Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 15, Number 10—October 2009

Volume 15, Number 10—October 2009   PDF Version [PDF - 7.03 MB - 171 pages]

Research

  • A Model-based Assessment of Oseltamivir Prophylaxis Strategies to Prevent Influenza in Nursing Homes PDF Version [PDF - 672 KB - 9 pages]
    C. van den Dool et al.
        View Abstract

    Prophylaxis with neuraminidase inhibitors is important for controlling seasonal influenza outbreaks in long-term care settings. We used a stochastic individual-based model that simulates influenza virus transmission in a long-term care nursing home department to study the protection offered to patients by different strategies of prophylaxis with oseltamivir and determined the effect of emerging resistance. Without resistance, postexposure and continuous prophylaxis reduced the patient infection attack rate from 0.19 to 0.13 (relative risk [RR] 0.67) and 0.05 (RR 0.23), respectively. Postexposure prophylaxis prevented more infections per dose (118 and 323 daily doses needed to prevent 1 infection, respectively) and required fewer doses per season than continuous prophylaxis. If resistance to oseltamivir was increased, both prophylaxis strategies became less efficacious and efficient, but postexposure prophylaxis posed a lower selection pressure for resistant virus strains. Extension of prophylaxis to healthcare workers offered little additional protection to patients.

        Cite This Article
    EID van den Dool C, Hak E, Bonten MJ, Wallinga J. A Model-based Assessment of Oseltamivir Prophylaxis Strategies to Prevent Influenza in Nursing Homes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1547-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081129
    AMA van den Dool C, Hak E, Bonten MJ, et al. A Model-based Assessment of Oseltamivir Prophylaxis Strategies to Prevent Influenza in Nursing Homes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1547-1555. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081129.
    APA van den Dool, C., Hak, E., Bonten, M. J., & Wallinga, J. (2009). A Model-based Assessment of Oseltamivir Prophylaxis Strategies to Prevent Influenza in Nursing Homes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1547-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081129.
        Email Email this Article
  • Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy PDF Version [PDF - 425 KB - 6 pages]
    K. L. Winthrop et al.
        View Abstract

    Patients receiving anti–tumor necrosis factor-α (anti–TNF-α) therapy are at increased risk for tuberculosis and other granulomatous diseases, but little is known about illness caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in this setting. We reviewed the US Food and Drug Administration MedWatch database for reports of NTM disease in patients receiving anti–TNF-α therapy. Of 239 reports collected, 105 (44%) met NTM disease criteria. Median age was 62 years; the majority of patients (66, 65%) were female, and most (73, 70%) had rheumatoid arthritis. NTM infections were associated with infliximab (n = 73), etanercept (n = 25), and adalimumab (n = 7); most patients were taking prednisone (n = 68, 65%) or methotrexate (n = 58, 55%) concurrently. Mycobacteria avium (n = 52, 50%) was most commonly implicated, and 9 patients (9%) had died at the time their infections were reported. A high rate of extrapulmonary manifestations (n = 46, 44%) was also reported.

        Cite This Article
    EID Winthrop KL, Chang E, Yamashita S, Iademarco MF, LoBue PA. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1556-1561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090310
    AMA Winthrop KL, Chang E, Yamashita S, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1556-1561. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090310.
    APA Winthrop, K. L., Chang, E., Yamashita, S., Iademarco, M. F., & LoBue, P. A. (2009). Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1556-1561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090310.
        Email Email this Article
  • Nontuberculous Mycobacteria–associated Lung Disease in Hospitalized Persons, United States, 1998–2005 PDF Version [PDF - 690 KB - 8 pages]
    M. E. Billinger et al.
        View Abstract

    The prevalence and trends of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)–associated hospitalizations in the United States were estimated using national hospital discharge data. Records were extracted for all persons with a pulmonary NTM International Classification of Diseases code (031.0) hospitalized in the 11 states with continuous data available from 1998 through 2005. Prevalence was calculated using US census data. Pulmonary NTM hospitalizations (031.0) increased significantly with age among both sexes: relative prevalence for persons 70–79 years of age compared with those 40–49 years of age was 15/100,000 for women (9.4 vs. 0.6) and 9/100,000 for men (7.6 vs. 0.83). Annual prevalence increased significantly among men and women in Florida (3.2%/year and 6.5%/year, respectively) and among women in New York (4.6%/year) with no significant changes in California. The prevalence of pulmonary NTM–associated hospitalizations is increasing in selected geographic areas of the United States.

        Cite This Article
    EID Billinger ME, Olivier KN, Viboud C, Montes de Oca R, Steiner CA, Holland SM, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria–associated Lung Disease in Hospitalized Persons, United States, 1998–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1562-1569. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090196
    AMA Billinger ME, Olivier KN, Viboud C, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria–associated Lung Disease in Hospitalized Persons, United States, 1998–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1562-1569. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090196.
    APA Billinger, M. E., Olivier, K. N., Viboud, C., Montes de Oca, R., Steiner, C. A., Holland, S. M....Prevots, D. (2009). Nontuberculous Mycobacteria–associated Lung Disease in Hospitalized Persons, United States, 1998–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1562-1569. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090196.
        Email Email this Article
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotype and Case Notification Rates, Rural Vietnam, 2003–2006 PDF Version [PDF - 742 KB - 8 pages]
    T. N. Buu et al.
        View Abstract

    Tuberculosis case notification rates (CNRs) for young adults in Vietnam are increasing. To determine whether this finding could reflect emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype, we studied all new sputum smear–positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients registered for treatment in 3 rural districts in Vietnam during 2003–2006. Beijing strain infections were more frequent in younger patients (15–24 years of age, 53%) than in older patients (31%; p<0.001). The increase in CNRs for youngest patients was larger for disease caused by the Beijing genotype than by other genotypes, but the difference was not significant. For patients 15–24 years of age, 85% of fluctuations in CNRs between years was caused by fluctuations in Beijing genotype infections compared with 53% and 23% in the groups 25–64 and >65 years of age, respectively (p<0.001). These findings suggest that young adults may be responsible for introducing Beijing strains into rural Vietnam.

