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Issue Cover for Volume 14, Number 7—July 2008

Volume 14, Number 7—July 2008

[PDF - 4.51 MB - 179 pages]

Perspective

Spread of Vector-borne Diseases and Neglect of Leishmaniasis, Europe [PDF - 214 KB - 6 pages]
J. Dujardin et al.

The risk for reintroduction of some exotic vector-borne diseases in Europe has become a hot topic, while the reality of others is neglected at the public health policy level. Leishmaniasis is endemic in all southern countries of Europe, with ≈700 autochthonous human cases reported each year (3,950 if Turkey is included). Asymptomatic cases have been estimated at 30–100/1 symptomatic case, and leishmaniasis has up to 25% seroprevalence in domestic dogs. Even though leishmaniasis is essentially associated with Leishmania infantum and visceral leishmaniasis, new species, such as L. donovani and L. tropica, might colonize European sand fly vectors. Drug-resistant L. infantum strains might be exported outside Europe through dogs. Despite this possibility, no coordinated surveillance of the disease exists at the European level. In this review of leishmaniasis importance in Europe, we would like to bridge the gap between research and surveillance and control.

EID Dujardin J, Campino L, Cañavate C, Dedet J, Gradoni L, Soteriadou K, et al. Spread of Vector-borne Diseases and Neglect of Leishmaniasis, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1013-1018. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071589
AMA Dujardin J, Campino L, Cañavate C, et al. Spread of Vector-borne Diseases and Neglect of Leishmaniasis, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1013-1018. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071589.
APA Dujardin, J., Campino, L., Cañavate, C., Dedet, J., Gradoni, L., Soteriadou, K....Boelaert, M. (2008). Spread of Vector-borne Diseases and Neglect of Leishmaniasis, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1013-1018. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071589.
Synopses

Rickettsia felis as Emergent Global Threat for Humans [PDF - 183 KB - 5 pages]
C. E. Pérez-Osorio et al.

Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen belonging to transitional group rickettsiae. First described in 1990, R. felis infections have been reported to occur worldwide in fleas, mammals, and humans. Because clinical signs of the illness are similar to those of murine typhus and other febrile illnesses such as dengue, the infection in humans is likely underestimated. R. felis has been found throughout the world in several types of ectoparasites; cat fleas appear to be the most common vectors. R. felis infection should be considered an emergent threat to human health.

EID Pérez-Osorio CE, Zavala-Velázquez JE, León JJ, Zavala-Castro JE. Rickettsia felis as Emergent Global Threat for Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1019-1023. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071656
AMA Pérez-Osorio CE, Zavala-Velázquez JE, León JJ, et al. Rickettsia felis as Emergent Global Threat for Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1019-1023. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071656.
APA Pérez-Osorio, C. E., Zavala-Velázquez, J. E., León, J. J., & Zavala-Castro, J. E. (2008). Rickettsia felis as Emergent Global Threat for Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1019-1023. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071656.
Research

Household Responses to School Closure Resulting from Outbreak of Influenza B, North Carolina [PDF - 133 KB - 7 pages]
A. J. Johnson et al.

School closure is a proposed strategy for reducing influenza transmission during a pandemic. Few studies have assessed how families respond to closures, or whether other interactions during closure could reduce this strategy’s effect. Questionnaires were administered to 220 households (438 adults and 355 children) with school-age children in a North Carolina county during an influenza B virus outbreak that resulted in school closure. Closure was considered appropriate by 201 (91%) households. No adults missed work to solely provide childcare, and only 22 (10%) households required special childcare arrangements; 2 households incurred additional costs. Eighty-nine percent of children visited at least 1 public location during the closure despite county recommendations to avoid large gatherings. Although behavior and attitudes might differ during a pandemic, these results suggest short-term closure did not cause substantial hardship for parents. Pandemic planning guidance should address the potential for transmission in public areas during school closure.

EID Johnson AJ, Moore ZS, Edelson PJ, Kinnane L, Davies M, Shay DK, et al. Household Responses to School Closure Resulting from Outbreak of Influenza B, North Carolina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1024-1030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080096
AMA Johnson AJ, Moore ZS, Edelson PJ, et al. Household Responses to School Closure Resulting from Outbreak of Influenza B, North Carolina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1024-1030. doi:10.3201/eid1407.080096.
APA Johnson, A. J., Moore, Z. S., Edelson, P. J., Kinnane, L., Davies, M., Shay, D. K....Fiore, A. (2008). Household Responses to School Closure Resulting from Outbreak of Influenza B, North Carolina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1024-1030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080096.

Attributable Outcomes of Endemic Clostridium difficile–associated Disease in Nonsurgical Patients [PDF - 162 KB - 8 pages]
E. R. Dubberke et al.

Data are limited on the attributable outcomes of Clostridium difficile–associated disease (CDAD), particularly in CDAD-endemic settings. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of nonsurgical inpatients admitted for >48 hours in 2003 (N = 18,050). The adjusted hazard ratios for readmission (hazard ratio 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87–2.55) and deaths within 180 days (hazard ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.03–1.46) were significantly different among CDAD case-patients and noncase patients. In a propensity score matched-pairs analysis that used a nested subset of the cohort (N = 706), attributable length of stay attributable to CDAD was 2.8 days, attributable readmission at 180 days was 19.3%, and attributable death at 180 days was 5.7%. CDAD patients were significantly more likely than controls to be discharged to a long-term-care facility or outside hospital. Even in a nonoutbreak setting, CDAD had a statistically significant negative impact on patient illness and death, and the impact of CDAD persisted beyond hospital discharge.

