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Issue Cover for Volume 15, Number 10—October 2009

Volume 15, Number 10—October 2009

[PDF - 7.03 MB - 171 pages]

Research

A Model-based Assessment of Oseltamivir Prophylaxis Strategies to Prevent Influenza in Nursing Homes [PDF - 672 KB - 9 pages]
C. van den Dool et al.

Prophylaxis with neuraminidase inhibitors is important for controlling seasonal influenza outbreaks in long-term care settings. We used a stochastic individual-based model that simulates influenza virus transmission in a long-term care nursing home department to study the protection offered to patients by different strategies of prophylaxis with oseltamivir and determined the effect of emerging resistance. Without resistance, postexposure and continuous prophylaxis reduced the patient infection attack rate from 0.19 to 0.13 (relative risk [RR] 0.67) and 0.05 (RR 0.23), respectively. Postexposure prophylaxis prevented more infections per dose (118 and 323 daily doses needed to prevent 1 infection, respectively) and required fewer doses per season than continuous prophylaxis. If resistance to oseltamivir was increased, both prophylaxis strategies became less efficacious and efficient, but postexposure prophylaxis posed a lower selection pressure for resistant virus strains. Extension of prophylaxis to healthcare workers offered little additional protection to patients.

EID van den Dool C, Hak E, Bonten MJ, Wallinga J. A Model-based Assessment of Oseltamivir Prophylaxis Strategies to Prevent Influenza in Nursing Homes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1547-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081129
AMA van den Dool C, Hak E, Bonten MJ, et al. A Model-based Assessment of Oseltamivir Prophylaxis Strategies to Prevent Influenza in Nursing Homes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1547-1555. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081129.
APA van den Dool, C., Hak, E., Bonten, M. J., & Wallinga, J. (2009). A Model-based Assessment of Oseltamivir Prophylaxis Strategies to Prevent Influenza in Nursing Homes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1547-1555. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081129.

Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy [PDF - 425 KB - 6 pages]
K. L. Winthrop et al.

Patients receiving anti–tumor necrosis factor-α (anti–TNF-α) therapy are at increased risk for tuberculosis and other granulomatous diseases, but little is known about illness caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in this setting. We reviewed the US Food and Drug Administration MedWatch database for reports of NTM disease in patients receiving anti–TNF-α therapy. Of 239 reports collected, 105 (44%) met NTM disease criteria. Median age was 62 years; the majority of patients (66, 65%) were female, and most (73, 70%) had rheumatoid arthritis. NTM infections were associated with infliximab (n = 73), etanercept (n = 25), and adalimumab (n = 7); most patients were taking prednisone (n = 68, 65%) or methotrexate (n = 58, 55%) concurrently. Mycobacteria avium (n = 52, 50%) was most commonly implicated, and 9 patients (9%) had died at the time their infections were reported. A high rate of extrapulmonary manifestations (n = 46, 44%) was also reported.

EID Winthrop KL, Chang E, Yamashita S, Iademarco MF, LoBue PA. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1556-1561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090310
AMA Winthrop KL, Chang E, Yamashita S, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1556-1561. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090310.
APA Winthrop, K. L., Chang, E., Yamashita, S., Iademarco, M. F., & LoBue, P. A. (2009). Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1556-1561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090310.

Nontuberculous Mycobacteria–associated Lung Disease in Hospitalized Persons, United States, 1998–2005 [PDF - 690 KB - 8 pages]
M. E. Billinger et al.

The prevalence and trends of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)–associated hospitalizations in the United States were estimated using national hospital discharge data. Records were extracted for all persons with a pulmonary NTM International Classification of Diseases code (031.0) hospitalized in the 11 states with continuous data available from 1998 through 2005. Prevalence was calculated using US census data. Pulmonary NTM hospitalizations (031.0) increased significantly with age among both sexes: relative prevalence for persons 70–79 years of age compared with those 40–49 years of age was 15/100,000 for women (9.4 vs. 0.6) and 9/100,000 for men (7.6 vs. 0.83). Annual prevalence increased significantly among men and women in Florida (3.2%/year and 6.5%/year, respectively) and among women in New York (4.6%/year) with no significant changes in California. The prevalence of pulmonary NTM–associated hospitalizations is increasing in selected geographic areas of the United States.

EID Billinger ME, Olivier KN, Viboud C, Montes de Oca R, Steiner CA, Holland SM, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria–associated Lung Disease in Hospitalized Persons, United States, 1998–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1562-1569. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090196
AMA Billinger ME, Olivier KN, Viboud C, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria–associated Lung Disease in Hospitalized Persons, United States, 1998–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1562-1569. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090196.
APA Billinger, M. E., Olivier, K. N., Viboud, C., Montes de Oca, R., Steiner, C. A., Holland, S. M....Prevots, D. (2009). Nontuberculous Mycobacteria–associated Lung Disease in Hospitalized Persons, United States, 1998–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1562-1569. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090196.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotype and Case Notification Rates, Rural Vietnam, 2003–2006 [PDF - 742 KB - 8 pages]
T. N. Buu et al.

