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Volume 15, Number 10—October 2009


Ducks as Sentinels for Avian Influenza in Wild Birds

Anja GlobigComments to Author , Anette Baumer, Sandra Revilla-Fernández, Martin Beer, Eveline Wodak, Maria Fink, Norbert Greber, Timm C. Harder, Hendrik Wilking, Iris Brunhart, Doris Matthes, Ulf Kraatz, Peter Strunk, Wolfgang Fiedler, Sasan R. Fereidouni, Christoph Staubach, Franz J. Conraths, Chris Griot, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, and Katharina D.C. Stärk
Author affiliations: Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany (A. Globig, M. Beer, T.C. Harder, H. Wilking, U. Kraatz, P. Strunk, S.R. Fereidouni, C. Staubach, F.J. Conraths, T.C. Mettenleiter); Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis, Mittelhäusern, Switzerland (A. Baumer, C. Griot); Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, Mödling, Austria (S. Revilla-Fernández, E. Wodak, M. Fink); State of Vorarlberg Veterinary Directorate, Vorarlberg, Austria (N. Greber); Bird Ringing Centre, Radolfzell, Germany (D. Matthes, W. Fiedler); Federal Veterinary Office, Bern, Switzerland (I. Brunhart); Royal Veterinary College, London, UK (K.D.C. Stärk)

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Table 2

Frequency of sentinel duck sampling and frequency of AIV detection at 5 locations in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria*

Sentinel location Investigation period No. samplings of sentinel flock† No. AIV detections AIV subtypes
Radolfzell, Germany 2006 Oct–2008 Sep 53 11 H6N8, H2N5, H3N2, H3N8
Altenrhein, Switzerland 2007 Oct–2008 Sep 24 7 H2N2, H9N2, HxN2
Bregenz-Thal, Austria 2007 Feb–2008 Sep 44 9 H9N2, H3Nx, H1N1, H1Nx, LP H7Nx
Brandenburg, Germany 2006 Oct–2008 May 41 20 H1?, LP H5Nx, H6N2, H6N5, H9Nx, H11?
Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania, Germany 2006 Oct– 2008 Jun 40 6 H4N6, LP H7N3

*Radolfzell, Altenrhein, and Bregenz-Thal are located along Lake Constance. AIV, avian influenza virus; LP, low pathogenicity.
†Each flock consisted of 10–20 birds.

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