EID Dubberke ER, Butler AM, Reske KA, Agniel D, Olsen MA, D’Angelo G, et al. Attributable Outcomes of Endemic Clostridium difficile–associated Disease in Nonsurgical Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1031-1038. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070867
AMA Dubberke ER, Butler AM, Reske KA, et al. Attributable Outcomes of Endemic Clostridium difficile–associated Disease in Nonsurgical Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1031-1038. doi:10.3201/eid1407.070867.
APA Dubberke, E. R., Butler, A. M., Reske, K. A., Agniel, D., Olsen, M. A., D’Angelo, G....Fraser, V. J. (2008). Attributable Outcomes of Endemic Clostridium difficile–associated Disease in Nonsurgical Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1031-1038. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070867.

Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in Humans and Food Animals [PDF - 247 KB - 7 pages]
M. A. Jhung et al.

Clostridium difficile is a recognized pathogen in neonatal pigs and may contribute to enteritis in calves. Toxinotype V strains have been rare causes of human C. difficile–associated disease (CDAD). We examined toxinotype V in human disease, the genetic relationship of animal and human toxinotype V strains, and in vitro toxin production of these strains. From 2001 through 2006, 8 (1.3%) of 620 patient isolates were identified as toxinotype V; before 2001, 7 (<0.02%) of ≈6,000 isolates were identified as toxinotype V. Six (46.2%) of 13 case-patients for whom information was available had community-associated CDAD. Molecular characterization showed a high degree of similarity between human and animal toxinotype V isolates; all contained a 39-bp tcdC deletion and most produced binary toxin. Further study is needed to understand the epidemiology of CDAD caused by toxinotype V C. difficile, including the potential of foodborne transmission to humans.

EID Jhung MA, Thompson AD, Killgore GE, Zukowski WE, Songer G, Warny M, et al. Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in Humans and Food Animals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1039-1045. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071641
AMA Jhung MA, Thompson AD, Killgore GE, et al. Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in Humans and Food Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1039-1045. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071641.
APA Jhung, M. A., Thompson, A. D., Killgore, G. E., Zukowski, W. E., Songer, G., Warny, M....Limbago, B. M. (2008). Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in Humans and Food Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1039-1045. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071641.

Medscape CME Activity
Alcaligenes xylosoxidans Bloodstream Infections in Outpatient Oncology Office [PDF - 175 KB - 7 pages]
M. J. Kim et al.

In 2002, we investigated a cluster of patients with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans bloodstream infections by conducting a matched case–control study and a prospective study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on blood culture isolates, and 1 explanted central venous catheter (CVC) was tested for biofilm. We identified 12 cases of A. xylosoxidans bloodstream infection. Case-patients were more likely than controls to have had a CVC (7/7 [100%] vs 4/47 [8.7%], respectively; p<0.0001). Ten case isolates were indistinguishable by PFGE analysis, and A. xylosoxidans biofilm from the CVC matched the outbreak strain. We observed multiple breaches in infection control, which may have caused contamination of multidose vials used to flush the CVCs. Our study links A. xylosoxidans with CVC biofilm and highlights areas for regulation and oversight in outpatient settings.

EID Kim MJ, Bancroft E, Lehnkering E, Donlan RM, Mascola L. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans Bloodstream Infections in Outpatient Oncology Office. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1046-1052. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070894
AMA Kim MJ, Bancroft E, Lehnkering E, et al. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans Bloodstream Infections in Outpatient Oncology Office. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1046-1052. doi:10.3201/eid1407.070894.
APA Kim, M. J., Bancroft, E., Lehnkering, E., Donlan, R. M., & Mascola, L. (2008). Alcaligenes xylosoxidans Bloodstream Infections in Outpatient Oncology Office. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1046-1052. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070894.

Testing for Coccidioidomycosis among Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia [PDF - 265 KB - 7 pages]
D. C. Chang et al.

Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in disease-endemic areas. Because testing rates influence interpretation of reportable-disease data and quality of CAP patient care, we determined the proportion of CAP patients who were tested for Coccidioides spp., identified testing predictors, and determined the proportion of tested patients who had positive coccidioidomycosis results. Cohort studies to determine the proportion of ambulatory CAP patients who were tested in 2 healthcare systems in metropolitan Phoenix found testing rates of 2% and 13%. A case-control study identified significant predictors of testing to be age >18 years, rash, chest pain, and symptoms for >14 days. Serologic testing confirmed coccidioidomycosis in 9 (15%) of 60 tested patients, suggesting that the proportion of CAP caused by coccidioidomycosis was substantial. However, because Coccidioides spp. testing among CAP patients was infrequent, reportable-disease data, which rely on positive diagnostic test results, greatly underestimate the true disease prevalence.

EID Chang DC, Anderson S, Wannemuehler K, Engelthaler DM, Erhart L, Sunenshine RH, et al. Testing for Coccidioidomycosis among Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1053-1059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070832
AMA Chang DC, Anderson S, Wannemuehler K, et al. Testing for Coccidioidomycosis among Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1053-1059. doi:10.3201/eid1407.070832.
APA Chang, D. C., Anderson, S., Wannemuehler, K., Engelthaler, D. M., Erhart, L., Sunenshine, R. H....Park, B. J. (2008). Testing for Coccidioidomycosis among Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1053-1059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070832.

Determinants of Cluster Size in Large, Population-Based Molecular Epidemiology Study of Tuberculosis, Northern Malawi [PDF - 301 KB - 7 pages]
J. R. Glynn et al.

Tuberculosis patients with identical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are described as clustered. Cluster size may depend on patient or strain characteristics. In a 7-year population-based study of tuberculosis in Karonga District, Malawi, clusters were defined by using IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism, excluding patterns with <5 bands. Spoligotyping was used to compare strains with an international database. Among 682 clustered patients, cluster size ranged from 2 to 37. Male patients, young adults, and town residents were over-represented in large clusters. Cluster size was not associated with HIV status or death from tuberculosis. Spoligotypes from 9 (90%) of 10 large cluster strains were identical or very similar (1 spacer different) to common spoligotypes found elsewhere, compared with 37 (66%) of 56 of those from nonclustered patients (p = 0.3). Large clusters were associated with factors likely to be related to social mixing, but spoligotypes of common strains in this setting were also common types elsewhere, consistent with strain differences in transmissibility.