Tuberculosis case notification rates (CNRs) for young adults in Vietnam are increasing. To determine whether this finding could reflect emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype, we studied all new sputum smear–positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients registered for treatment in 3 rural districts in Vietnam during 2003–2006. Beijing strain infections were more frequent in younger patients (15–24 years of age, 53%) than in older patients (31%; p<0.001). The increase in CNRs for youngest patients was larger for disease caused by the Beijing genotype than by other genotypes, but the difference was not significant. For patients 15–24 years of age, 85% of fluctuations in CNRs between years was caused by fluctuations in Beijing genotype infections compared with 53% and 23% in the groups 25–64 and >65 years of age, respectively (p<0.001). These findings suggest that young adults may be responsible for introducing Beijing strains into rural Vietnam.

EID Buu TN, Huyen MN, Lan NN, Quy HT, Hen NV, Zignol M, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotype and Case Notification Rates, Rural Vietnam, 2003–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1570-1577. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090170
AMA Buu TN, Huyen MN, Lan NN, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotype and Case Notification Rates, Rural Vietnam, 2003–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1570-1577. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090170.
APA Buu, T. N., Huyen, M. N., Lan, N. N., Quy, H. T., Hen, N. V., Zignol, M....Cobelens, F. G. (2009). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotype and Case Notification Rates, Rural Vietnam, 2003–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1570-1577. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090170.

Lack of Airborne Transmission during Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Tour Group Members, China, June 2009 [PDF - 471 KB - 3 pages]
K. Han et al.

During June 2–8, 2009, an outbreak of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 occurred among 31 members of a tour group in China. To identify the mode of transmission and risk factors, we conducted a retrospective cohort investigation. The index case-patient was a female tourist from the United States. Secondary cases developed in 9 (30%) tour group members who had talked with the index case-patient and in 1 airline passenger (not a tour group member) who had sat within 2 rows of her. None of the 14 tour group members who had not talked with the index case-patient became ill. This outbreak was apparently caused by droplet transmission during coughing or talking. That airborne transmission was not a factor is supported by lack of secondary cases among fellow bus and air travelers. Our findings highlight the need to prevent transmission by droplets and fomites during a pandemic.

EID Han K, Zhu X, He F, Liu L, Zhang L, Ma H, et al. Lack of Airborne Transmission during Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Tour Group Members, China, June 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1578-1581. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.091013
AMA Han K, Zhu X, He F, et al. Lack of Airborne Transmission during Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Tour Group Members, China, June 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1578-1581. doi:10.3201/eid1510.091013.
APA Han, K., Zhu, X., He, F., Liu, L., Zhang, L., Ma, H....Zhu, B. (2009). Lack of Airborne Transmission during Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Tour Group Members, China, June 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1578-1581. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.091013.

Medscape CME Activity
Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA [PDF - 660 KB - 8 pages]
P. Van De Griend et al.

We performed antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing and molecular typing on invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates (n = 1,666) submitted to the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory during 1999–2006 as part of a statewide surveillance system. All USA300 and USA400 isolates were resistant to <3 non–β-lactam antimicrobial drug classes. The proportion of MRSA isolates from invasive infections that were either USA300 or USA400 increased significantly from 1999–2005 through 2006 (p<0.0001). During 2006, the incidence of invasive community-associated (CA)–MRSA infections was highest in the summer (p = 0.0004). Age <69 years was associated with an increased risk for invasive CA-MRSA infection (odds ratio [OR] 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.06–12.64), and hospital exposure was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.51).

EID Van De Griend P, Herwaldt LA, Alvis B, DeMartino M, Heilmann K, Doern G, et al. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1582-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.080877
AMA Van De Griend P, Herwaldt LA, Alvis B, et al. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1582-1589. doi:10.3201/eid1510.080877.
APA Van De Griend, P., Herwaldt, L. A., Alvis, B., DeMartino, M., Heilmann, K., Doern, G....Diekema, D. (2009). Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1582-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.080877.

Healthcare Worker Occupation and Immune Response to Pneumocystis jirovecii [PDF - 516 KB - 8 pages]
R. Tipirneni et al.

The reservoir and mode of transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii remain uncertain. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 126 San Francisco General Hospital staff in clinical (n = 103) and nonclinical (n = 23) occupations to assess whether occupational exposure was associated with immune responses to P. jirovecii. We examined antibody levels by ELISA for 3 overlapping fragments that span the P. jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (Msg): MsgA, MsgB, and MsgC1. Clinical occupation participants had higher geometric mean antibody levels to MsgC1 than did nonclinical occupation participants (21.1 vs. 8.2, p = 0.004); clinical occupation was an independent predictor of higher MsgC1 antibody levels (parameter estimate = 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.29–1.48, p = 0.003). In contrast, occupation was not significantly associated with antibody responses to either MsgA or MsgB. Healthcare workers may have occupational exposure to P. jirovecii. Humans may be a reservoir for P. jirovecii and may transmit it from person to person.

EID Tipirneni R, Daly KR, Jarlsberg LG, Koch JV, Swartzman A, Roth BM, et al. Healthcare Worker Occupation and Immune Response to Pneumocystis jirovecii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1590-1597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090207
AMA Tipirneni R, Daly KR, Jarlsberg LG, et al. Healthcare Worker Occupation and Immune Response to Pneumocystis jirovecii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1590-1597. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090207.
APA Tipirneni, R., Daly, K. R., Jarlsberg, L. G., Koch, J. V., Swartzman, A., Roth, B. M....Huang, L. (2009). Healthcare Worker Occupation and Immune Response to Pneumocystis jirovecii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1590-1597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090207.

