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Volume 14, Number 7—July 2008

Unique Pattern of Enzootic Primate Viruses in Gibraltar Macaques

Gregory A. Engel*, Mark Pizarro†, Eric Shaw‡, John Cortes‡, Agustin Fuentes§, Peter A. Barry¶, Nicholas Lerche¶, Richard Grant*1, Douglas Cohn#, and Lisa Jones-Engel*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *University of Washington National Primate Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA; †Gibraltar Veterinary Clinic, Gibraltar; ‡Gibraltar Ornithological and Natural History Society, Gibraltar; §University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA; ¶University of California, Davis, California, USA; #Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA;

Main Article


Seroprevalence of enzootic simian viruses in macaques, Gibraltar, 2004–2007

Category No. (%) Seroprevalence, % (no. positive/no. tested)
Male 45 (57.0) 57.8 (26/45) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
34 (43.0)
52.9 (18/34)
Age class§
Young juvenile 10 (12.7) 20.0 (2/10) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Older juvenile 31 (39.2) 38.7 (12/31) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Subadult 13 (16.5) 61.5 (8/13) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
25 (31.6)
88.0 (22/25)
Total 79 55.7 (44/79) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

*Simian foamy virus (SFV) seroprevalence for 2004 samples determined using enzyme immunoassay. Subsequent samples screened as part of the whole-virus multiplex flow cytometric assay (11).
†Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian retrovirus (SRV), Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CeHV-1), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV) seroprevalence for 2004 samples determined by using multiplex microbead assay (10); seroprevalence for subsequent samples determined by using whole-virus multiplex flow cytometric assay (11).
‡Rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) seroprevalence for the 2004 samples (n = 40) determined by ELISA according to previously published protocols (12). Subsequent samples not screened.
§Age class determinations made on the basis of dental eruption sequence and morphometrics: young juvenile, <1 y of age; older juvenile, 1–3 y; subadult, 3–5 y; adult, >5 y.

Main Article

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Main Article

1Current affiliation: SNBL USA Ltd., Everett, Washington, USA

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