EID Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Traore H, Chaguluka S, Mwafulirwa DT, Alghamdi S, et al. Determinants of Cluster Size in Large, Population-Based Molecular Epidemiology Study of Tuberculosis, Northern Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1060-1066. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.060468
AMA Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Traore H, et al. Determinants of Cluster Size in Large, Population-Based Molecular Epidemiology Study of Tuberculosis, Northern Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1060-1066. doi:10.3201/eid1407.060468.
APA Glynn, J. R., Crampin, A. C., Traore, H., Chaguluka, S., Mwafulirwa, D. T., Alghamdi, S....Fine, P. E. (2008). Determinants of Cluster Size in Large, Population-Based Molecular Epidemiology Study of Tuberculosis, Northern Malawi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1060-1066. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.060468.

Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks, Morocco [PDF - 252 KB - 7 pages]
M. Sarih et al.

A total of 370 ticks, encompassing 7 species from 4 genera, were collected during 2002–2006 from domestic animals and vegetation in the Taza region of northeastern Morocco. Rickettsial DNA was identified in 101 ticks (27%) by sequencing PCR products of fragments of the citrate synthase and outer membrane protein genes of Rickettsia spp. Seven rickettsiae of the spotted fever group were identified, including 4 pathogens: R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, R. massiliae in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus, and R. monacensis in Ixodes ricinus. Two suspected pathogens were also detected (R. raoultii in D. marginatus and R. helvetica in I. ricinus). An incompletely described Rickettsia sp. was detected in Haemaphysalis spp. ticks.

EID Sarih M, Socolovschi C, Boudebouch N, Hassar M, Raoult D, Parola P. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1067-1073. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070096
AMA Sarih M, Socolovschi C, Boudebouch N, et al. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1067-1073. doi:10.3201/eid1407.070096.
APA Sarih, M., Socolovschi, C., Boudebouch, N., Hassar, M., Raoult, D., & Parola, P. (2008). Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1067-1073. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070096.

Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus [PDF - 146 KB - 7 pages]
V. Cotté et al.

Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals. B. henselae causes cat-scratch disease and is increasingly associated with several other syndromes, particularly ocular infections and endocarditis. Cats are the main reservoir for B. henselae and the bacteria are transmitted to cats by cat fleas. However, new potential vectors are suspected of transmitting B. henselae, in particular, Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant ixodid tick that bites humans in western Europe. We used a membrane-feeding technique to infect I. ricinus with B. henselae and demonstrate transmission of B. henselae within I. ricinus across developmental stages, migration or multiplication of B. henselae in salivary glands after a second meal, and transmission of viable and infective B. henselae from ticks to blood. These results provide evidence that I. ricinus is a competent vector for B. henselae.

EID Cotté V, Bonnet S, Le Rhun D, Le Naour E, Chauvin A, Boulouis H, et al. Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus . Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1074-1080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071110
AMA Cotté V, Bonnet S, Le Rhun D, et al. Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1074-1080. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071110.
APA Cotté, V., Bonnet, S., Le Rhun, D., Le Naour, E., Chauvin, A., Boulouis, H....Vayssier-Taussat, M. (2008). Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus . Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1074-1080. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071110.

Seasonality, Annual Trends, and Characteristics of Dengue among Ill Returned Travelers, 1997–2006 [PDF - 412 KB - 8 pages]
E. Meltzer et al.

We examined seasonality and annual trends for dengue cases among 522 returned travelers reported to the international GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Dengue cases showed region-specific peaks for Southeast Asia (June, September), South Central Asia (October), South America (March), and the Caribbean (August, October). Travel-related dengue exhibited annual oscillations with several epidemics occurring during the study period. In Southeast Asia, annual proportionate morbidity increased from 50 dengue cases per 1,000 ill returned travelers in nonepidemic years to an average of 159 cases per 1,000 travelers during epidemic years. Dengue can thus be added to the list of diseases for which pretravel advice should include information on relative risk according to season. Also, dengue cases detected at atypical times in sentinel travelers may inform the international community of the onset of epidemic activity in specific areas.

EID Meltzer E, Weld LH, Wilder-Smith A, von Sonnenburg F, Keystone JS, Kain KC, et al. Seasonality, Annual Trends, and Characteristics of Dengue among Ill Returned Travelers, 1997–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1081-1088. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071412
AMA Meltzer E, Weld LH, Wilder-Smith A, et al. Seasonality, Annual Trends, and Characteristics of Dengue among Ill Returned Travelers, 1997–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1081-1088. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071412.
APA Meltzer, E., Weld, L. H., Wilder-Smith, A., von Sonnenburg, F., Keystone, J. S., Kain, K. C....Freedman, D. O. (2008). Seasonality, Annual Trends, and Characteristics of Dengue among Ill Returned Travelers, 1997–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1081-1088. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071412.

A Prospective Study of Etiology of Childhood Acute Bacterial Meningitis, Turkey [PDF - 296 KB - 8 pages]
M. Ceyhan et al.

Determination of the etiology of bacterial meningitis and estimating cost of disease are important in guiding vaccination policies. To determine the incidence and etiology of meningitis in Turkey, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were obtained prospectively from children (1 month–17 years of age) with a clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis. Multiplex PCR was used to detect DNA evidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and Neisseria meningitidis. In total, 408 CSF samples were collected, and bacterial etiology was determined in 243 cases; N. meningitidis was detected in 56.5%, S. pneumoniae in 22.5%, and Hib in 20.5% of the PCR-positive samples. Among N. meningitidis–positive CSF samples, 42.7%, 31.1%, 2.2%, and 0.7% belonged to serogroups W-135, B, Y, and A, respectively. This study highlights the emergence of serogroup W-135 disease in Turkey and concludes that vaccines to prevent meningococcal disease in this region must provide reliable protection against this serogroup.