Nosocomial Outbreak of Novel Arenavirus Infection, Southern Africa [PDF - 607 KB - 5 pages]
J. T. Paweska et al.

A nosocomial outbreak of disease involving 5 patients, 4 of whom died, occurred in South Africa during September–October 2008. The first patient had been transferred from Zambia to South Africa for medical management. Three cases involved secondary spread of infection from the first patient, and 1 was a tertiary infection. A novel arenavirus was identified. The source of the first patient’s infection remains undetermined.

EID Paweska JT, Sewlall NH, Ksiazek TG, Blumberg LH, Hale MJ, Lipkin W, et al. Nosocomial Outbreak of Novel Arenavirus Infection, Southern Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1598-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090211
AMA Paweska JT, Sewlall NH, Ksiazek TG, et al. Nosocomial Outbreak of Novel Arenavirus Infection, Southern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1598-1602. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090211.
APA Paweska, J. T., Sewlall, N. H., Ksiazek, T. G., Blumberg, L. H., Hale, M. J., Lipkin, W....Teams, I. (2009). Nosocomial Outbreak of Novel Arenavirus Infection, Southern Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1598-1602. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090211.

Review of an Influenza Surveillance System, Beijing, People’s Republic of China [PDF - 548 KB - 7 pages]
P. Yang et al.

In 2007, a surveillance system for influenza-like illness (ILI) and virologic data was established in Beijing, China. The system tracked ILI and laboratory-confirmed influenza in 153 general hospitals from September 1, 2007, through April 30, 2008. To analyze the ILI surveillance data (weekly ILI rates and counts) and the effectiveness of the system, we used the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Early Aberration Reporting System. The data indicated that the highest rate of influenza isolation and the highest ILI count occurred in the first week of 2008. The system enabled us to detect the onset and peak of an epidemic.

EID Yang P, Duan W, Lv M, Shi W, Peng X, Wang X, et al. Review of an Influenza Surveillance System, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1603-1608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081040
AMA Yang P, Duan W, Lv M, et al. Review of an Influenza Surveillance System, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1603-1608. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081040.
APA Yang, P., Duan, W., Lv, M., Shi, W., Peng, X., Wang, X....Wang, Q. (2009). Review of an Influenza Surveillance System, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1603-1608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081040.

Discriminatory Ability of Hypervariable Variable Number Tandem Repeat Loci in Population-based Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, London, UK [PDF - 537 KB - 8 pages]
P. Velji et al.

To address conflicting results about the stability of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci and their value in prospective molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we conducted a large prospective population-based analysis of all M. tuberculosis strains in a metropolitan setting. Optimal and reproducible conditions for reliable PCR and fragment analysis, comprising enzymes, denaturing conditions, and capillary temperature, were identified for a panel of hypervariable loci, including 3232, 2163a, 1982, and 4052. A total of 2,261 individual M. tuberculosis isolates and 265 sets of serial isolates were analyzed by using a standardized 15-loci VNTR panel, then an optimized hypervariable loci panel. The discriminative ability of loci varied substantially; locus VNTR 3232 varied the most, with 19 allelic variants and Hunter-Gaston index value of 0.909 unNN. Hypervariable loci should be included in standardized panels because they can provide consistent comparable results at multiple settings, provided the proposed conditions are adhered to.

EID Velji P, Nikolayevskyy V, Brown T, Drobniewski F. Discriminatory Ability of Hypervariable Variable Number Tandem Repeat Loci in Population-based Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, London, UK. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1609-1616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090463
AMA Velji P, Nikolayevskyy V, Brown T, et al. Discriminatory Ability of Hypervariable Variable Number Tandem Repeat Loci in Population-based Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, London, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1609-1616. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090463.
APA Velji, P., Nikolayevskyy, V., Brown, T., & Drobniewski, F. (2009). Discriminatory Ability of Hypervariable Variable Number Tandem Repeat Loci in Population-based Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, London, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1609-1616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090463.
Dispatches

Excess Deaths and Immunoprotection during 1918–1920 Influenza Pandemic, Taiwan [PDF - 523 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Hsieh

To determine the difference in age-specific immunoprotection during waves of influenza epidemics, we analyzed excess monthly death data for the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in Taiwan. For persons 10–19 years of age, percentage of excess deaths was lowest in 1918 and significantly higher in 1920, perhaps indicating lack of immunoprotection from the first wave.

EID Hsieh Y. Excess Deaths and Immunoprotection during 1918–1920 Influenza Pandemic, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1617-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.080811
AMA Hsieh Y. Excess Deaths and Immunoprotection during 1918–1920 Influenza Pandemic, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1617-1619. doi:10.3201/eid1510.080811.
APA Hsieh, Y. (2009). Excess Deaths and Immunoprotection during 1918–1920 Influenza Pandemic, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1617-1619. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.080811.

Rabies in Foxes, Aegean Region, Turkey [PDF - 398 KB - 3 pages]
A. Vos et al.

At the end of the 1990s in the Aegean region of Turkey, rabies rapidly spread among foxes. This spread likely resulted from spillover infection from dogs and led to increased rabies cases among cattle. To control this outbreak, oral rabies vaccination of foxes has been used.

