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Issue Cover for Volume 15, Number 5—May 2009

Volume 15, Number 5—May 2009

[PDF - 8.01 MB - 175 pages]

Synopses

Use of Unstructured Event-Based Reports for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance [PDF - 129 KB - 7 pages]
M. Keller et al.

Free or low-cost sources of unstructured information, such as Internet news and online discussion sites, provide detailed local and near real-time data on disease outbreaks, even in countries that lack traditional public health surveillance. To improve public health surveillance and, ultimately, interventions, we examined 3 primary systems that process event-based outbreak information: Global Public Health Intelligence Network, HealthMap, and EpiSPIDER. Despite similarities among them, these systems are highly complementary because they monitor different data types, rely on varying levels of automation and human analysis, and distribute distinct information. Future development should focus on linking these systems more closely to public health practitioners in the field and establishing collaborative networks for alert verification and dissemination. Such development would further establish event-based monitoring as an invaluable public health resource that provides critical context and an alternative to traditional indicator-based outbreak reporting.

EID Keller M, Blench M, Tolentino H, Freifeld CC, Mandl KD, Mawudeku A, et al. Use of Unstructured Event-Based Reports for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):689-695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081114
AMA Keller M, Blench M, Tolentino H, et al. Use of Unstructured Event-Based Reports for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):689-695. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081114.
APA Keller, M., Blench, M., Tolentino, H., Freifeld, C. C., Mandl, K. D., Mawudeku, A....Brownstein, J. S. (2009). Use of Unstructured Event-Based Reports for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 689-695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081114.
Research

Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet [PDF - 2.39 MB - 8 pages]
R. C. Angers et al.

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, fatal prion disease of deer and elk that continues to emerge in new locations. To explore the means by which prions are transmitted with high efficiency among cervids, we examined prion infectivity in the apical skin layer covering the growing antler (antler velvet) by using CWD-susceptible transgenic mice and protein misfolding cyclic amplification. Our finding of prions in antler velvet of CWD-affected elk suggests that this tissue may play a role in disease transmission among cervids. Humans who consume antler velvet as a nutritional supplement are at risk for exposure to prions. The fact that CWD prion incubation times in transgenic mice expressing elk prion protein are consistently more rapid raises the possibility that residue 226, the sole primary structural difference between deer and elk prion protein, may be a major determinant of CWD pathogenesis.

EID Angers RC, Seward TS, Napier D, Green M, Hoover E, Spraker T, et al. Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):696-703. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081458
AMA Angers RC, Seward TS, Napier D, et al. Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):696-703. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081458.
APA Angers, R. C., Seward, T. S., Napier, D., Green, M., Hoover, E., Spraker, T....Telling, G. C. (2009). Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 696-703. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081458.

Virulent Strain of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3, Japan [PDF - 311 KB - 6 pages]
K. Takahashi et al.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3, which usually causes asymptomatic infection in Japan, induced severe hepatitis in 8 patients. To better understand genetic features of HEV associated with increased virulence, we determined the complete or near-complete nucleotide sequences of HEV from these 8 patients and from 5 swine infected with genotype 3 strain swJ19. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates from the 8 patients and the 5 swine grouped separately from the other genotype 3 isolates to create a unique cluster, designated JIO. The human JIO-related viruses encoded 18 amino acids different from those of the other HEV genotype 3 strains. One substitution common to almost all human HEV strains in the JIO cluster was located in the helicase domain (V239A) and may be associated with increased virulence. A zoonotic origin of JIO-related viruses is suspected because the isolates from the 5 swine also possessed the signature V239A substitution in helicase.

EID Takahashi K, Okamoto H, Abe N, Kawakami M, Matsuda H, Mochida S, et al. Virulent Strain of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):704-709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081100
AMA Takahashi K, Okamoto H, Abe N, et al. Virulent Strain of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):704-709. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081100.
APA Takahashi, K., Okamoto, H., Abe, N., Kawakami, M., Matsuda, H., Mochida, S....Mishiro, S. (2009). Virulent Strain of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 704-709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081100.

A Case–Control Study on the Origin of Atypical Scrapie in Sheep, France [PDF - 394 KB - 9 pages]
A. Fediaevsky et al.