EID Ceyhan M, Yildirim I, Balmer P, Borrow R, Dikici B, Turgut M, et al. A Prospective Study of Etiology of Childhood Acute Bacterial Meningitis, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1089-1096. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070938
AMA Ceyhan M, Yildirim I, Balmer P, et al. A Prospective Study of Etiology of Childhood Acute Bacterial Meningitis, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1089-1096. doi:10.3201/eid1407.070938.
APA Ceyhan, M., Yildirim, I., Balmer, P., Borrow, R., Dikici, B., Turgut, M....Gray, S. J. (2008). A Prospective Study of Etiology of Childhood Acute Bacterial Meningitis, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1089-1096. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070938.

Wide Distribution of a High-Virulence Borrelia burgdorferi Clone in Europe and North America [PDF - 278 KB - 8 pages]
W. Qiu et al.

The A and B clones of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, distinguished by outer surface protein C (ospC) gene sequences, are commonly associated with disseminated Lyme disease. To resolve phylogenetic relationships among isolates, we sequenced 68 isolates from Europe and North America at 1 chromosomal locus (16S–23S ribosomal RNA spacer) and 3 plasmid loci (ospC, dbpA, and BBD14). The ospC-A clone appeared to be highly prevalent on both continents, and isolates of this clone were uniform in DNA sequences, which suggests a recent trans-oceanic migration. The genetic homogeneity of ospC-A isolates was confirmed by sequences at 6 additional chromosomal housekeeping loci (gap, alr, glpA, xylB, ackA, and tgt). In contrast, the ospC-B group consists of genotypes distinct to each continent, indicating geographic isolation. We conclude that the ospC-A clone has dispersed rapidly and widely in the recent past. The spread of the ospC-A clone may have contributed, and likely continues to contribute, to the rise of Lyme disease incidence.

EID Qiu W, Bruno JF, McCaig WD, Xu Y, Livey I, Schriefer ME, et al. Wide Distribution of a High-Virulence Borrelia burgdorferi Clone in Europe and North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1097-1104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070880
AMA Qiu W, Bruno JF, McCaig WD, et al. Wide Distribution of a High-Virulence Borrelia burgdorferi Clone in Europe and North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1097-1104. doi:10.3201/eid1407.070880.
APA Qiu, W., Bruno, J. F., McCaig, W. D., Xu, Y., Livey, I., Schriefer, M. E....Luft, B. J. (2008). Wide Distribution of a High-Virulence Borrelia burgdorferi Clone in Europe and North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1097-1104. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070880.
Dispatches

AIDS Patient Death Caused by Novel Cryptococcus neoformans × C. gattii Hybrid [PDF - 256 KB - 4 pages]
M. Bovers et al.

Interspecies hybrids of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii have only recently been reported. We describe a novel C. neoformans × C. gattii hybrid strain (serotype AB) that was previously described as C. gattii and that caused a lethal infection in an AIDS patient from Canada.

EID Bovers M, Hagen F, Kuramae EE, Hoogveld HL, Dromer F, St-Germain G, et al. AIDS Patient Death Caused by Novel Cryptococcus neoformans × C. gattii Hybrid. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1105-1108. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080122
AMA Bovers M, Hagen F, Kuramae EE, et al. AIDS Patient Death Caused by Novel Cryptococcus neoformans × C. gattii Hybrid. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1105-1108. doi:10.3201/eid1407.080122.
APA Bovers, M., Hagen, F., Kuramae, E. E., Hoogveld, H. L., Dromer, F., St-Germain, G....Boekhout, T. (2008). AIDS Patient Death Caused by Novel Cryptococcus neoformans × C. gattii Hybrid. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1105-1108. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080122.

Swine Trichinella Infection and Geographic Information System Tools [PDF - 200 KB - 3 pages]
R. Burke et al.

Pastured pigs are vulnerable to Trichinella spiralis infection through exposure to wild reservoir hosts. To evaluate the potential impact of the expanding production of pork from pasture-raised pigs, we mapped locations of T. spiralis occurrence and pastured-pig farms in the United States. Twenty-eight farms were located within 50 km of previous infection.

EID Burke R, Masuoka P, Murrell KD. Swine Trichinella Infection and Geographic Information System Tools. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1109-1111. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071538
AMA Burke R, Masuoka P, Murrell KD. Swine Trichinella Infection and Geographic Information System Tools. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1109-1111. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071538.
APA Burke, R., Masuoka, P., & Murrell, K. D. (2008). Swine Trichinella Infection and Geographic Information System Tools. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1109-1111. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071538.

Unique Pattern of Enzootic Primate Viruses in Gibraltar Macaques [PDF - 310 KB - 4 pages]
G. A. Engel et al.

Because Gibraltar's macaques (Macaca sylvanus) have frequent contact with humans, we assayed 79 macaques for antibodies to enzootic primate viruses. All macaques were seronegative for herpesvirus B, simian T-cell lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus, and rhesus cytomegalovirus. Seroprevalence of simian foamy virus reached 88% among adult animals.

EID Engel GA, Pizarro M, Shaw E, Cortes J, Fuentes A, Barry PA, et al. Unique Pattern of Enzootic Primate Viruses in Gibraltar Macaques. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1112-1115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071643
AMA Engel GA, Pizarro M, Shaw E, et al. Unique Pattern of Enzootic Primate Viruses in Gibraltar Macaques. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1112-1115. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071643.
APA Engel, G. A., Pizarro, M., Shaw, E., Cortes, J., Fuentes, A., Barry, P. A....Jones-Engel, L. (2008). Unique Pattern of Enzootic Primate Viruses in Gibraltar Macaques. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1112-1115. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071643.

Pneumocystis jirovecii Transmission from Immunocompetent Carriers to Infant [PDF - 226 KB - 3 pages]
L. Rivero et al.