EID Vos A, Freuling C, Eskiizmirliler S, Ün H, Aylan O, Johnson N, et al. Rabies in Foxes, Aegean Region, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1620-1622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090203
AMA Vos A, Freuling C, Eskiizmirliler S, et al. Rabies in Foxes, Aegean Region, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1620-1622. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090203.
APA Vos, A., Freuling, C., Eskiizmirliler, S., Ün, H., Aylan, O., Johnson, N....Askaroglu, H. (2009). Rabies in Foxes, Aegean Region, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1620-1622. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090203.

Fine-scale Identification of the Most Likely Source of a Human Plague Infection [PDF - 474 KB - 4 pages]
R. E. Colman et al.

We describe an analytic approach to provide fine-scale discrimination among multiple infection source hypotheses. This approach uses mutation-rate data for rapidly evolving multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat loci in probabilistic models to identify the most likely source. We illustrate the utility of this approach using data from a North American human plague investigation.

EID Colman RE, Vogler AJ, Lowell JL, Gage KL, Morway C, Reynolds PJ, et al. Fine-scale Identification of the Most Likely Source of a Human Plague Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1623-1625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090188
AMA Colman RE, Vogler AJ, Lowell JL, et al. Fine-scale Identification of the Most Likely Source of a Human Plague Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1623-1625. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090188.
APA Colman, R. E., Vogler, A. J., Lowell, J. L., Gage, K. L., Morway, C., Reynolds, P. J....Wagner, D. M. (2009). Fine-scale Identification of the Most Likely Source of a Human Plague Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1623-1625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090188.

Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco [PDF - 588 KB - 4 pages]
M. Sarih et al.

We found that 20.5% of patients with an unexplained fever in northwestern Morocco had tick-borne relapsing fever. Molecular detection specific for the 16S rRNA gene identified Borrelia hispanica. The noncoding intergenic spacer sequence domain showed high sensitivity and good resolution for this species.

EID Sarih M, Garnier M, Boudebouch N, Bouattour A, Rihani A, Hassar M, et al. Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1626-1629. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090403
AMA Sarih M, Garnier M, Boudebouch N, et al. Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1626-1629. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090403.
APA Sarih, M., Garnier, M., Boudebouch, N., Bouattour, A., Rihani, A., Hassar, M....Cornet, M. (2009). Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1626-1629. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090403.

Diversity and Origin of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Bhutan [PDF - 534 KB - 3 pages]
T. Dorji et al.

To determine the serotype and genotype of dengue virus (DENV) in Bhutan, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of complete envelope gene sequences. DENV-2 (Cosmopolitan genotype) predominated in 2004, and DENV-3 (genotype III) predominated in 2005–2006; these viruses were imported from India. Primary dengue infections outnumbered secondary infections, suggesting recent emergence.

EID Dorji T, Yoon I, Holmes EC, Wangchuk S, Tobgay T, Nisalak A, et al. Diversity and Origin of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Bhutan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1630-1632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090123
AMA Dorji T, Yoon I, Holmes EC, et al. Diversity and Origin of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Bhutan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1630-1632. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090123.
APA Dorji, T., Yoon, I., Holmes, E. C., Wangchuk, S., Tobgay, T., Nisalak, A....Jarman, R. G. (2009). Diversity and Origin of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Bhutan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1630-1632. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090123.

Ducks as Sentinels for Avian Influenza in Wild Birds [PDF - 411 KB - 4 pages]
A. Globig et al.

To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for AIV monitoring.

EID Globig A, Baumer A, Revilla-Fernández S, Beer M, Wodak E, Fink M, et al. Ducks as Sentinels for Avian Influenza in Wild Birds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1633-1636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090439
AMA Globig A, Baumer A, Revilla-Fernández S, et al. Ducks as Sentinels for Avian Influenza in Wild Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1633-1636. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090439.
APA Globig, A., Baumer, A., Revilla-Fernández, S., Beer, M., Wodak, E., Fink, M....Stärk, K. D. (2009). Ducks as Sentinels for Avian Influenza in Wild Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1633-1636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090439.

Immunologic Response of Unvaccinated Workers Exposed to Anthrax, Belgium [PDF - 473 KB - 4 pages]
P. Wattiau et al.

To determine immunologic reactivity to Bacillus anthrax antigens, we conducted serologic testing of workers in a factory that performed scouring of wool and goat hair. Of 66 workers, ≈10% had circulating antibodies or T lymphocytes that reacted with anthrax protective antigen. Individual immunity varied from undetectable to high.

EID Wattiau P, Govaerts M, Frangoulidis D, Fretin D, Kissling E, Van Hessche M, et al. Immunologic Response of Unvaccinated Workers Exposed to Anthrax, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1637-1640. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081717
AMA Wattiau P, Govaerts M, Frangoulidis D, et al. Immunologic Response of Unvaccinated Workers Exposed to Anthrax, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1637-1640. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081717.
APA Wattiau, P., Govaerts, M., Frangoulidis, D., Fretin, D., Kissling, E., Van Hessche, M....Hanquet, G. (2009). Immunologic Response of Unvaccinated Workers Exposed to Anthrax, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1637-1640. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081717.

Molecular Epidemiology of Clade 1 Influenza A Viruses (H5N1), Southern Indochina Peninsula, 2004–2007 [PDF - 623 KB - 4 pages]
P. Buchy et al.

To determine the origin of influenza A virus (H5N1) epizootics in Cambodia, we used maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods to analyze the genetic sequences of subtype H5N1 strains from Cambodia and neighboring areas. Poultry movements, rather than repeated reintroduction of subtype H5N1 viruses by wild birds, appear to explain virus circulation and perpetuation.