        Cite This Article
    EID Buu TN, Huyen MN, Lan NN, Quy HT, Hen NV, Zignol M, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotype and Case Notification Rates, Rural Vietnam, 2003–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1570-1577. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090170
    AMA Buu TN, Huyen MN, Lan NN, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotype and Case Notification Rates, Rural Vietnam, 2003–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1570-1577. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090170.
    APA Buu, T. N., Huyen, M. N., Lan, N. N., Quy, H. T., Hen, N. V., Zignol, M....Cobelens, F. G. (2009). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotype and Case Notification Rates, Rural Vietnam, 2003–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1570-1577. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090170.
        Email Email this Article
  • Lack of Airborne Transmission during Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Tour Group Members, China, June 2009 PDF Version [PDF - 471 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Han et al.
        View Abstract

    During June 2–8, 2009, an outbreak of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 occurred among 31 members of a tour group in China. To identify the mode of transmission and risk factors, we conducted a retrospective cohort investigation. The index case-patient was a female tourist from the United States. Secondary cases developed in 9 (30%) tour group members who had talked with the index case-patient and in 1 airline passenger (not a tour group member) who had sat within 2 rows of her. None of the 14 tour group members who had not talked with the index case-patient became ill. This outbreak was apparently caused by droplet transmission during coughing or talking. That airborne transmission was not a factor is supported by lack of secondary cases among fellow bus and air travelers. Our findings highlight the need to prevent transmission by droplets and fomites during a pandemic.

        Cite This Article
    EID Han K, Zhu X, He F, Liu L, Zhang L, Ma H, et al. Lack of Airborne Transmission during Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Tour Group Members, China, June 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1578-1581. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.091013
    AMA Han K, Zhu X, He F, et al. Lack of Airborne Transmission during Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Tour Group Members, China, June 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1578-1581. doi:10.3201/eid1510.091013.
    APA Han, K., Zhu, X., He, F., Liu, L., Zhang, L., Ma, H....Zhu, B. (2009). Lack of Airborne Transmission during Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Tour Group Members, China, June 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1578-1581. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.091013.
        Email Email this Article
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA PDF Version [PDF - 660 KB - 8 pages]
    P. Van De Griend et al.
    View Summary

    The proportion of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections caused by USA300 increased in 2006.

        View Abstract

    We performed antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing and molecular typing on invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates (n = 1,666) submitted to the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory during 1999–2006 as part of a statewide surveillance system. All USA300 and USA400 isolates were resistant to <3 non–β-lactam antimicrobial drug classes. The proportion of MRSA isolates from invasive infections that were either USA300 or USA400 increased significantly from 1999–2005 through 2006 (p<0.0001). During 2006, the incidence of invasive community-associated (CA)–MRSA infections was highest in the summer (p = 0.0004). Age <69 years was associated with an increased risk for invasive CA-MRSA infection (odds ratio [OR] 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.06–12.64), and hospital exposure was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.51).

        Cite This Article
    EID Van De Griend P, Herwaldt LA, Alvis B, DeMartino M, Heilmann K, Doern G, et al. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1582-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.080877
    AMA Van De Griend P, Herwaldt LA, Alvis B, et al. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1582-1589. doi:10.3201/eid1510.080877.
    APA Van De Griend, P., Herwaldt, L. A., Alvis, B., DeMartino, M., Heilmann, K., Doern, G....Diekema, D. (2009). Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1582-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.080877.
        Email Email this Article
  • Healthcare Worker Occupation and Immune Response to Pneumocystis jirovecii PDF Version [PDF - 516 KB - 8 pages]
    R. Tipirneni et al.
        View Abstract

    The reservoir and mode of transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii remain uncertain. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 126 San Francisco General Hospital staff in clinical (n = 103) and nonclinical (n = 23) occupations to assess whether occupational exposure was associated with immune responses to P. jirovecii. We examined antibody levels by ELISA for 3 overlapping fragments that span the P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg): MsgA, MsgB, and MsgC1. Clinical occupation participants had higher geometric mean antibody levels to MsgC1 than did nonclinical occupation participants (21.1 vs. 8.2, p = 0.004); clinical occupation was an independent predictor of higher MsgC1 antibody levels (parameter estimate = 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.29–1.48, p = 0.003). In contrast, occupation was not significantly associated with antibody responses to either MsgA or MsgB. Healthcare workers may have occupational exposure to P. jirovecii. Humans may be a reservoir for P. jirovecii and may transmit it from person to person.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tipirneni R, Daly KR, Jarlsberg LG, Koch JV, Swartzman A, Roth BM, et al. Healthcare Worker Occupation and Immune Response to Pneumocystis jirovecii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1590-1597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090207
    AMA Tipirneni R, Daly KR, Jarlsberg LG, et al. Healthcare Worker Occupation and Immune Response to Pneumocystis jirovecii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1590-1597. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090207.
    APA Tipirneni, R., Daly, K. R., Jarlsberg, L. G., Koch, J. V., Swartzman, A., Roth, B. M....Huang, L. (2009). Healthcare Worker Occupation and Immune Response to Pneumocystis jirovecii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1590-1597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090207.
        Email Email this Article
  • Nosocomial Outbreak of Novel Arenavirus Infection, Southern Africa PDF Version [PDF - 607 KB - 5 pages]
    J. T. Paweska et al.
        View Abstract

    A nosocomial outbreak of disease involving 5 patients, 4 of whom died, occurred in South Africa during September–October 2008. The first patient had been transferred from Zambia to South Africa for medical management. Three cases involved secondary spread of infection from the first patient, and 1 was a tertiary infection. A novel arenavirus was identified. The source of the first patient’s infection remains undetermined.

