Volume 15, Number 4—April 2009
Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza Virus A (H1N1), Europe, 2007–08 Season
|Country||ILI/ ARI†||Peak incidence rate/10,000 population during influenza season
||Peak incidence rates¶
|2000–01 through 2007–08
|| Dominant virus§
|Median||Range||Consecutive no. seasons‡||Incidence rate ratio||p value|
|Belgium||ILI||51.9||30.3–95.1||8||30.3 (H1)||38.0 (H1)||1.3||0.004|
|Czech Republic||ARI||188.1||134.5–320.0||8||310.2 (H1)||144.4 (H1)||0.5||1.000|
|Denmark||ILI||30.7||13.8–47.8||8||44.5 (H1)||13.8 (H1)||0.3||1.000|
|Germany||ARI||185.6||136.9–256.5||8||247.3 (H1)||136.9 (H1/B)||0.6||1.000|
|Ireland||ILI||7.5||2.9–12.1||8||12.1 (H1)||4.9 (H1/B)||0.4||1.000|
|Italy||ILI||79.5||27.6–428.2||8||56.7 (H1)||72.1 (H1/B)||1.3||0.0001|
|The Netherlands||ILI||10.3||6.6–24.0||8||6.9 (H1)||7.2 (H1/B)||1.0||0.400|
|Portugal||ILI||8.1||3.0–17.4||8||3.8 (H1)||6.2 (H1/B)||1.6||0.016|
|Slovakia||ILI||136.3||49.5–337.3||8||337.3 (H1)||49.5 (H1)||0.1||1.000|
|Slovenia||ILI||15.2||4.5–39.2||8||14.1 (H1)||20.4 (H1)||1.5||0.001|
|Spain||ILI||21.2||4.2–54.1||8||4.2 (H1)||20.3 (H1/B)||4.8||0.0001|
|Sweden#||ILI||2.0||1.6–5.8||5||5.8 (H1)||1.8 (B)||0.3||1.000|
|United Kingdom||ILI||3.8||2.7–8.4||8||5.5 (H1)||2.7 (H1/B)||0.5||1.000|
*ILI, influenza-like illness; ARI, acute respiratory infection; NA, data not available.
†For countries where both ILI and ARI data were available, only the ILI data are shown.
‡Leading up to 2007–08.
§Dominant virus estimated on the basis of combined sentinel and nonsentinel data. The limits for codominant virus types/subtypes were 45%:55%.
¶2007–08 compared with 2000–01. The incidence rate ratio was calculated by dividing the peak incidence rate for 2007–08 by the peak incidence rate for 2000–01. If the p value estimated using z-statistics is <0.05, the incidence rate ratio is significantly >1, and therefore the peak incidence rate for 2007–08 is significantly higher than that for 2000–01.
#Data for seasons 2002–03, 2003–04, and 2004–05 were missing.
1European Influenza Surveillance Scheme members, 2007–08 season: P. Lachner, T. Popow-Kraupp, R. Strauss (Austria); B. Brochier, M. Sabbe, I. Thomas, V. Casteren, F. Yane (Belgium); T. Georgieva, M. Kojouharova, R. Kotseva, A. Kurchatova (Bulgaria); B. Aleraj, V. Drazenovic (Croatia); D. Bagatzouni-Pieridou, A. Elia (Cyprus); M. Havlickova, J. Kyncl (Czech Republic); S. Glismann, A. Mazick, L. Nielsen (Denmark); D.M. Fleming, A. Lackenby, J. Watson, M. Zambon (England); O. Sadikova, I. Sarv (Estonia); T. Ziegler (Finland); J.-M. Cohen, V. Enouf, B. Lina, A. Mosnier, M. Valette, S. van der Werf (France); U. Buchholz, W. Haas, B. Schweiger (Germany); A.G. Kossivakis, V. Kyriazopoulou-Dalaina, A. Mentis, G. Spala (Greece); G. Berencsi, A. Csohán, I. Jankovics (Hungary); S. Coughlan, L. Domegan, M. Duffy, M. Joyce, J. O’Donnell, D. O'Flanagan (Ireland); F. Ansaldi, P. Crovari, I. Donatelli, F. Pregliasco (Italy); R. Nikiforova, I. Van Velicko, N. Zamjatina (Latvia); A. Griskevicius, N. Kupreviciene, G. Rimseliene (Lithuania); J. Mossong, M. Opp (Luxembourg); C. Barbara, T. Melillo (Malta); A. Arkema, T. Meerhoff, W.J. Paget, K. van der Velden, (EISS-CC, the Netherlands); F. Dijkstra, G. Donker, J.C. de Jong, A. Meijer, G. Rimmelzwaan, M. van der Sande, B. Wilbrink (the Netherlands); P. Coyle, H. Kennedy, H. O’Neill (Northern Ireland); O. Hungnes, B. Iversen (Norway); L. Brydak, M. Romanowska (Poland); I.M. Falcão, J.M. Falcão, H. Rebelo de Andrade (Portugal); V. Alexandrescu, E. Lupulescu (Romania); W. Carman, R. Gunson, J. Kean, J. McMenamin (Scotland); N. Milic, J. Nedeljkovic (Serbia); H. Blaskovicova, Z. Kristufkova, M. Sláciková (Slovakia); K. Prosenc, M. Socan (Slovenia); I. Casas, A. Larrrauri, S. de Mateo, R. Ortiz de Lejarazu, P. Pérez-Breña, T. Pumarola Suñé, T. Vega Alonso (Spain); M. Brytting, A. Linde, P. Penttinen, S. Rubinova (Sweden); Y. Thomas, M. Witschi (Switzerland); N. Yilmaz (Turkey); M. Aranova, A. Mironenko (Ukraine); A. Hay (United Kingdom); and R. Jones, D. Thomas (Wales).
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