EID Buchy P, Fourment M, Mardy S, Sorn S, Holl D, Ly S, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Clade 1 Influenza A Viruses (H5N1), Southern Indochina Peninsula, 2004–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1641-1644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090115
AMA Buchy P, Fourment M, Mardy S, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Clade 1 Influenza A Viruses (H5N1), Southern Indochina Peninsula, 2004–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1641-1644. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090115.
APA Buchy, P., Fourment, M., Mardy, S., Sorn, S., Holl, D., Ly, S....van der Werf, S. (2009). Molecular Epidemiology of Clade 1 Influenza A Viruses (H5N1), Southern Indochina Peninsula, 2004–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1641-1644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090115.

Melioidosis in a Tropical City State, Singapore [PDF - 504 KB - 3 pages]
T. J. Lo et al.

The incidence of melioidosis in Singapore decreased during 1998–2007, with the exception of the first quarter of 2004. After heavy rainfalls, an increase in pneumonic cases with a high case-fatality rate was detected. We show that melioidosis has the potential to reemerge following adverse climate events.

EID Lo TJ, Ang L, James L, Goh K. Melioidosis in a Tropical City State, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1645-1647. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090246
AMA Lo TJ, Ang L, James L, et al. Melioidosis in a Tropical City State, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1645-1647. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090246.
APA Lo, T. J., Ang, L., James, L., & Goh, K. (2009). Melioidosis in a Tropical City State, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1645-1647. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090246.

Escherichia coli as Reservoir for Macrolide Resistance Genes [PDF - 450 KB - 3 pages]
M. C. Nguyen et al.

The plasmid-borne mph(A) gene that confers resistance to azithromycin and has recently emerged in Shigella sonnei is present in multidrug- and non–multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from 4 continents. Further spread of mph(A) to Shigella and Salmonella spp. may be expected.

EID Nguyen MC, Woerther P, Bouvet M, Andremont A, Leclercq R, Canu A. Escherichia coli as Reservoir for Macrolide Resistance Genes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1648-1650. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090696
AMA Nguyen MC, Woerther P, Bouvet M, et al. Escherichia coli as Reservoir for Macrolide Resistance Genes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1648-1650. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090696.
APA Nguyen, M. C., Woerther, P., Bouvet, M., Andremont, A., Leclercq, R., & Canu, A. (2009). Escherichia coli as Reservoir for Macrolide Resistance Genes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1648-1650. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090696.

West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Morocco, 2008 [PDF - 445 KB - 3 pages]
J. Figuerola et al.

To determine circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) during nonepidemic times, we serosurveyed wild birds of Morocco in 2008. We found antibodies against WNV in 12 (3.5%) birds, against Usutu virus in 1 (0.3%), and against both in 2 (0.6%). High WNV prevalence among juvenile birds suggests local virus circulation among resident birds.

EID Figuerola J, Baouab RE, Soriguer R, Fassi-Fihri O, Llorente F, Jímenez-Clavero MA. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Morocco, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1651-1653. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090340
AMA Figuerola J, Baouab RE, Soriguer R, et al. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Morocco, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1651-1653. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090340.
APA Figuerola, J., Baouab, R. E., Soriguer, R., Fassi-Fihri, O., Llorente, F., & Jímenez-Clavero, M. A. (2009). West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Morocco, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1651-1653. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090340.

Novel Rickettsia in Ticks, Tasmania, Australia [PDF - 557 KB - 3 pages]
L. Izzard et al.

A novel rickettsia was detected in Ixodes tasmani ticks collected from Tasmanian devils. A total of 55% were positive for the citrate synthase gene by quantitative PCR. According to current criteria for rickettsia speciation, this new rickettsia qualifies as Candidatus Rickettsia tasmanensis, named after the location of its detection.

EID Izzard L, Graves S, Cox E, Fenwick S, Unsworth N, Stenos J. Novel Rickettsia in Ticks, Tasmania, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1654-1656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090799
AMA Izzard L, Graves S, Cox E, et al. Novel Rickettsia in Ticks, Tasmania, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1654-1656. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090799.
APA Izzard, L., Graves, S., Cox, E., Fenwick, S., Unsworth, N., & Stenos, J. (2009). Novel Rickettsia in Ticks, Tasmania, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1654-1656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090799.

Orangutans Not Infected with Plasmodium vivax or P. cynomolgi, Indonesia [PDF - 474 KB - 2 pages]
B. Singh and P. C. Divis

After orangutans in Indonesia were reported as infected with Plasmodium cynomolgi and P. vivax, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Plasmodium spp. We found that these orangutans are not hosts of P. cynomolgi and P. vivax. Analysis of >1 genes is needed to identify Plasmodium spp. infecting orangutans.

EID Singh B, Divis PC. Orangutans Not Infected with Plasmodium vivax or P. cynomolgi, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1657-1658. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090364
AMA Singh B, Divis PC. Orangutans Not Infected with Plasmodium vivax or P. cynomolgi, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1657-1658. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090364.
APA Singh, B., & Divis, P. C. (2009). Orangutans Not Infected with Plasmodium vivax or P. cynomolgi, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1657-1658. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090364.

Acute Q Fever and Scrub Typhus, Southern Taiwan [PDF - 657 KB - 3 pages]
C. Lai et al.