        Cite This Article
    EID Paweska JT, Sewlall NH, Ksiazek TG, Blumberg LH, Hale MJ, Lipkin W, et al. Nosocomial Outbreak of Novel Arenavirus Infection, Southern Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1598-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090211
    AMA Paweska JT, Sewlall NH, Ksiazek TG, et al. Nosocomial Outbreak of Novel Arenavirus Infection, Southern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1598-1602. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090211.
    APA Paweska, J. T., Sewlall, N. H., Ksiazek, T. G., Blumberg, L. H., Hale, M. J., Lipkin, W....Teams, I. (2009). Nosocomial Outbreak of Novel Arenavirus Infection, Southern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1598-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090211.
        Email Email this Article
  • Review of an Influenza Surveillance System, Beijing, People’s Republic of China PDF Version [PDF - 548 KB - 7 pages]
    P. Yang et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2007, a surveillance system for influenza-like illness (ILI) and virologic data was established in Beijing, China. The system tracked ILI and laboratory-confirmed influenza in 153 general hospitals from September 1, 2007, through April 30, 2008. To analyze the ILI surveillance data (weekly ILI rates and counts) and the effectiveness of the system, we used the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Early Aberration Reporting System. The data indicated that the highest rate of influenza isolation and the highest ILI count occurred in the first week of 2008. The system enabled us to detect the onset and peak of an epidemic.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yang P, Duan W, Lv M, Shi W, Peng X, Wang X, et al. Review of an Influenza Surveillance System, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1603-1608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081040
    AMA Yang P, Duan W, Lv M, et al. Review of an Influenza Surveillance System, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1603-1608. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081040.
    APA Yang, P., Duan, W., Lv, M., Shi, W., Peng, X., Wang, X....Wang, Q. (2009). Review of an Influenza Surveillance System, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1603-1608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081040.
        Email Email this Article
  • Discriminatory Ability of Hypervariable Variable Number Tandem Repeat Loci in Population-based Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, London, UK PDF Version [PDF - 537 KB - 8 pages]
    P. Velji et al.
        View Abstract

    To address conflicting results about the stability of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci and their value in prospective molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we conducted a large prospective population-based analysis of all M. tuberculosis strains in a metropolitan setting. Optimal and reproducible conditions for reliable PCR and fragment analysis, comprising enzymes, denaturing conditions, and capillary temperature, were identified for a panel of hypervariable loci, including 3232, 2163a, 1982, and 4052. A total of 2,261 individual M. tuberculosis isolates and 265 sets of serial isolates were analyzed by using a standardized 15-loci VNTR panel, then an optimized hypervariable loci panel. The discriminative ability of loci varied substantially; locus VNTR 3232 varied the most, with 19 allelic variants and Hunter-Gaston index value of 0.909 unNN. Hypervariable loci should be included in standardized panels because they can provide consistent comparable results at multiple settings, provided the proposed conditions are adhered to.

        Cite This Article
    EID Velji P, Nikolayevskyy V, Brown T, Drobniewski F. Discriminatory Ability of Hypervariable Variable Number Tandem Repeat Loci in Population-based Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, London, UK. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1609-1616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090463
    AMA Velji P, Nikolayevskyy V, Brown T, et al. Discriminatory Ability of Hypervariable Variable Number Tandem Repeat Loci in Population-based Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, London, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1609-1616. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090463.
    APA Velji, P., Nikolayevskyy, V., Brown, T., & Drobniewski, F. (2009). Discriminatory Ability of Hypervariable Variable Number Tandem Repeat Loci in Population-based Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, London, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1609-1616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090463.
        Email Email this Article

Dispatches

  • Excess Deaths and Immunoprotection during 1918–1920 Influenza Pandemic, Taiwan PDF Version [PDF - 523 KB - 3 pages]
    Y. Hsieh
        View Abstract

    To determine the difference in age-specific immunoprotection during waves of influenza epidemics, we analyzed excess monthly death data for the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in Taiwan. For persons 10–19 years of age, percentage of excess deaths was lowest in 1918 and significantly higher in 1920, perhaps indicating lack of immunoprotection from the first wave.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hsieh Y. Excess Deaths and Immunoprotection during 1918–1920 Influenza Pandemic, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1617-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.080811
    AMA Hsieh Y. Excess Deaths and Immunoprotection during 1918–1920 Influenza Pandemic, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1617-1619. doi:10.3201/eid1510.080811.
    APA Hsieh, Y. (2009). Excess Deaths and Immunoprotection during 1918–1920 Influenza Pandemic, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1617-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.080811.
        Email Email this Article
  • Rabies in Foxes, Aegean Region, Turkey PDF Version [PDF - 398 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Vos et al.
        View Abstract

    At the end of the 1990s in the Aegean region of Turkey, rabies rapidly spread among foxes. This spread likely resulted from spillover infection from dogs and led to increased rabies cases among cattle. To control this outbreak, oral rabies vaccination of foxes has been used.