We report a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii transmission from colonized grandparents to their infant granddaughter. Genotyping of P. jirovecii showed the same genotypes in samples from the infant and her grandparents. These findings support P. jirovecii transmission from immunocompetent carrier adults to a susceptible child.

EID Rivero L, de la Horra C, Montes-Cano MA, Rodríguez-Herrera A, Respaldiza N, Friaza V, et al. Pneumocystis jirovecii Transmission from Immunocompetent Carriers to Infant. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1116-1118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071431
AMA Rivero L, de la Horra C, Montes-Cano MA, et al. Pneumocystis jirovecii Transmission from Immunocompetent Carriers to Infant. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1116-1118. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071431.
APA Rivero, L., de la Horra, C., Montes-Cano, M. A., Rodríguez-Herrera, A., Respaldiza, N., Friaza, V....Calderón, E. J. (2008). Pneumocystis jirovecii Transmission from Immunocompetent Carriers to Infant. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1116-1118. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071431.

Sudden Onset of Pseudotuberculosis in Humans, France, 2004–05 [PDF - 206 KB - 4 pages]
P. Vincent et al.

Cases of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection increased in France during the winter of 2004–05 in the absence of epidemiologic links between patients or strains. This increase represents transient amplification of a pathogen endemic to the area and may be related to increased prevalence of the pathogen in rodent reservoirs.

EID Vincent P, Leclercq A, Martin L, Duez J, Simonet M, Carniel E. Sudden Onset of Pseudotuberculosis in Humans, France, 2004–05. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1119-1122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071339
AMA Vincent P, Leclercq A, Martin L, et al. Sudden Onset of Pseudotuberculosis in Humans, France, 2004–05. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1119-1122. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071339.
APA Vincent, P., Leclercq, A., Martin, L., Duez, J., Simonet, M., & Carniel, E. (2008). Sudden Onset of Pseudotuberculosis in Humans, France, 2004–05. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1119-1122. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071339.

Molecular Typing of Trypanosoma cruzi Isolates, United States [PDF - 196 KB - 3 pages]
D. M. Roellig et al.

Studies have characterized Trypanosoma cruzi from parasite-endemic regions. With new human cases, increasing numbers of veterinary cases, and influx of potentially infected immigrants, understanding the ecology of this organism in the United States is imperative. We used a classic typing scheme to determine the lineage of 107 isolates from various hosts.

EID Roellig DM, Brown EL, Barnabé C, Tibayrenc M, Steurer FJ, Yabsley MJ. Molecular Typing of Trypanosoma cruzi Isolates, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1123-1125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080175
AMA Roellig DM, Brown EL, Barnabé C, et al. Molecular Typing of Trypanosoma cruzi Isolates, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1123-1125. doi:10.3201/eid1407.080175.
APA Roellig, D. M., Brown, E. L., Barnabé, C., Tibayrenc, M., Steurer, F. J., & Yabsley, M. J. (2008). Molecular Typing of Trypanosoma cruzi Isolates, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1123-1125. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080175.

Proficiency of Nucleic Acid Tests for Avian Influenza Viruses, Australasia [PDF - 145 KB - 3 pages]
S. Stelzer-Braid et al.

An avian influenza quality assurance program was used to provide information for laboratories on the sensitivity and specificity of their avian influenza nucleic acid testing. Most laboratories were able to correctly detect clinically relevant amounts of influenza virus (H5N1), and results improved as each subsequent panel was tested.

EID Stelzer-Braid S, Escott R, Baleriola C, Kirkland PD, Robertson P, Catton M, et al. Proficiency of Nucleic Acid Tests for Avian Influenza Viruses, Australasia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1126-1128. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071098
AMA Stelzer-Braid S, Escott R, Baleriola C, et al. Proficiency of Nucleic Acid Tests for Avian Influenza Viruses, Australasia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1126-1128. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071098.
APA Stelzer-Braid, S., Escott, R., Baleriola, C., Kirkland, P. D., Robertson, P., Catton, M....Rawlinson, W. D. (2008). Proficiency of Nucleic Acid Tests for Avian Influenza Viruses, Australasia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1126-1128. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071098.

New qnr Gene Cassettes Associated with Superintegron Repeats in Vibrio cholerae O1 [PDF - 225 KB - 3 pages]
É. L. Fonseca et al.

A novel qnr determinant emerged in ciprofloxacin-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon region of Brazil. This qnrVC1 was in a typical class 1 integron. Its attC showed 89% identity with V. parahaemolyticus superintegron repeats. Analysis showed V. cholerae O1 carrying qnrVC2 associated with a V. cholerae superintegron repeat.

EID Fonseca ÉL, Freitas Fd, Vieira VV, Vicente AC. New qnr Gene Cassettes Associated with Superintegron Repeats in Vibrio cholerae O1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1129-1131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080132
AMA Fonseca ÉL, Freitas Fd, Vieira VV, et al. New qnr Gene Cassettes Associated with Superintegron Repeats in Vibrio cholerae O1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1129-1131. doi:10.3201/eid1407.080132.
APA Fonseca, É. L., Freitas, F. d., Vieira, V. V., & Vicente, A. C. (2008). New qnr Gene Cassettes Associated with Superintegron Repeats in Vibrio cholerae O1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1129-1131. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080132.

Experimental Infection of Cattle with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) [PDF - 146 KB - 3 pages]
D. Kalthoff et al.

Four calves were experimentally inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/cat/Germany/R606/2006 (H5N1) isolated from a cat in 2006. All calves remained healthy, but several animals shed low amounts of virus, detected by inoculation of nasal swab fluid into embryonated chicken eggs and onto MDCK cells. All calves seroconverted.

EID Kalthoff D, Hoffmann B, Harder T, Durban M, Beer M. Experimental Infection of Cattle with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1132-1134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071468
AMA Kalthoff D, Hoffmann B, Harder T, et al. Experimental Infection of Cattle with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1132-1134. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071468.
APA Kalthoff, D., Hoffmann, B., Harder, T., Durban, M., & Beer, M. (2008). Experimental Infection of Cattle with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1132-1134. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071468.