Acute Q fever and scrub typhus are zoonoses endemic to southern Taiwan. Among the 137 patients with acute Q fever (89, 65.0%) or scrub typhus (43, 31.4%), we identified 5 patients (3.6%) who were co-infected with Coxiella burnetii and Orientia tsutsugamushi.

EID Lai C, Chen Y, Lin J, Chang L, Chen W, Lin H. Acute Q Fever and Scrub Typhus, Southern Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1659-1661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090007
AMA Lai C, Chen Y, Lin J, et al. Acute Q Fever and Scrub Typhus, Southern Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1659-1661. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090007.
APA Lai, C., Chen, Y., Lin, J., Chang, L., Chen, W., & Lin, H. (2009). Acute Q Fever and Scrub Typhus, Southern Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1659-1661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090007.

Poor Clinical Sensitivity of Rapid Antigen Test for Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus [PDF - 430 KB - 3 pages]
A. Bispo de Filippis et al.

Influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus RNA was detected by reverse transcription–PCR in 144 clinical samples from Bonn, Germany. A common rapid antigen–based test detected the virus in only 11.1% of these samples. The paramount feature of rapid test–positive samples was high virus concentration. Antigen-based rapid tests appear unsuitable for virologic diagnostics in the current pandemic.

EID Bispo de Filippis A, Helmer A, Kirberg H, Reber U, Panning M, Müller MA, et al. Poor Clinical Sensitivity of Rapid Antigen Test for Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1662-1664. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.091186
AMA Bispo de Filippis A, Helmer A, Kirberg H, et al. Poor Clinical Sensitivity of Rapid Antigen Test for Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1662-1664. doi:10.3201/eid1510.091186.
APA Bispo de Filippis, A., Helmer, A., Kirberg, H., Reber, U., Panning, M., Müller, M. A....Eis-Hübinger, A. M. (2009). Poor Clinical Sensitivity of Rapid Antigen Test for Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1662-1664. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.091186.

Human Rickettsialpox, Southeastern Mexico [PDF - 439 KB - 3 pages]
J. E. Zavala-Castro et al.

The detection of Rickettsia akari in 2 human patients increased the diversity of rickettsioses affecting the public health in the southeast of Mexico. Rickettsialpox should be considered in the differential diagnosis with other febrile illnesses for the correct diagnosis and accurate treatment of this potential threat to human health.

EID Zavala-Castro JE, Zavala-Velázquez JE, Peniche-Lara GF, Uicab JE. Human Rickettsialpox, Southeastern Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1665-1667. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081507
AMA Zavala-Castro JE, Zavala-Velázquez JE, Peniche-Lara GF, et al. Human Rickettsialpox, Southeastern Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1665-1667. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081507.
APA Zavala-Castro, J. E., Zavala-Velázquez, J. E., Peniche-Lara, G. F., & Uicab, J. E. (2009). Human Rickettsialpox, Southeastern Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1665-1667. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081507.

West Nile Virus Infection in Plasma of Blood and Plasma Donors, United States [PDF - 520 KB - 3 pages]
C. B. Planitzer et al.

This study investigated the association of ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) infections with neutralizing antibody titers in US plasma-derived intravenous immune globulin released during 2003–2008. Titers correlated closely with the prevalence of past WNV infection in blood donors, with 2008 lots indicating a prevalence of 1%.

EID Planitzer CB, Modrof J, Yu MW, Kreil TR. West Nile Virus Infection in Plasma of Blood and Plasma Donors, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1668-1670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081668
AMA Planitzer CB, Modrof J, Yu MW, et al. West Nile Virus Infection in Plasma of Blood and Plasma Donors, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1668-1670. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081668.
APA Planitzer, C. B., Modrof, J., Yu, M. W., & Kreil, T. R. (2009). West Nile Virus Infection in Plasma of Blood and Plasma Donors, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1668-1670. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081668.

Tick-borne Encephalitis from Eating Goat Cheese in a Mountain Region of Austria [PDF - 446 KB - 3 pages]
H. Holzmann et al.

We report transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in July 2008 through nonpasteurized goat milk to 6 humans and 4 domestic pigs in an alpine pasture 1,500 m above sea level. This outbreak indicates the emergence of ticks and TBEV at increasing altitudes in central Europe and the efficiency of oral transmission of TBEV.

EID Holzmann H, Aberle SW, Stiasny K, Werner P, Mischak A, Zainer B, et al. Tick-borne Encephalitis from Eating Goat Cheese in a Mountain Region of Austria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1671-1673. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090743
AMA Holzmann H, Aberle SW, Stiasny K, et al. Tick-borne Encephalitis from Eating Goat Cheese in a Mountain Region of Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1671-1673. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090743.
APA Holzmann, H., Aberle, S. W., Stiasny, K., Werner, P., Mischak, A., Zainer, B....Heinz, F. X. (2009). Tick-borne Encephalitis from Eating Goat Cheese in a Mountain Region of Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1671-1673. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090743.

Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile [PDF - 552 KB - 3 pages]
J. López et al.

Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases.

EID López J, Abarca K, Cerda J, Valenzuela B, Lorca L, Olea A, et al. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1674-1676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081596
AMA López J, Abarca K, Cerda J, et al. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1674-1676. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081596.
APA López, J., Abarca, K., Cerda, J., Valenzuela, B., Lorca, L., Olea, A....Aguilera, X. (2009). Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1674-1676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081596.