A matched case–control study (95 cases and 220 controls) was designed to study risk factors for atypical scrapie in sheep in France. We analyzed contacts with animals from other flocks, lambing and feeding practices, and exposure to toxic substances. Data on the prnp genotype were collected for some case and control animals and included in a complementary analysis. Sheep dairy farms had a higher risk for scrapie (odds ratio [OR] 15.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.3–69.7). Lower risk was associated with organic farms (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.02–1.26), feeding corn silage (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.05–0.53), and feeding vitamin and mineral supplements (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.32–1.14). Genetic effects were quantitatively important but only marginally changed estimates of other variables. We did not find any risk factor associated with an infectious origin of scrapie. Atypical scrapie could be a spontaneous disease influenced by genetic and metabolic factors.

EID Fediaevsky A, Morignat E, Ducrot C, Calavas D. A Case–Control Study on the Origin of Atypical Scrapie in Sheep, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):710-718. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081119
AMA Fediaevsky A, Morignat E, Ducrot C, et al. A Case–Control Study on the Origin of Atypical Scrapie in Sheep, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):710-718. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081119.
APA Fediaevsky, A., Morignat, E., Ducrot, C., & Calavas, D. (2009). A Case–Control Study on the Origin of Atypical Scrapie in Sheep, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 710-718. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081119.

New Respiratory Enterovirus and Recombinant Rhinoviruses among Circulating Picornaviruses [PDF - 295 KB - 8 pages]
C. Tapparel et al.

Rhinoviruses and enteroviruses are leading causes of respiratory infections. To evaluate genotypic diversity and identify forces shaping picornavirus evolution, we screened persons with respiratory illnesses by using rhinovirus-specific or generic real-time PCR assays. We then sequenced the 5′ untranslated region, capsid protein VP1, and protease precursor 3CD regions of virus-positive samples. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis identified the large genotypic diversity of rhinoviruses circulating in humans. We identified and completed the genome sequence of a new enterovirus genotype associated with respiratory symptoms and acute otitis media, confirming the close relationship between rhinoviruses and enteroviruses and the need to detect both viruses in respiratory specimens. Finally, we identified recombinants among circulating rhinoviruses and mapped their recombination sites, thereby demonstrating that rhinoviruses can recombine in their natural host. This study clarifies the diversity and explains the reasons for evolution of these viruses.

EID Tapparel C, Junier T, Gerlach D, Van Belle S, Turin L, Cordey S, et al. New Respiratory Enterovirus and Recombinant Rhinoviruses among Circulating Picornaviruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):719-726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081286
AMA Tapparel C, Junier T, Gerlach D, et al. New Respiratory Enterovirus and Recombinant Rhinoviruses among Circulating Picornaviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):719-726. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081286.
APA Tapparel, C., Junier, T., Gerlach, D., Van Belle, S., Turin, L., Cordey, S....Kaiser, L. (2009). New Respiratory Enterovirus and Recombinant Rhinoviruses among Circulating Picornaviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 719-726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081286.

Cross-Border Dissemination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Euregio Meuse-Rhin Region [PDF - 560 KB - 8 pages]
R. H. Deurenberg et al.

Because the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) differs among the 3 countries forming the Euregio Meuse-Rhin (EMR) region (Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands), cross-border healthcare requires information about the spread of MRSA in the EMR. We investigated the emergence, dissemination, and diversity of MRSA clones in the EMR by using several typing methods. MRSA associated with clonal complexes 5, 8, 30, and 45 was disseminated throughout the EMR. Dutch isolates, mainly associated with sequence types (ST) ST5-MRSA-II, ST5-MRSA-IV, ST8-MRSA-IV, and ST45-MSRA-IV had a more diverse genetic background than the isolates from Belgium and Germany, associated with ST45-MRSA-IV and ST5-MRSA-II, respectively. MRSA associated with pigs (ST398-MRSA-IV/V) was found in the Dutch area of the EMR. Five percent of the MRSA isolates harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin and were classified as community-associated MRSA associated with ST1, 8, 30, 80, and 89.

EID Deurenberg RH, Nulens E, Valvatne H, Sebastian S, Driessen C, Craeghs J, et al. Cross-Border Dissemination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Euregio Meuse-Rhin Region. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):727-734. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.071618
AMA Deurenberg RH, Nulens E, Valvatne H, et al. Cross-Border Dissemination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Euregio Meuse-Rhin Region. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):727-734. doi:10.3201/eid1505.071618.
APA Deurenberg, R. H., Nulens, E., Valvatne, H., Sebastian, S., Driessen, C., Craeghs, J....Stobberingh, E. E. (2009). Cross-Border Dissemination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Euregio Meuse-Rhin Region. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 727-734. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.071618.

Chloroquine-Resistant Haplotype Plasmodium falciparum Parasites, Haiti [PDF - 255 KB - 6 pages]
B. L. Londono et al.