        Cite This Article
    EID Vos A, Freuling C, Eskiizmirliler S, Ün H, Aylan O, Johnson N, et al. Rabies in Foxes, Aegean Region, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1620-1622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090203
    AMA Vos A, Freuling C, Eskiizmirliler S, et al. Rabies in Foxes, Aegean Region, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1620-1622. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090203.
    APA Vos, A., Freuling, C., Eskiizmirliler, S., Ün, H., Aylan, O., Johnson, N....Askaroglu, H. (2009). Rabies in Foxes, Aegean Region, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1620-1622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090203.
        Email Email this Article
  • Fine-scale Identification of the Most Likely Source of a Human Plague Infection PDF Version [PDF - 474 KB - 4 pages]
    R. E. Colman et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe an analytic approach to provide fine-scale discrimination among multiple infection source hypotheses. This approach uses mutation-rate data for rapidly evolving multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat loci in probabilistic models to identify the most likely source. We illustrate the utility of this approach using data from a North American human plague investigation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Colman RE, Vogler AJ, Lowell JL, Gage KL, Morway C, Reynolds PJ, et al. Fine-scale Identification of the Most Likely Source of a Human Plague Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1623-1625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090188
    AMA Colman RE, Vogler AJ, Lowell JL, et al. Fine-scale Identification of the Most Likely Source of a Human Plague Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1623-1625. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090188.
    APA Colman, R. E., Vogler, A. J., Lowell, J. L., Gage, K. L., Morway, C., Reynolds, P. J....Wagner, D. M. (2009). Fine-scale Identification of the Most Likely Source of a Human Plague Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1623-1625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090188.
        Email Email this Article
  • Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco PDF Version [PDF - 588 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Sarih et al.
        View Abstract

    We found that 20.5% of patients with an unexplained fever in northwestern Morocco had tick-borne relapsing fever. Molecular detection specific for the 16S rRNA gene identified Borrelia hispanica. The noncoding intergenic spacer sequence domain showed high sensitivity and good resolution for this species.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sarih M, Garnier M, Boudebouch N, Bouattour A, Rihani A, Hassar M, et al. Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1626-1629. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090403
    AMA Sarih M, Garnier M, Boudebouch N, et al. Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1626-1629. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090403.
    APA Sarih, M., Garnier, M., Boudebouch, N., Bouattour, A., Rihani, A., Hassar, M....Cornet, M. (2009). Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1626-1629. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090403.
        Email Email this Article
  • Diversity and Origin of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Bhutan PDF Version [PDF - 534 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Dorji et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the serotype and genotype of dengue virus (DENV) in Bhutan, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of complete envelope gene sequences. DENV-2 (Cosmopolitan genotype) predominated in 2004, and DENV-3 (genotype III) predominated in 2005–2006; these viruses were imported from India. Primary dengue infections outnumbered secondary infections, suggesting recent emergence.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dorji T, Yoon I, Holmes EC, Wangchuk S, Tobgay T, Nisalak A, et al. Diversity and Origin of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Bhutan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1630-1632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090123
    AMA Dorji T, Yoon I, Holmes EC, et al. Diversity and Origin of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Bhutan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1630-1632. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090123.
    APA Dorji, T., Yoon, I., Holmes, E. C., Wangchuk, S., Tobgay, T., Nisalak, A....Jarman, R. G. (2009). Diversity and Origin of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Bhutan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1630-1632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090123.
        Email Email this Article
  • Ducks as Sentinels for Avian Influenza in Wild Birds PDF Version [PDF - 411 KB - 4 pages]
    A. Globig et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for AIV monitoring.

        Cite This Article
    EID Globig A, Baumer A, Revilla-Fernández S, Beer M, Wodak E, Fink M, et al. Ducks as Sentinels for Avian Influenza in Wild Birds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1633-1636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090439
    AMA Globig A, Baumer A, Revilla-Fernández S, et al. Ducks as Sentinels for Avian Influenza in Wild Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1633-1636. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090439.
    APA Globig, A., Baumer, A., Revilla-Fernández, S., Beer, M., Wodak, E., Fink, M....Stärk, K. D. (2009). Ducks as Sentinels for Avian Influenza in Wild Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1633-1636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090439.
        Email Email this Article
  • Immunologic Response of Unvaccinated Workers Exposed to Anthrax, Belgium PDF Version [PDF - 473 KB - 4 pages]
    P. Wattiau et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine immunologic reactivity to Bacillus anthrax antigens, we conducted serologic testing of workers in a factory that performed scouring of wool and goat hair. Of 66 workers, ≈10% had circulating antibodies or T lymphocytes that reacted with anthrax protective antigen. Individual immunity varied from undetectable to high.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wattiau P, Govaerts M, Frangoulidis D, Fretin D, Kissling E, Van Hessche M, et al. Immunologic Response of Unvaccinated Workers Exposed to Anthrax, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1637-1640. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081717
    AMA Wattiau P, Govaerts M, Frangoulidis D, et al. Immunologic Response of Unvaccinated Workers Exposed to Anthrax, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1637-1640. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081717.
    APA Wattiau, P., Govaerts, M., Frangoulidis, D., Fretin, D., Kissling, E., Van Hessche, M....Hanquet, G. (2009). Immunologic Response of Unvaccinated Workers Exposed to Anthrax, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1637-1640. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081717.
        Email Email this Article
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Clade 1 Influenza A Viruses (H5N1), Southern Indochina Peninsula, 2004–2007 PDF Version [PDF - 623 KB - 4 pages]
    P. Buchy et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the origin of influenza A virus (H5N1) epizootics in Cambodia, we used maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods to analyze the genetic sequences of subtype H5N1 strains from Cambodia and neighboring areas. Poultry movements, rather than repeated reintroduction of subtype H5N1 viruses by wild birds, appear to explain virus circulation and perpetuation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Buchy P, Fourment M, Mardy S, Sorn S, Holl D, Ly S, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Clade 1 Influenza A Viruses (H5N1), Southern Indochina Peninsula, 2004–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1641-1644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090115
    AMA Buchy P, Fourment M, Mardy S, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Clade 1 Influenza A Viruses (H5N1), Southern Indochina Peninsula, 2004–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1641-1644. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090115.
    APA Buchy, P., Fourment, M., Mardy, S., Sorn, S., Holl, D., Ly, S....van der Werf, S. (2009). Molecular Epidemiology of Clade 1 Influenza A Viruses (H5N1), Southern Indochina Peninsula, 2004–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1641-1644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090115.
        Email Email this Article
  • Melioidosis in a Tropical City State, Singapore PDF Version [PDF - 504 KB - 3 pages]
    T. J. Lo et al.
        View Abstract

