KB - 3 pages]
T. Schenk et al.
EID Schenk T, Strahm B, Kontny U, Hufnagel M, Neumann-Haefelin D, Falcone V. Disseminated Bocavirus Infection after Stem Cell Transplant. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1425. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070318
AMA Schenk T, Strahm B, Kontny U, et al. Disseminated Bocavirus Infection after Stem Cell Transplant. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1425. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070318.
APA Schenk, T., Strahm, B., Kontny, U., Hufnagel, M., Neumann-Haefelin, D., & Falcone, V. (2007). Disseminated Bocavirus Infection after Stem Cell Transplant. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1425. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070318.

Pure Red Blood Cell Aplasia and Isoniazid Use [PDF - 95 KB - 2 pages]
P. Loulergue et al.
EID Loulergue P, Mir O, Dhote R. Pure Red Blood Cell Aplasia and Isoniazid Use. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1427. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061334
AMA Loulergue P, Mir O, Dhote R. Pure Red Blood Cell Aplasia and Isoniazid Use. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1427. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061334.
APA Loulergue, P., Mir, O., & Dhote, R. (2007). Pure Red Blood Cell Aplasia and Isoniazid Use. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1427. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061334.

Failure of Isoniazid Chemoprophylaxis during Infliximab Therapy [PDF - 90 KB - 2 pages]
M. L. Guerrero et al.
EID Guerrero ML, Esteban J, Acebes C, Górgolas M. Failure of Isoniazid Chemoprophylaxis during Infliximab Therapy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1428. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070070
AMA Guerrero ML, Esteban J, Acebes C, et al. Failure of Isoniazid Chemoprophylaxis during Infliximab Therapy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1428. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070070.
APA Guerrero, M. L., Esteban, J., Acebes, C., & Górgolas, M. (2007). Failure of Isoniazid Chemoprophylaxis during Infliximab Therapy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1428. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070070.

Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, India [PDF - 97 KB - 3 pages]
R. Mondal and A. Jain
EID Mondal R, Jain A. Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1429. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070443
AMA Mondal R, Jain A. Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1429. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070443.
APA Mondal, R., & Jain, A. (2007). Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1429. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070443.

Stray Dogs and Leishmaniasis in Urban Areas, Portugal [PDF - 90 KB - 2 pages]
S. Cortes et al.
EID Cortes S, Afonso MO, Alves-Pires C, Campino L. Stray Dogs and Leishmaniasis in Urban Areas, Portugal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070101
AMA Cortes S, Afonso MO, Alves-Pires C, et al. Stray Dogs and Leishmaniasis in Urban Areas, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1431. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070101.
APA Cortes, S., Afonso, M. O., Alves-Pires, C., & Campino, L. (2007). Stray Dogs and Leishmaniasis in Urban Areas, Portugal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070101.

Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, China [PDF - 120 KB - 3 pages]
G. Tong et al.
EID Tong G, Zhou Y, Hao X, Tian Z, An T, Qiu H. Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1434. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070399
AMA Tong G, Zhou Y, Hao X, et al. Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1434. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070399.
APA Tong, G., Zhou, Y., Hao, X., Tian, Z., An, T., & Qiu, H. (2007). Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1434. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070399.

Recurrent American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis [PDF - 100 KB - 3 pages]
J. Gangneux et al.
EID Gangneux J, Sauzet S, Donnard S, Meyer N, Cornillet A, Pratlong F, et al. Recurrent American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061446
AMA Gangneux J, Sauzet S, Donnard S, et al. Recurrent American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1436. doi:10.3201/eid1309.061446.
APA Gangneux, J., Sauzet, S., Donnard, S., Meyer, N., Cornillet, A., Pratlong, F....Guiguen, C. (2007). Recurrent American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1436. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.061446.

Leprosy as Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in HIV-positive Persons [PDF - 110 KB - 3 pages]
F. Martiniuk et al.
EID Martiniuk F, Rao SD, Rea TH, Glickman MS, Giovinazzo J, Rom WN, et al. Leprosy as Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in HIV-positive Persons. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1438. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070301
AMA Martiniuk F, Rao SD, Rea TH, et al. Leprosy as Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in HIV-positive Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1438. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070301.
APA Martiniuk, F., Rao, S. D., Rea, T. H., Glickman, M. S., Giovinazzo, J., Rom, W. N....Levis, W. R. (2007). Leprosy as Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in HIV-positive Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1438. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070301.

Endocarditis after Use of Tongue Scraper [PDF - 159 KB - 2 pages]
A. M. Redmond et al.
EID Redmond AM, Meiklejohn C, Kidd TJ, Horvath R, Coulter C. Endocarditis after Use of Tongue Scraper. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1440. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070544
AMA Redmond AM, Meiklejohn C, Kidd TJ, et al. Endocarditis after Use of Tongue Scraper. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1440. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070544.
APA Redmond, A. M., Meiklejohn, C., Kidd, T. J., Horvath, R., & Coulter, C. (2007). Endocarditis after Use of Tongue Scraper. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1440. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070544.

TaqMan Assay for Swedish Chlamydia trachomatis Variant [PDF - 208 KB - 3 pages]
A. Catsburg et al.
EID Catsburg A, van Dommelen L, Smelov V, de Vries H, Savitcheva A, Domeika M, et al. TaqMan Assay for Swedish Chlamydia trachomatis Variant. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1432-1434. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070263
AMA Catsburg A, van Dommelen L, Smelov V, et al. TaqMan Assay for Swedish Chlamydia trachomatis Variant. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1432-1434. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070263.
APA Catsburg, A., van Dommelen, L., Smelov, V., de Vries, H., Savitcheva, A., Domeika, M....Morré, S. A. (2007). TaqMan Assay for Swedish Chlamydia trachomatis Variant. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1432-1434. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070263.
Another Dimension

Midnight Cave, Texas: The Experiment [PDF - 120 KB - 1 page]
A. Zolynas
EID Zolynas A. Midnight Cave, Texas: The Experiment. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1294. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.ad1309
AMA Zolynas A. Midnight Cave, Texas: The Experiment. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1294. doi:10.3201/eid1309.ad1309.
APA Zolynas, A. (2007). Midnight Cave, Texas: The Experiment. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1294. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.ad1309.
Books and Media

Physician’s Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance, 5th Edition [PDF - 81 KB - 1 page]
J. Goddard and L. Zhou
EID Goddard J, Zhou L. Physician’s Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance, 5th Edition. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1442. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070706
AMA Goddard J, Zhou L. Physician’s Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance, 5th Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1442. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070706.
APA Goddard, J., & Zhou, L. (2007). Physician’s Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance, 5th Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1442. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.070706.
About the Cover

“Nature Hath Fram’d Strange Fellows in Her Time” [PDF - 160 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. “Nature Hath Fram’d Strange Fellows in Her Time”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(9):1443-1444. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.ac1309
AMA Potter P. “Nature Hath Fram’d Strange Fellows in Her Time”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1443-1444. doi:10.3201/eid1309.ac1309.
APA Potter, P. (2007). “Nature Hath Fram’d Strange Fellows in Her Time”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(9), 1443-1444. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1309.ac1309.
Page created: July 09, 2012
Page updated: July 09, 2012
Page reviewed: July 09, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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