Outbreak of Dengue and Chikungunya Fevers, Toamasina, Madagascar, 2006 [PDF - 307 KB - 3 pages]
M. Ratsitorahina et al.

An outbreak of dengue-like syndrome occurred in Toamasina from January through March 2006. Dengue type l or chikungunya viruses were detected in 38 of 55 patients sampled. Aedes albopictus was the only potential vector collected. Of 4,242 randomly selected representative residents interviewed retrospectively, 67.5% reported a dengue-like syndrome during this period.

EID Ratsitorahina M, Harisoa J, Ratovonjato J, Biacabe S, Reynes J, Zeller H, et al. Outbreak of Dengue and Chikungunya Fevers, Toamasina, Madagascar, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1135-1137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071521
AMA Ratsitorahina M, Harisoa J, Ratovonjato J, et al. Outbreak of Dengue and Chikungunya Fevers, Toamasina, Madagascar, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1135-1137. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071521.
APA Ratsitorahina, M., Harisoa, J., Ratovonjato, J., Biacabe, S., Reynes, J., Zeller, H....Soares, J. L. (2008). Outbreak of Dengue and Chikungunya Fevers, Toamasina, Madagascar, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1135-1137. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071521.

Integrating Host Genomics with Surveillance for Invasive Bacterial Diseases [PDF - 140 KB - 3 pages]
D. C. Crawford et al.

We tested the feasibility of linking Active Bacterial Core surveillance, a prospective, population-based surveillance system for invasive bacterial disease, to a newborn dried blood spot (nDBS) repository. Using nDBS specimens, we resequenced CD46, putative host gene receptor for Neisseria meningitidis, and identified variants associated with susceptibility to this disease.

EID Crawford DC, Zimmer SM, Morin CA, Messonnier NE, Lynfield R, Yi Q, et al. Integrating Host Genomics with Surveillance for Invasive Bacterial Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1138-1140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071287
AMA Crawford DC, Zimmer SM, Morin CA, et al. Integrating Host Genomics with Surveillance for Invasive Bacterial Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1138-1140. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071287.
APA Crawford, D. C., Zimmer, S. M., Morin, C. A., Messonnier, N. E., Lynfield, R., Yi, Q....Lingappa, J. (2008). Integrating Host Genomics with Surveillance for Invasive Bacterial Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1138-1140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071287.

Invasive Amebiasis in Men Who Have Sex with Men, Australia [PDF - 246 KB - 3 pages]
D. Stark et al.

Entamoeba histolytica is a pathogenic ameba that has recently been recognized as an emerging pathogen in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia-Pacific countries where it is not endemic, i.e., Japan, Taiwan, and Republic of Korea. We report locally acquired invasive amebiasis in Sydney, Australia, exclusively in MSM.

EID Stark D, van Hal SJ, Matthews G, Harkness J, Marriott D. Invasive Amebiasis in Men Who Have Sex with Men, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1141-1143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080017
AMA Stark D, van Hal SJ, Matthews G, et al. Invasive Amebiasis in Men Who Have Sex with Men, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1141-1143. doi:10.3201/eid1407.080017.
APA Stark, D., van Hal, S. J., Matthews, G., Harkness, J., & Marriott, D. (2008). Invasive Amebiasis in Men Who Have Sex with Men, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1141-1143. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080017.

Persistence of Diphtheria, Hyderabad, India, 2003–2006 [PDF - 138 KB - 3 pages]
S. Bitragunta et al.

During 2003–2006, diphtheria rates in Hyderabad, India, were higher among persons 5–19 years of age, women, and Muslims than among other groups. Vaccine was efficacious among those who received >4 doses. The proportion of the population receiving boosters was low, especially among Muslims. We recommend increasing booster dose coverage.

EID Bitragunta S, Murhekar MV, Hutin YJ, Penumur PP, Gupte MD. Persistence of Diphtheria, Hyderabad, India, 2003–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1144-1146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071167
AMA Bitragunta S, Murhekar MV, Hutin YJ, et al. Persistence of Diphtheria, Hyderabad, India, 2003–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1144-1146. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071167.
APA Bitragunta, S., Murhekar, M. V., Hutin, Y. J., Penumur, P. P., & Gupte, M. D. (2008). Persistence of Diphtheria, Hyderabad, India, 2003–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1144-1146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071167.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Small Mammal Hosts of Ixodes Ticks, Western United States [PDF - 207 KB - 4 pages]
J. E. Foley et al.

A total of 2,121 small mammals in California were assessed for Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. Odds ratios were >1 for 4 sciurids species and dusky-footed woodrats. High seroprevalence was observed in northern sites. Ten tick species were identified. Heavily infested rodent species included meadow voles, woodrats, deer mice, and redwood chipmunks.

EID Foley JE, Nieto NC, Adjemian J, Dabritz H, Brown RN. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Small Mammal Hosts of Ixodes Ticks, Western United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1147-1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071599
AMA Foley JE, Nieto NC, Adjemian J, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Small Mammal Hosts of Ixodes Ticks, Western United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1147-1150. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071599.
APA Foley, J. E., Nieto, N. C., Adjemian, J., Dabritz, H., & Brown, R. N. (2008). Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Small Mammal Hosts of Ixodes Ticks, Western United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1147-1150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071599.

Risk for Avian Influenza Virus Exposure at Human–Wildlife Interface [PDF - 200 KB - 3 pages]
J. Siembieda et al.

To assess risk for human exposure to avian influenza viruses (AIV), we sampled California wild birds and marine mammals during October 2005–August 2007and estimated human–wildlife contact. Waterfowl hunters were 8 times more likely to have contact with AIV-infected wildlife than were persons with casual or occupational exposures (p<0.0001).