    The incidence of melioidosis in Singapore decreased during 1998–2007, with the exception of the first quarter of 2004. After heavy rainfalls, an increase in pneumonic cases with a high case-fatality rate was detected. We show that melioidosis has the potential to reemerge following adverse climate events.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lo TJ, Ang L, James L, Goh K. Melioidosis in a Tropical City State, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1645-1647. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090246
    AMA Lo TJ, Ang L, James L, et al. Melioidosis in a Tropical City State, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1645-1647. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090246.
    APA Lo, T. J., Ang, L., James, L., & Goh, K. (2009). Melioidosis in a Tropical City State, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1645-1647. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090246.
        Email Email this Article
  • Escherichia coli as Reservoir for Macrolide Resistance Genes PDF Version [PDF - 450 KB - 3 pages]
    M. C. Nguyen et al.
        View Abstract

    The plasmid-borne mph(A) gene that confers resistance to azithromycin and has recently emerged in Shigella sonnei is present in multidrug- and non–multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from 4 continents. Further spread of mph(A) to Shigella and Salmonella spp. may be expected.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nguyen MC, Woerther P, Bouvet M, Andremont A, Leclercq R, Canu A, et al. Escherichia coli as Reservoir for Macrolide Resistance Genes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1648-1650. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090696
    AMA Nguyen MC, Woerther P, Bouvet M, et al. Escherichia coli as Reservoir for Macrolide Resistance Genes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1648-1650. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090696.
    APA Nguyen, M. C., Woerther, P., Bouvet, M., Andremont, A., Leclercq, R., & Canu, A. (2009). Escherichia coli as Reservoir for Macrolide Resistance Genes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1648-1650. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090696.
        Email Email this Article
  • West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Morocco, 2008 PDF Version [PDF - 445 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Figuerola et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) during nonepidemic times, we serosurveyed wild birds of Morocco in 2008. We found antibodies against WNV in 12 (3.5%) birds, against Usutu virus in 1 (0.3%), and against both in 2 (0.6%). High WNV prevalence among juvenile birds suggests local virus circulation among resident birds.

        Cite This Article
    EID Figuerola J, Baouab RE, Soriguer R, Fassi-Fihri O, Llorente F, Jímenez-Clavero MA, et al. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Morocco, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1651-1653. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090340
    AMA Figuerola J, Baouab RE, Soriguer R, et al. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Morocco, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1651-1653. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090340.
    APA Figuerola, J., Baouab, R. E., Soriguer, R., Fassi-Fihri, O., Llorente, F., & Jímenez-Clavero, M. A. (2009). West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Morocco, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1651-1653. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090340.
        Email Email this Article
  • Novel Rickettsia in Ticks, Tasmania, Australia PDF Version [PDF - 557 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Izzard et al.
        View Abstract

    A novel rickettsia was detected in Ixodes tasmani ticks collected from Tasmanian devils. A total of 55% were positive for the citrate synthase gene by quantitative PCR. According to current criteria for rickettsia speciation, this new rickettsia qualifies as Candidatus Rickettsia tasmanensis, named after the location of its detection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Izzard L, Graves S, Cox E, Fenwick S, Unsworth N, Stenos J, et al. Novel Rickettsia in Ticks, Tasmania, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1654-1656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090799
    AMA Izzard L, Graves S, Cox E, et al. Novel Rickettsia in Ticks, Tasmania, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1654-1656. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090799.
    APA Izzard, L., Graves, S., Cox, E., Fenwick, S., Unsworth, N., & Stenos, J. (2009). Novel Rickettsia in Ticks, Tasmania, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1654-1656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090799.
        Email Email this Article
  • Orangutans Not Infected with Plasmodium vivax or P. cynomolgi, Indonesia PDF Version [PDF - 474 KB - 2 pages]
    B. Singh and P. C. Divis
        View Abstract

    After orangutans in Indonesia were reported as infected with Plasmodium cynomolgi and P. vivax, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Plasmodium spp. We found that these orangutans are not hosts of P. cynomolgi and P. vivax. Analysis of >1 genes is needed to identify Plasmodium spp. infecting orangutans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Singh B, Divis PC. Orangutans Not Infected with Plasmodium vivax or P. cynomolgi, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1657-1658. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090364
    AMA Singh B, Divis PC. Orangutans Not Infected with Plasmodium vivax or P. cynomolgi, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1657-1658. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090364.
    APA Singh, B., & Divis, P. C. (2009). Orangutans Not Infected with Plasmodium vivax or P. cynomolgi, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1657-1658. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090364.
        Email Email this Article
  • Acute Q Fever and Scrub Typhus, Southern Taiwan PDF Version [PDF - 657 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Lai et al.
        View Abstract

