Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 14, Number 1—January 2008


Experimental Infection of Swans and Geese with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) of Asian Lineage

Justin D. Brown*Comments to Author , David E. Stallknecht*, and David E. Swayne†
Author affiliations: *College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA; †Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia, USA;

Main Article

Table 1

Disease, death, and pathologic data from 4 species of swans and 2 species of geese exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) by intranasal inoculation and contact with infected birds*

Species Disease rate (d to onset) Duration, d (range)† Mortality rate (d to death) Virus distribution
Black swan 5/5 (1–2) <1 (0–1) 5/5 (2–3) Blood vessels
Trumpeter swan 5/5 (2) 4 (3–5) 5/5 (4–6) Brain, skin, multiple organs‡
Whooper swan 4/4 (2–4) 3 (1–5) 4/4 (4–4) Brain, skin, multiple organs
Mute swan 5/5 (5–7) <1 (0–1) 5/5 (5–8) Brain, skin, multiple organs
Cackling goose 4/4 (3–7) 3 (1–9) 3/4 (4–8) Brain, pancreas, liver, adrenal gland
Bar-headed goose 5/5 (3–7) 4 (1–8) 2/5 (6–7) Brain

*Exposure date for each species was adjusted so that 0 d postcontact (when the contact birds were placed into the cage with the inoculated birds) was assumed to be equivalent to 0 d postinoculation.
†Average duration of detectable clinical signs.
‡Adrenal gland, pancreas, liver, lungs, heart, spleen, kidneys, air sacs, trachea, intestinal parasympathetic ganglia, and gastrointestinal tract.

Main Article