EID Siembieda J, Johnson CK, Boyce WM, Sandrock C, Cardona C. Risk for Avian Influenza Virus Exposure at Human–Wildlife Interface. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1151-1153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080066
AMA Siembieda J, Johnson CK, Boyce WM, et al. Risk for Avian Influenza Virus Exposure at Human–Wildlife Interface. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1151-1153. doi:10.3201/eid1407.080066.
APA Siembieda, J., Johnson, C. K., Boyce, W. M., Sandrock, C., & Cardona, C. (2008). Risk for Avian Influenza Virus Exposure at Human–Wildlife Interface. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1151-1153. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080066.

Optimizing Use of Multistream Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Data [PDF - 349 KB - 4 pages]
E. Lau et al.

We applied time-series methods to multivariate sentinel surveillance data recorded in Hong Kong during 1998–2007. Our study demonstrates that simultaneous monitoring of multiple streams of influenza surveillance data can improve the accuracy and timeliness of alerts compared with monitoring of aggregate data or of any single stream alone.

EID Lau E, Cowling BJ, Ho L, Leung GM. Optimizing Use of Multistream Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Data. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1154-1157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080060
AMA Lau E, Cowling BJ, Ho L, et al. Optimizing Use of Multistream Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Data. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1154-1157. doi:10.3201/eid1407.080060.
APA Lau, E., Cowling, B. J., Ho, L., & Leung, G. M. (2008). Optimizing Use of Multistream Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Data. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1154-1157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080060.
Letters

Mycobacterium bohemicum and Cervical Lymphadenitis in Children [PDF - 122 KB - 2 pages]
J. Huber et al.
EID Huber J, Richter E, Binder L, Maa M, Eberl R, Zenz W. Mycobacterium bohemicum and Cervical Lymphadenitis in Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1158-1159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080142
AMA Huber J, Richter E, Binder L, et al. Mycobacterium bohemicum and Cervical Lymphadenitis in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1158-1159. doi:10.3201/eid1407.080142.
APA Huber, J., Richter, E., Binder, L., Maa, M., Eberl, R., & Zenz, W. (2008). Mycobacterium bohemicum and Cervical Lymphadenitis in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1158-1159. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080142.

Pertussis Surveillance in Private Pediatric Practices, France, 2002–2006 [PDF - 126 KB - 3 pages]
N. Guiso et al.
EID Guiso N, de La Rocque F, Njamkepo E, Lécuyer A, Levy C, Romain O, et al. Pertussis Surveillance in Private Pediatric Practices, France, 2002–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1159-1161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071246
AMA Guiso N, de La Rocque F, Njamkepo E, et al. Pertussis Surveillance in Private Pediatric Practices, France, 2002–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1159-1161. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071246.
APA Guiso, N., de La Rocque, F., Njamkepo, E., Lécuyer, A., Levy, C., Romain, O....Cohen, R. (2008). Pertussis Surveillance in Private Pediatric Practices, France, 2002–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1159-1161. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071246.

Avian Mycoplasma lipofaciens Transmission to Veterinarian [PDF - 137 KB - 3 pages]
M. Lierz et al.
EID Lierz M, Jansen A, Hafez HM. Avian Mycoplasma lipofaciens Transmission to Veterinarian. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1161-1163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071703
AMA Lierz M, Jansen A, Hafez HM. Avian Mycoplasma lipofaciens Transmission to Veterinarian. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1161-1163. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071703.
APA Lierz, M., Jansen, A., & Hafez, H. M. (2008). Avian Mycoplasma lipofaciens Transmission to Veterinarian. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1161-1163. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071703.

Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Capnophilic Escherichia coli [PDF - 136 KB - 2 pages]
D. Tena et al.
EID Tena D, González-Praetorius A, Sáez-Nieto J, Valdezate S, Bisquert J. Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Capnophilic Escherichia coli. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1163-1164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071053
AMA Tena D, González-Praetorius A, Sáez-Nieto J, et al. Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Capnophilic Escherichia coli. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1163-1164. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071053.
APA Tena, D., González-Praetorius, A., Sáez-Nieto, J., Valdezate, S., & Bisquert, J. (2008). Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Capnophilic Escherichia coli. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1163-1164. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071053.

Duck Migration and Past Influenza A (H5N1) Outbreak Areas [PDF - 128 KB - 3 pages]
N. Gaidet et al.
EID Gaidet N, Newman SH, Hagemeijer W, Dodman T, Cappelle J, Hammoumi S, et al. Duck Migration and Past Influenza A (H5N1) Outbreak Areas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1164-1166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071477
AMA Gaidet N, Newman SH, Hagemeijer W, et al. Duck Migration and Past Influenza A (H5N1) Outbreak Areas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1164-1166. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071477.
APA Gaidet, N., Newman, S. H., Hagemeijer, W., Dodman, T., Cappelle, J., Hammoumi, S....Takekawa, J. Y. (2008). Duck Migration and Past Influenza A (H5N1) Outbreak Areas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1164-1166. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071477.

Dihydrofolate Reductase I164L Mutation in Plasmodium falciparum, Madagascar [PDF - 122 KB - 3 pages]
D. Ménard et al.
EID Ménard D, Andriantsoanirina V, Jahevitra M, Barnadas C, Tichit M, Bouchier C, et al. Dihydrofolate Reductase I164L Mutation in Plasmodium falciparum, Madagascar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1166-1167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071498
AMA Ménard D, Andriantsoanirina V, Jahevitra M, et al. Dihydrofolate Reductase I164L Mutation in Plasmodium falciparum, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1166-1167. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071498.
APA Ménard, D., Andriantsoanirina, V., Jahevitra, M., Barnadas, C., Tichit, M., Bouchier, C....Sibley, C. H. (2008). Dihydrofolate Reductase I164L Mutation in Plasmodium falciparum, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1166-1167. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071498.