    Acute Q fever and scrub typhus are zoonoses endemic to southern Taiwan. Among the 137 patients with acute Q fever (89, 65.0%) or scrub typhus (43, 31.4%), we identified 5 patients (3.6%) who were co-infected with Coxiella burnetii and Orientia tsutsugamushi.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lai C, Chen Y, Lin J, Chang L, Chen W, Lin H, et al. Acute Q Fever and Scrub Typhus, Southern Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1659-1661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090007
    AMA Lai C, Chen Y, Lin J, et al. Acute Q Fever and Scrub Typhus, Southern Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1659-1661. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090007.
    APA Lai, C., Chen, Y., Lin, J., Chang, L., Chen, W., & Lin, H. (2009). Acute Q Fever and Scrub Typhus, Southern Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1659-1661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090007.
        Email Email this Article
  • Poor Clinical Sensitivity of Rapid Antigen Test for Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus PDF Version [PDF - 430 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Drexler et al.
        View Abstract

    Influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus RNA was detected by reverse transcription–PCR in 144 clinical samples from Bonn, Germany. A common rapid antigen–based test detected the virus in only 11.1% of these samples. The paramount feature of rapid test–positive samples was high virus concentration. Antigen-based rapid tests appear unsuitable for virologic diagnostics in the current pandemic.

        Cite This Article
    EID Drexler J, Helmer A, Kirberg H, Reber U, Panning M, Müller MA, et al. Poor Clinical Sensitivity of Rapid Antigen Test for Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1662-1664. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.091186
    AMA Drexler J, Helmer A, Kirberg H, et al. Poor Clinical Sensitivity of Rapid Antigen Test for Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1662-1664. doi:10.3201/eid1510.091186.
    APA Drexler, J., Helmer, A., Kirberg, H., Reber, U., Panning, M., Müller, M. A....Eis-Hübinger, A. M. (2009). Poor Clinical Sensitivity of Rapid Antigen Test for Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1662-1664. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.091186.
        Email Email this Article
  • Human Rickettsialpox, Southeastern Mexico PDF Version [PDF - 439 KB - 3 pages]
    J. E. Zavala-Castro et al.
        View Abstract

    The detection of Rickettsia akari in 2 human patients increased the diversity of rickettsioses affecting the public health in the southeast of Mexico. Rickettsialpox should be considered in the differential diagnosis with other febrile illnesses for the correct diagnosis and accurate treatment of this potential threat to human health.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zavala-Castro JE, Zavala-Velázquez JE, Peniche-Lara GF, Uicab JE. Human Rickettsialpox, Southeastern Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1665-1667. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081507
    AMA Zavala-Castro JE, Zavala-Velázquez JE, Peniche-Lara GF, et al. Human Rickettsialpox, Southeastern Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1665-1667. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081507.
    APA Zavala-Castro, J. E., Zavala-Velázquez, J. E., Peniche-Lara, G. F., & Uicab, J. E. (2009). Human Rickettsialpox, Southeastern Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1665-1667. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081507.
        Email Email this Article
  • West Nile Virus Infection in Plasma of Blood and Plasma Donors, United States PDF Version [PDF - 520 KB - 3 pages]
    C. B. Planitzer et al.
        View Abstract

    This study investigated the association of ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) infections with neutralizing antibody titers in US plasma-derived intravenous immune globulin released during 2003–2008. Titers correlated closely with the prevalence of past WNV infection in blood donors, with 2008 lots indicating a prevalence of 1%.

        Cite This Article
    EID Planitzer CB, Modrof J, Yu MW, Kreil TR. West Nile Virus Infection in Plasma of Blood and Plasma Donors, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1668-1670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081668
    AMA Planitzer CB, Modrof J, Yu MW, et al. West Nile Virus Infection in Plasma of Blood and Plasma Donors, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1668-1670. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081668.
    APA Planitzer, C. B., Modrof, J., Yu, M. W., & Kreil, T. R. (2009). West Nile Virus Infection in Plasma of Blood and Plasma Donors, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1668-1670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081668.
        Email Email this Article
  • Tick-borne Encephalitis from Eating Goat Cheese in a Mountain Region of Austria PDF Version [PDF - 446 KB - 3 pages]
    H. Holzmann et al.
        View Abstract

    We report transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in July 2008 through nonpasteurized goat milk to 6 humans and 4 domestic pigs in an alpine pasture 1,500 m above sea level. This outbreak indicates the emergence of ticks and TBEV at increasing altitudes in central Europe and the efficiency of oral transmission of TBEV.

        Cite This Article
    EID Holzmann H, Aberle SW, Stiasny K, Werner P, Mischak A, Zainer B, et al. Tick-borne Encephalitis from Eating Goat Cheese in a Mountain Region of Austria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1671-1673. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090743
    AMA Holzmann H, Aberle SW, Stiasny K, et al. Tick-borne Encephalitis from Eating Goat Cheese in a Mountain Region of Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1671-1673. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090743.
    APA Holzmann, H., Aberle, S. W., Stiasny, K., Werner, P., Mischak, A., Zainer, B....Heinz, F. X. (2009). Tick-borne Encephalitis from Eating Goat Cheese in a Mountain Region of Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1671-1673. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090743.
        Email Email this Article
  • Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile PDF Version [PDF - 552 KB - 3 pages]
    J. López et al.
        View Abstract

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases.

