Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 15, Number 5—May 2009

Population-Attributable Risk Estimates for Campylobacter Infection, Australia

Article Metrics
citations of this article
EID Journal Metrics on Scopus

Cite This Article

To the Editor

Many industrialized countries have a high incidence of Campylobacter infections. An estimated 250,000 cases of Campylobacter infection occur annually in the United States (1), and several sequelae compound the impact of these infections. The incidence of Campylobacter infections is also important to policy-makers—in the United Kingdom it is used to assess foodborne disease–reduction strategies (2)—and governments worldwide rely on the findings of epidemiologic and microbiological studies on Campylobacter infection to shape their food-safety policies.

Population-attributable fractions provide added value in case–control studies by helping researchers identify the most important risk factors for a condition on the basis of risk association and frequency of exposure. In an analysis of data from a previous case–control study of Campylobacter infection (3), Stafford et al. (4) used population-attributable fractions to estimate the annual number of Campylobacter infection cases among Australians >5 years of age that were attributable to each risk factor from that study. Using this technique, they estimated that 50,500 cases annually can be attributed directly to eating chicken.

Population-attributable fractions have been defined as “the proportion of disease cases over a specified time that would be prevented following elimination of … exposure [to the specified risk factors]” (5). Therefore, removing exposure to factors not associated with disease risk will not affect disease incidence. Stafford and colleagues implicitly acknowledge this in their methods: “We calculated PARs [population-attributable risks] … for each variable that was significantly associated with an increased risk for infection.” It is surprising, therefore, that they subsequently included consumption of cooked chicken in their extrapolation, even though this exposure was not significantly associated with illness (adjusted odds ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0–1.9, p = 0.06). Because they attributed 35,500 of the 50,500 cases of Campylobacter infection to the consumption of cooked chicken, I believe that Stafford et al. overestimated the role of chicken consumption in cases of Campylobacter infection by a factor of 3.4.


Iain GillespieComments to Author 

Author affiliation: Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK



  1. Mead  PS, Slutsker  L, Dietz  V, McCaig  LF, Bresee  JS, Shapiro  C, Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:60725.PubMed
  2. Adak  GK, Long  SM, O'Brien  SJ. Trends in indigenous foodborne disease and deaths, England and Wales: 1992 to 2000. Gut. 2002;51:83241. DOIPubMed
  3. Stafford  RJ, Schluter  P, Kirk  M, Wilson  A, Unicomb  L, Ashbolt  R, A multi-centre prospective case–control study of Campylobacter infection in persons aged 5 years and older in Australia. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:97888. DOIPubMed
  4. Stafford  RJ, Schluter  PJ, Wilson  AJ, Kirk  MD, Hall  G, Unicomb  L. Population-attributable risk estimates for risk factors associated with Campylobacter infection, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:895901. DOIPubMed
  5. Rockhill  B, Newman  B, Weinberg  C. Use and misuse of population-attributable fractions. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:159. DOIPubMed


Cite This Article

DOI: 10.3201/eid1505.081553

Related Links


Table of Contents – Volume 15, Number 5—May 2009


Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address:

Iain Gillespie, Health Protection Agency, Division of Gastrointestinal, Zoonotic and Emerging Infections, 61 Colindale Ave, London NW9 5EQ, UK

Russell James Stafford, Queensland Health, GPO Box 48, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia

Send To

character(s) remaining.

Comment submitted successfully, thank you for your feedback.


Page created: December 16, 2010
Page updated: December 16, 2010
Page reviewed: December 16, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.