Independent Lineage of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Wood Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), Spain [PDF - 598 KB - 4 pages]
J. Ledesma et al.

To clarify the presence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in Spain, we examined blood and tissue specimens from 866 small mammals. LCMV RNA was detected in 3 of 694 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the strains constitute a new evolutionary lineage. LCMV antibodies were detected in 4 of 10 rodent species tested.

EID Ledesma J, Fedele CG, Carro F, Lledó L, Sánchez-Seco M, Tenorio A, et al. Independent Lineage of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Wood Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1677-1680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090563
AMA Ledesma J, Fedele CG, Carro F, et al. Independent Lineage of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Wood Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1677-1680. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090563.
APA Ledesma, J., Fedele, C. G., Carro, F., Lledó, L., Sánchez-Seco, M., Tenorio, A....Gegúndez, M. I. (2009). Independent Lineage of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Wood Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1677-1680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090563.
Photo Quizzes

Photo Quiz [PDF - 457 KB - 3 pages]
M. G. Schultz
EID Schultz MG. Photo Quiz. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1682-1684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090129
AMA Schultz MG. Photo Quiz. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1682-1684. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090129.
APA Schultz, M. G. (2009). Photo Quiz. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1682-1684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090129.
Letters

Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak and School Closure, Osaka Prefecture, Japan [PDF - 321 KB - 1 page]
R. Kawaguchi et al.
EID Kawaguchi R, Miyazono M, Noda T, Takayama Y, Sasai Y, Iso H. Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak and School Closure, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.091029
AMA Kawaguchi R, Miyazono M, Noda T, et al. Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak and School Closure, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1685. doi:10.3201/eid1510.091029.
APA Kawaguchi, R., Miyazono, M., Noda, T., Takayama, Y., Sasai, Y., & Iso, H. (2009). Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Outbreak and School Closure, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.091029.

Maximizing the Value of Drug Stockpiles for Pandemic Influenza [PDF - 337 KB - 2 pages]
A. L. Po et al.
EID Po AL, Farndon P, Palmer N. Maximizing the Value of Drug Stockpiles for Pandemic Influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1686-1687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090844
AMA Po AL, Farndon P, Palmer N. Maximizing the Value of Drug Stockpiles for Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1686-1687. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090844.
APA Po, A. L., Farndon, P., & Palmer, N. (2009). Maximizing the Value of Drug Stockpiles for Pandemic Influenza. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1686-1687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090844.

Intrafamilial Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus [PDF - 377 KB - 3 pages]
S. A. Langhi et al.
EID Langhi SA, Robinson JO, Pearson JC, Christiansen KJ, Coombs GW, Murray RJ. Intrafamilial Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1687-1689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081532
AMA Langhi SA, Robinson JO, Pearson JC, et al. Intrafamilial Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1687-1689. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081532.
APA Langhi, S. A., Robinson, J. O., Pearson, J. C., Christiansen, K. J., Coombs, G. W., & Murray, R. J. (2009). Intrafamilial Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1687-1689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081532.

Rhombencephalitis and Coxsackievirus A16 [PDF - 373 KB - 3 pages]
K. Goto et al.
EID Goto K, Sanefuji M, Kusuhara K, Nishimura Y, Shimizu H, Kira R, et al. Rhombencephalitis and Coxsackievirus A16. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1689-1691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090594
AMA Goto K, Sanefuji M, Kusuhara K, et al. Rhombencephalitis and Coxsackievirus A16. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1689-1691. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090594.
APA Goto, K., Sanefuji, M., Kusuhara, K., Nishimura, Y., Shimizu, H., Kira, R....Hara, T. (2009). Rhombencephalitis and Coxsackievirus A16. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1689-1691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090594.

Japanese Encephalitis in Hill and Mountain Districts, Nepal [PDF - 330 KB - 2 pages]
A. Bhattachan et al.
EID Bhattachan A, Amatya S, Sedai TR, Upreti SR, Partridge J. Japanese Encephalitis in Hill and Mountain Districts, Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1691-1692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081641
AMA Bhattachan A, Amatya S, Sedai TR, et al. Japanese Encephalitis in Hill and Mountain Districts, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1691-1692. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081641.
APA Bhattachan, A., Amatya, S., Sedai, T. R., Upreti, S. R., & Partridge, J. (2009). Japanese Encephalitis in Hill and Mountain Districts, Nepal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1691-1692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081641.

Group B Streptococcus Meningitis in a Child with Cochlear Implant [PDF - 360 KB - 2 pages]
D. Glikman et al.
EID Glikman D, Luntz M, Shihada R, Zonis Z, Even L. Group B Streptococcus Meningitis in a Child with Cochlear Implant. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1695-1696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081243
AMA Glikman D, Luntz M, Shihada R, et al. Group B Streptococcus Meningitis in a Child with Cochlear Implant. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1695-1696. doi:10.3201/eid1510.081243.
APA Glikman, D., Luntz, M., Shihada, R., Zonis, Z., & Even, L. (2009). Group B Streptococcus Meningitis in a Child with Cochlear Implant. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1695-1696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.081243.