        Cite This Article
    EID López J, Abarca K, Cerda J, Valenzuela B, Lorca L, Olea A, et al. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1674-1676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081596
    AMA López J, Abarca K, Cerda J, et al. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1674-1676. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081596.
    APA López, J., Abarca, K., Cerda, J., Valenzuela, B., Lorca, L., Olea, A....Aguilera, X. (2009). Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1674-1676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081596.
        Email Email this Article
  • Independent Lineage of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Wood Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), Spain PDF Version [PDF - 598 KB - 4 pages]
    J. Ledesma et al.
        View Abstract

    To clarify the presence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in Spain, we examined blood and tissue specimens from 866 small mammals. LCMV RNA was detected in 3 of 694 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the strains constitute a new evolutionary lineage. LCMV antibodies were detected in 4 of 10 rodent species tested.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ledesma J, Fedele CG, Carro F, Lledó L, Sánchez-Seco M, Tenorio A, et al. Independent Lineage of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Wood Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1677-1680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090563
    AMA Ledesma J, Fedele CG, Carro F, et al. Independent Lineage of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Wood Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1677-1680. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090563.
    APA Ledesma, J., Fedele, C. G., Carro, F., Lledó, L., Sánchez-Seco, M., Tenorio, A....Gegúndez, M. I. (2009). Independent Lineage of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Wood Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1677-1680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090563.
        Email Email this Article

Photo Quizzes

  • Photo Quiz PDF Version [PDF - 457 KB - 3 pages]
    M. G. Schultz
            Cite This Article
    EID Schultz MG. . Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1682-1684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090129
    AMA Schultz MG. . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1682-1684. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090129.
    APA Schultz, M. G. (2009). . Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1682-1684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090129.
        Email Email this Article

Another Dimension

  • Red Snappers PDF Version [PDF - 283 KB - 1 page]
    E. E. McConnell
            Cite This Article
    EID McConnell EE. Red Snappers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.AD1510
    AMA McConnell EE. Red Snappers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1707. doi:10.3201/eid1510.AD1510.
    APA McConnell, E. E. (2009). Red Snappers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.AD1510.
        Email Email this Article

