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Volume 15, Number 3—March 2009


Sources of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in the Netherlands

Saskia A. RutjesComments to Author , Willemijn J. Lodder, Froukje Lodder-Verschoor, Harold H.J.L. van den Berg, Harry Vennema, Erwin Duizer, Marion Koopmans, and Ana Maria de Roda Husman
Author affiliations: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

Main Article

Table 1

Detection of hepatitis E virus RNA by RT-PCR for the ORF2 region of the genome in environmental samples, the Netherlands*

Source Origin Sample type Sampling year Matrix No. samples ORF2 (nt 6298–6494)†
No. (%) PCR positive Sequence
Pig Pig farm Pooled 2005 Feces 97 51 (53) 36‡
Individual 2002 Feces 2 2 (100) 2
Slaughterhouse Individual 2006 Feces 50 7 (14) 7
Butcher shop/ supermarket§ Individual 2005 Liver 62 4 (6) 3
Wild boar National Park Individual 2005 Feces 26 1 (4) 1
Muskrat Southeast Individual 1998–1999 Feces 150 0 0
Water Meuse River Filtered 2004–2005 Concentrate 12 2 (17) 2

*RT-PCR, reverse transcription–PCR; ORF, open reading frame.
†Position in Burmese hepatitis E virus strain (GenBank accession no. M73218).
‡Obtained by direct sequencing.
§Obtained from Bouwknegt et al. (28).

Main Article