Severe Necrotizing Pneumonia in Children, Houston, Texas, USA [PDF - 377 KB - 3 pages]
A. S. Kalaskar et al.
EID Kalaskar AS, Heresi GP, Wanger A, Murphy JR, Wootton SH. Severe Necrotizing Pneumonia in Children, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1696-1698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090589
AMA Kalaskar AS, Heresi GP, Wanger A, et al. Severe Necrotizing Pneumonia in Children, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1696-1698. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090589.
APA Kalaskar, A. S., Heresi, G. P., Wanger, A., Murphy, J. R., & Wootton, S. H. (2009). Severe Necrotizing Pneumonia in Children, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1696-1698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090589.

Human Bocavirus 2 in Children, South Korea [PDF - 398 KB - 3 pages]
T. Han et al.
EID Han T, Chung J, Hwang E. Human Bocavirus 2 in Children, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1698-1700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090337
AMA Han T, Chung J, Hwang E. Human Bocavirus 2 in Children, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1698-1700. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090337.
APA Han, T., Chung, J., & Hwang, E. (2009). Human Bocavirus 2 in Children, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1698-1700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090337.

Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Infection and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonists [PDF - 354 KB - 2 pages]
R. M. Swart et al.
EID Swart RM, van Ingen J, van Soolingen D, Slingerland R, Hendriks WD, den Hollander JG. Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Infection and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonists. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1700-1701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090110
AMA Swart RM, van Ingen J, van Soolingen D, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Infection and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonists. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1700-1701. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090110.
APA Swart, R. M., van Ingen, J., van Soolingen, D., Slingerland, R., Hendriks, W. D., & den Hollander, J. G. (2009). Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Infection and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonists. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1700-1701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090110.

Transmission of Varicella Vaccine Virus, Japan [PDF - 369 KB - 2 pages]
T. Otsuka et al.
EID Otsuka T, Gomi Y, Inoue N, Uchiyama M. Transmission of Varicella Vaccine Virus, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1702-1703. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090597
AMA Otsuka T, Gomi Y, Inoue N, et al. Transmission of Varicella Vaccine Virus, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1702-1703. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090597.
APA Otsuka, T., Gomi, Y., Inoue, N., & Uchiyama, M. (2009). Transmission of Varicella Vaccine Virus, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1702-1703. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090597.

Aichi Virus Strains in Children with Gastroenteritis, China [PDF - 438 KB - 3 pages]
S. Yang et al.
EID Yang S, Zhang W, Shen Q, Yang Z, Zhu J, Cui L, et al. Aichi Virus Strains in Children with Gastroenteritis, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1703-1705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090522
AMA Yang S, Zhang W, Shen Q, et al. Aichi Virus Strains in Children with Gastroenteritis, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1703-1705. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090522.
APA Yang, S., Zhang, W., Shen, Q., Yang, Z., Zhu, J., Cui, L....Hua, X. G. (2009). Aichi Virus Strains in Children with Gastroenteritis, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1703-1705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090522.

Appropriate Screening for Leishmaniasis before Immunosuppressive Treatments [PDF - 317 KB - 2 pages]
A. Cascio and C. Iaria
EID Cascio A, Iaria C. Appropriate Screening for Leishmaniasis before Immunosuppressive Treatments. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1706-1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090881
AMA Cascio A, Iaria C. Appropriate Screening for Leishmaniasis before Immunosuppressive Treatments. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1706-1707. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090881.
APA Cascio, A., & Iaria, C. (2009). Appropriate Screening for Leishmaniasis before Immunosuppressive Treatments. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1706-1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090881.

Lessons from a Special Service for Public Health, Brazil [PDF - 322 KB - 1 page]
A. L. Mayberry and T. D. Baker
EID Mayberry AL, Baker TD. Lessons from a Special Service for Public Health, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090654
AMA Mayberry AL, Baker TD. Lessons from a Special Service for Public Health, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1693. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090654.
APA Mayberry, A. L., & Baker, T. D. (2009). Lessons from a Special Service for Public Health, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090654.

Ceftazidime-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Morocco [PDF - 336 KB - 3 pages]
B. Bouchrif et al.
EID Bouchrif B, Le Hello S, Pardos M, Karraouan B, Perrier-Gros-Claude J, Ennaji M, et al. Ceftazidime-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Morocco. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1693-1695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090247
AMA Bouchrif B, Le Hello S, Pardos M, et al. Ceftazidime-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1693-1695. doi:10.3201/eid1510.090247.
APA Bouchrif, B., Le Hello, S., Pardos, M., Karraouan, B., Perrier-Gros-Claude, J., Ennaji, M....Weill, F. (2009). Ceftazidime-Resistant Salmonella enterica, Morocco. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1693-1695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.090247.
Another Dimension

Red Snappers [PDF - 283 KB - 1 page]
E. E. McConnell
EID McConnell EE. Red Snappers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.ad1510
AMA McConnell EE. Red Snappers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1707. doi:10.3201/eid1510.ad1510.
APA McConnell, E. E. (2009). Red Snappers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.ad1510.
About the Cover

Alone Together Then and Now [PDF - 328 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Alone Together Then and Now. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1708-1709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.ac1510
AMA Potter P. Alone Together Then and Now. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1708-1709. doi:10.3201/eid1510.ac1510.
APA Potter, P. (2009). Alone Together Then and Now. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1708-1709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.ac1510.
Etymologia

Kobuvirus [PDF - 342 KB - 1 page]
EID Kobuvirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.e11510
AMA Kobuvirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1597. doi:10.3201/eid1510.e11510.
APA (2009). Kobuvirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1597. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.e11510.
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Page updated: August 11, 2017
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