Letters

  • Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak and School Closure, Osaka Prefecture, Japan PDF Version [PDF - 321 KB - 1 page]
    R. Kawaguchi et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kawaguchi R, Miyazono M, Noda T, Takayama Y, Sasai Y, Iso H, et al. Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak and School Closure, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.091029
    AMA Kawaguchi R, Miyazono M, Noda T, et al. Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak and School Closure, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1685. doi:10.3201/eid1510.091029.
    APA Kawaguchi, R., Miyazono, M., Noda, T., Takayama, Y., Sasai, Y., & Iso, H. (2009). Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak and School Closure, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.091029.
        Email Email this Article
  • Maximizing the Value of Drug Stockpiles for Pandemic Influenza PDF Version [PDF - 337 KB - 2 pages]
    A. L. Po et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Po AL, Farndon P, Palmer N. Maximizing the Value of Drug Stockpiles for Pandemic Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1686-1687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090844
    AMA Po AL, Farndon P, Palmer N. Maximizing the Value of Drug Stockpiles for Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1686-1687. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090844.
    APA Po, A. L., Farndon, P., & Palmer, N. (2009). Maximizing the Value of Drug Stockpiles for Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1686-1687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090844.
        Email Email this Article
  • Intrafamilial Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus PDF Version [PDF - 377 KB - 3 pages]
    S. A. Langhi et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Langhi SA, Robinson JO, Pearson JC, Christiansen KJ, Coombs GW, Murray RJ, et al. Intrafamilial Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1687-1689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081532
    AMA Langhi SA, Robinson JO, Pearson JC, et al. Intrafamilial Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1687-1689. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081532.
    APA Langhi, S. A., Robinson, J. O., Pearson, J. C., Christiansen, K. J., Coombs, G. W., & Murray, R. J. (2009). Intrafamilial Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1687-1689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081532.
        Email Email this Article
  • Rhombencephalitis and Coxsackievirus A16 PDF Version [PDF - 373 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Goto et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Goto K, Sanefuji M, Kusuhara K, Nishimura Y, Shimizu H, Kira R, et al. Rhombencephalitis and Coxsackievirus A16. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1689-1691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090594
    AMA Goto K, Sanefuji M, Kusuhara K, et al. Rhombencephalitis and Coxsackievirus A16. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1689-1691. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090594.
    APA Goto, K., Sanefuji, M., Kusuhara, K., Nishimura, Y., Shimizu, H., Kira, R....Hara, T. (2009). Rhombencephalitis and Coxsackievirus A16. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1689-1691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090594.
        Email Email this Article
  • Japanese Encephalitis in Hill and Mountain Districts, Nepal PDF Version [PDF - 330 KB - 2 pages]
    A. Bhattachan et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Bhattachan A, Amatya S, Sedai TR, Upreti SR, Partridge J. Japanese Encephalitis in Hill and Mountain Districts, Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1691-1692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081641
    AMA Bhattachan A, Amatya S, Sedai TR, et al. Japanese Encephalitis in Hill and Mountain Districts, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1691-1692. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081641.
    APA Bhattachan, A., Amatya, S., Sedai, T. R., Upreti, S. R., & Partridge, J. (2009). Japanese Encephalitis in Hill and Mountain Districts, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1691-1692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081641.
        Email Email this Article
  • Group B Streptococcus Meningitis in a Child with Cochlear Implant PDF Version [PDF - 360 KB - 2 pages]
    D. Glikman et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Glikman D, Luntz M, Shihada R, Zonis Z, Even L. Group B Streptococcus Meningitis in a Child with Cochlear Implant. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1695-1696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081243
    AMA Glikman D, Luntz M, Shihada R, et al. Group B Streptococcus Meningitis in a Child with Cochlear Implant. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1695-1696. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081243.
    APA Glikman, D., Luntz, M., Shihada, R., Zonis, Z., & Even, L. (2009). Group B Streptococcus Meningitis in a Child with Cochlear Implant. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1695-1696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081243.
        Email Email this Article
  • Severe Necrotizing Pneumonia in Children, Houston, Texas, USA PDF Version [PDF - 377 KB - 3 pages]
    A. S. Kalaskar et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kalaskar AS, Heresi GP, Wanger A, Murphy JR, Wootton SH. Severe Necrotizing Pneumonia in Children, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1696-1698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090589
    AMA Kalaskar AS, Heresi GP, Wanger A, et al. Severe Necrotizing Pneumonia in Children, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1696-1698. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090589.
    APA Kalaskar, A. S., Heresi, G. P., Wanger, A., Murphy, J. R., & Wootton, S. H. (2009). Severe Necrotizing Pneumonia in Children, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1696-1698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090589.
        Email Email this Article
  • Human Bocavirus 2 in Children, South Korea PDF Version [PDF - 398 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Han et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Han T, Chung J, Hwang E. Human Bocavirus 2 in Children, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1698-1700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090337
    AMA Han T, Chung J, Hwang E. Human Bocavirus 2 in Children, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1698-1700. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090337.
    APA Han, T., Chung, J., & Hwang, E. (2009). Human Bocavirus 2 in Children, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1698-1700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090337.
        Email Email this Article
  • Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Infection and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonists PDF Version [PDF - 354 KB - 2 pages]
    R. M. Swart et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Swart RM, van Ingen J, van Soolingen D, Slingerland R, Hendriks WD, den Hollander JG, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Infection and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonists. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1700-1701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090110
    AMA Swart RM, van Ingen J, van Soolingen D, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Infection and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonists. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1700-1701. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090110.
    APA Swart, R. M., van Ingen, J., van Soolingen, D., Slingerland, R., Hendriks, W. D., & den Hollander, J. G. (2009). Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Infection and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonists. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1700-1701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090110.
        Email Email this Article
  • Transmission of Varicella Vaccine Virus, Japan PDF Version [PDF - 369 KB - 2 pages]
    T. Otsuka et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Otsuka T, Gomi Y, Inoue N, Uchiyama M. Transmission of Varicella Vaccine Virus, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1702-1703. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090597
    AMA Otsuka T, Gomi Y, Inoue N, et al. Transmission of Varicella Vaccine Virus, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1702-1703. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090597.
    APA Otsuka, T., Gomi, Y., Inoue, N., & Uchiyama, M. (2009). Transmission of Varicella Vaccine Virus, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1702-1703. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090597.
        Email Email this Article
  • Aichi Virus Strains in Children with Gastroenteritis, China PDF Version [PDF - 438 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Yang et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Yang S, Zhang W, Shen Q, Yang Z, Zhu J, Cui L, et al. Aichi Virus Strains in Children with Gastroenteritis, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1703-1705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090522
    AMA Yang S, Zhang W, Shen Q, et al. Aichi Virus Strains in Children with Gastroenteritis, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1703-1705. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090522.
    APA Yang, S., Zhang, W., Shen, Q., Yang, Z., Zhu, J., Cui, L....Hua, X. G. (2009). Aichi Virus Strains in Children with Gastroenteritis, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1703-1705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090522.
        Email Email this Article
  • Appropriate Screening for Leishmaniasis before Immunosuppressive Treatments PDF Version [PDF - 317 KB - 2 pages]
    A. Cascio and C. Iaria
            Cite This Article
    EID Cascio A, Iaria C. Appropriate Screening for Leishmaniasis before Immunosuppressive Treatments. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1706-1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090881
    AMA Cascio A, Iaria C. Appropriate Screening for Leishmaniasis before Immunosuppressive Treatments. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1706-1707. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090881.
    APA Cascio, A., & Iaria, C. (2009). Appropriate Screening for Leishmaniasis before Immunosuppressive Treatments. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1706-1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090881.
        Email Email this Article
  • Lessons from a Special Service for Public Health, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 322 KB - 1 page]
    A. L. Mayberry and T. D. Baker
            Cite This Article
    EID Mayberry AL, Baker TD. Lessons from a Special Service for Public Health, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090654
    AMA Mayberry AL, Baker TD. Lessons from a Special Service for Public Health, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1693. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090654.
    APA Mayberry, A. L., & Baker, T. D. (2009). Lessons from a Special Service for Public Health, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090654.
        Email Email this Article
  • Ceftazidime-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Morocco PDF Version [PDF - 336 KB - 3 pages]
    B. Bouchrif et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Bouchrif B, Le Hello S, Pardos M, Karraouan B, Perrier-Gros-Claude J, Ennaji M, et al. Ceftazidime-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1693-1695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090247
    AMA Bouchrif B, Le Hello S, Pardos M, et al. Ceftazidime-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1693-1695. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090247.
    APA Bouchrif, B., Le Hello, S., Pardos, M., Karraouan, B., Perrier-Gros-Claude, J., Ennaji, M....Weill, F. (2009). Ceftazidime-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1693-1695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090247.
        Email Email this Article

About the Cover

  • Alone Together Then and Now PDF Version [PDF - 328 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. Alone Together Then and Now. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1708-1709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.AC1510
    AMA Potter P. Alone Together Then and Now. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1708-1709. doi:10.3201/eid1510.AC1510.
    APA Potter, P. (2009). Alone Together Then and Now. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1708-1709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.AC1510.
        Email Email this Article

Etymologia

TOP