Bartonella quintana and Coxiella burnetii as Causes of Endocarditis, India [PDF - 106 KB - 2 pages]
N. Balakrishnan et al.
EID Balakrishnan N, Menon T, Fournier P, Raoult D. Bartonella quintana and Coxiella burnetii as Causes of Endocarditis, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1168-1169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071374
AMA Balakrishnan N, Menon T, Fournier P, et al. Bartonella quintana and Coxiella burnetii as Causes of Endocarditis, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1168-1169. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071374.
APA Balakrishnan, N., Menon, T., Fournier, P., & Raoult, D. (2008). Bartonella quintana and Coxiella burnetii as Causes of Endocarditis, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1168-1169. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071374.

Acute Gastroenteritis Caused by GI/2 Sapovirus, Taiwan, 2007 [PDF - 195 KB - 3 pages]
F. Wu et al.
EID Wu F, Oka T, Takeda N, Kimura H, Hansman GS, Muo C, et al. Acute Gastroenteritis Caused by GI/2 Sapovirus, Taiwan, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1169-1171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071531
AMA Wu F, Oka T, Takeda N, et al. Acute Gastroenteritis Caused by GI/2 Sapovirus, Taiwan, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1169-1171. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071531.
APA Wu, F., Oka, T., Takeda, N., Kimura, H., Hansman, G. S., Muo, C....Yang, C. (2008). Acute Gastroenteritis Caused by GI/2 Sapovirus, Taiwan, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1169-1171. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071531.

Importation of West Nile Virus Infection from Nicaragua to Spain [PDF - 118 KB - 3 pages]
B. M. Maillo et al.
EID Maillo BM, López-Vélez R, Norman FF, de Ory F, Sanchez-Seco MP, Fedele CG. Importation of West Nile Virus Infection from Nicaragua to Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1171-1173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071496
AMA Maillo BM, López-Vélez R, Norman FF, et al. Importation of West Nile Virus Infection from Nicaragua to Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1171-1173. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071496.
APA Maillo, B. M., López-Vélez, R., Norman, F. F., de Ory, F., Sanchez-Seco, M. P., & Fedele, C. G. (2008). Importation of West Nile Virus Infection from Nicaragua to Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1171-1173. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071496.

Outbreak of Pertussis, Kabul, Afghanistan [PDF - 132 KB - 3 pages]
E. Sagui et al.
EID Sagui E, Ollivier L, Gaillard T, Simon F, Brisou P, Puech P, et al. Outbreak of Pertussis, Kabul, Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1173-1175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071329
AMA Sagui E, Ollivier L, Gaillard T, et al. Outbreak of Pertussis, Kabul, Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1173-1175. doi:10.3201/eid1407.071329.
APA Sagui, E., Ollivier, L., Gaillard, T., Simon, F., Brisou, P., Puech, P....Todesco, A. (2008). Outbreak of Pertussis, Kabul, Afghanistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1173-1175. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.071329.

Anthropogenic Influence on Prevalence of 2 Amphibian Pathogens [PDF - 107 KB - 2 pages]
V. St-Amour et al.
EID St-Amour V, Wong WM, Garner TW, Lesbarrères D. Anthropogenic Influence on Prevalence of 2 Amphibian Pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1175-1176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070602
AMA St-Amour V, Wong WM, Garner TW, et al. Anthropogenic Influence on Prevalence of 2 Amphibian Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1175-1176. doi:10.3201/eid1407.070602.
APA St-Amour, V., Wong, W. M., Garner, T. W., & Lesbarrères, D. (2008). Anthropogenic Influence on Prevalence of 2 Amphibian Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1175-1176. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070602.

Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Mortality Surveillance [PDF - 112 KB - 3 pages]
N. Komar and B. Olsen
EID Komar N, Olsen B. Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Mortality Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1176-1178. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080161
AMA Komar N, Olsen B. Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Mortality Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1176-1178. doi:10.3201/eid1407.080161.
APA Komar, N., & Olsen, B. (2008). Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Mortality Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1176-1178. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080161.

Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase–2, Buenos Aires, Argentina [PDF - 167 KB - 3 pages]
F. G. Pasteran et al.
EID Pasteran FG, Otaegui L, Guerriero L, Radice G, Maggiora R, Rapoport M, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase–2, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1178-1180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070826
AMA Pasteran FG, Otaegui L, Guerriero L, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase–2, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1178-1180. doi:10.3201/eid1407.070826.
APA Pasteran, F. G., Otaegui, L., Guerriero, L., Radice, G., Maggiora, R., Rapoport, M....Galas, M. (2008). Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase–2, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1178-1180. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.070826.
Another Dimension

Husband [PDF - 112 KB - 1 page]
C. S. Watson
EID Watson CS. Husband. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080568
AMA Watson CS. Husband. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1182. doi:10.3201/eid1407.080568.
APA Watson, C. S. (2008). Husband. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1182. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080568.
Books and Media

Foodborne Diseases [PDF - 116 KB - 1 page]
Y. R. Ortega
EID Ortega YR. Foodborne Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1181. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080346
AMA Ortega YR. Foodborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1181. doi:10.3201/eid1407.080346.
APA Ortega, Y. R. (2008). Foodborne Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1181. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.080346.
About the Cover

“Much Madness is Divinest Sense” [PDF - 194 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. “Much Madness is Divinest Sense”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1183-1184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.ac1407
AMA Potter P. “Much Madness is Divinest Sense”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1183-1184. doi:10.3201/eid1407.ac1407.
APA Potter, P. (2008). “Much Madness is Divinest Sense”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1183-1184. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.ac1407.
Etymologia

Sapovirus [PDF - 88 KB - 1 page]
EID Sapovirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1045. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.e11407
AMA Sapovirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1045. doi:10.3201/eid1407.e11407.
APA (2008). Sapovirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(7), 1045. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1407.e11407.
Online Reports

Toward a Unified Nomenclature System for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1)

Management of Accidental Laboratory Exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei
S. J. Peacock et al.
Page created: February 21, 2012
Page updated: February 21, 2012
Page reviewed: February 21, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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