Plasmodium falciparum parasites have been endemic to Haiti for >40 years without evidence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance. In 2006 and 2007, we obtained blood smears for rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and filter paper blots of blood from 821 persons by passive and active case detection. P. falciparum infections diagnosed for 79 persons by blood smear or RDT were confirmed by PCR for the small subunit rRNA gene of P. falciparum. Amplification of the P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene yielded 10 samples with amplicons resistant to cleavage by ApoI. A total of 5 of 9 samples had threonine at position 76 of pfcrt, which is consistent with CQ resistance (haplotypes at positions 72–76 were CVIET [n = 4] and CVMNT [n = 1]); 4 had only the wild-type haplotype associated with CQ susceptibility (CVMNK). These results indicate that CQ-resistant haplotype P. falciparum malaria parasites are present in Haiti.

EID Londono BL, Eisele TP, Keating J, Bennett A, Chattopadhyay C, Heyliger G, et al. Chloroquine-Resistant Haplotype Plasmodium falciparum Parasites, Haiti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):735-740. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081063
AMA Londono BL, Eisele TP, Keating J, et al. Chloroquine-Resistant Haplotype Plasmodium falciparum Parasites, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):735-740. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081063.
APA Londono, B. L., Eisele, T. P., Keating, J., Bennett, A., Chattopadhyay, C., Heyliger, G....Krogstad, D. J. (2009). Chloroquine-Resistant Haplotype Plasmodium falciparum Parasites, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 735-740. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081063.

CTX-M β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli from Community-acquired Urinary Tract Infections, Cambodia [PDF - 453 KB - 8 pages]
E. Ruppé et al.

Despite the recent global spread of CTX-M β-lactamases in Escherichia coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs), their dissemination has been little studied in developing countries. In a 2-year prospective study, we documented the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in E. coli that were responsible for CA-UTIs in Phnom-Penh, Cambodia. Ninety-three E. coli strains were included. We observed a high prevalence of resistance to amoxicillin (88.2% of strains), cotrimoxazole (75.3%), ciprofloxacin (67.7%), gentamicin (42.5%), and third-generation cephalosporins (37.7%). A total of 34 strains carried ESBLs, all of which were CTX-M type. CTX-M carriage was associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. U using repetitive extragenic palindromic–PCR, we identified 4 clusters containing 9, 8, 3, and 2 strains. The prevalence of CTX-M β-lactamases has reached a critical level in Cambodia, which highlights the need for study of their spread in developing countries.

EID Ruppé E, Hem S, Lath S, Gautier V, Ariey F, Sarthou J, et al. CTX-M β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli from Community-acquired Urinary Tract Infections, Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):741-748. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.071299
AMA Ruppé E, Hem S, Lath S, et al. CTX-M β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli from Community-acquired Urinary Tract Infections, Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):741-748. doi:10.3201/eid1505.071299.
APA Ruppé, E., Hem, S., Lath, S., Gautier, V., Ariey, F., Sarthou, J....Arlet, G. (2009). CTX-M β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli from Community-acquired Urinary Tract Infections, Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 741-748. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.071299.

Medscape CME Activity
Increased Risk for Severe Malaria in HIV-1–infected Adults, Zambia [PDF - 335 KB - 7 pages]
V. Chalwe et al.

To determine whether HIV-1 infection and HIV-1–related immunosuppression were risk factors for severe malaria in adults with some immunity to malaria, we conducted a case–control study in Luanshya, Zambia, during December 2005–March 2007. For each case-patient with severe malaria, we selected 2 matched controls (an adult with uncomplicated malaria and an adult without signs of disease). HIV-1 infection was present in 93% of case-patients, in 52% of controls with uncomplicated malaria, and in 45% of asymptomatic controls. HIV-1 infection was a highly significant risk factor for adults with severe malaria compared with controls with uncomplicated malaria (odds ratio [OR] 12.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0–78.8, p = 0.0005) and asymptomatic controls (OR 16.6, 95% CI 2.5–111.5, p = 0.0005). Persons with severe malaria were more likely to have a CD4 count <350/µL than were asymptomatic controls (OR 23.0, 95% CI 3.35–158.00, p<0.0001).

EID Chalwe V, Mukwamataba D, Menten J, Kamalamba J, Mulenga M, D’Alessandro U, et al. Increased Risk for Severe Malaria in HIV-1–infected Adults, Zambia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):749-755. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081009
AMA Chalwe V, Mukwamataba D, Menten J, et al. Increased Risk for Severe Malaria in HIV-1–infected Adults, Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):749-755. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081009.
APA Chalwe, V., Mukwamataba, D., Menten, J., Kamalamba, J., Mulenga, M., D’Alessandro, U....Van Geertruyden, J. (2009). Increased Risk for Severe Malaria in HIV-1–infected Adults, Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 749-755. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081009.

Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1) among Residents of Villages with Human Cases, Thailand, 2005 [PDF - 297 KB - 5 pages]
R. Dejpichai et al.

In 2005, we assessed the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies to avian influenza virus A (H5N1) among 901 residents of 4 villages in Thailand where at least 1 confirmed human case of influenza (H5N1) had occurred during 2004. Although 68.1% of survey participants (median age 40 years) were exposed to backyard poultry and 25.7% were exposed to sick or dead chickens, all participants were seronegative for influenza virus (H5N1).

EID Dejpichai R, Laosiritaworn Y, Phuthavathana P, Uyeki TM, O’Reilly M, Yampikulsakul N, et al. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1) among Residents of Villages with Human Cases, Thailand, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):756-760. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080316
AMA Dejpichai R, Laosiritaworn Y, Phuthavathana P, et al. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1) among Residents of Villages with Human Cases, Thailand, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):756-760. doi:10.3201/eid1505.080316.
APA Dejpichai, R., Laosiritaworn, Y., Phuthavathana, P., Uyeki, T. M., O’Reilly, M., Yampikulsakul, N....Jiraphongsa, C. (2009). Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1) among Residents of Villages with Human Cases, Thailand, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 756-760. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080316.

Hospitalizations and Deaths Associated with Clostridium difficile Infection, Finland, 1996–2004 [PDF - 227 KB - 5 pages]
O. Lyytikäinen et al.

To determine whether the rate of Clostridium difficile–associated disease (CDAD) and CDAD-related deaths were increasing in Finland, we analyzed registry data from 1996 through 2004. We determined the number of hospital discharges that had a diagnosis code specific for CDAD from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision: “enterocolitis due to Clostridium difficile” (A04.7) and “pseudomembranous enterocolitis associated with antimicrobial therapy” (K52.8), listed as any diagnosis in the National Hospital Discharge Registry. CDAD-related deaths were identified from death certificates. Those discharged with a CDAD diagnosis doubled from 810 (16/100,000 population) in 1996 to 1,787 (34/100,000) in 2004. The increase was most prominent for patients >64 years of age but concerned only those discharged with diagnosis code A04.7. The number of those discharged with diagnosis code K52.8 remained stable. The age-standardized mortality rate associated with CDAD increased from 9/million in 1998 to 17/million in 2004; the increase was limited to persons >64 years of age.

EID Lyytikäinen O, Turunen H, Sund R, Rasinperä M, Könönen E, Ruutu P, et al. Hospitalizations and Deaths Associated with Clostridium difficile Infection, Finland, 1996–2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):761-765. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081154
AMA Lyytikäinen O, Turunen H, Sund R, et al. Hospitalizations and Deaths Associated with Clostridium difficile Infection, Finland, 1996–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):761-765. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081154.
APA Lyytikäinen, O., Turunen, H., Sund, R., Rasinperä, M., Könönen, E., Ruutu, P....Keskimäki, I. (2009). Hospitalizations and Deaths Associated with Clostridium difficile Infection, Finland, 1996–2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 761-765. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081154.
Dispatches

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from Human Patients, Upper Austria [PDF - 255 KB - 4 pages]
K. Krziwanek et al.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal type ST398 is usually associated with animals. We examined 1,098 confirmed MRSA samples from human patients and found that 21 were MRSA ST398. Most (16) patients were farmers. Increasing prevalence from 1.3% (2006) to 2.5% (2008) shows emergence of MRSA ST398 in humans in Austria.

EID Krziwanek K, Metz-Gercek S, Mittermayer H. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from Human Patients, Upper Austria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):766-769. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080326
AMA Krziwanek K, Metz-Gercek S, Mittermayer H. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from Human Patients, Upper Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):766-769. doi:10.3201/eid1505.080326.
APA Krziwanek, K., Metz-Gercek, S., & Mittermayer, H. (2009). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from Human Patients, Upper Austria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 766-769. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080326.

Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
J. J. Evans et al.

Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

EID Evans JJ, Klesius PH, Pasnik DJ, Bohnsack JF. Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):774-776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080222
AMA Evans JJ, Klesius PH, Pasnik DJ, et al. Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):774-776. doi:10.3201/eid1505.080222.
APA Evans, J. J., Klesius, P. H., Pasnik, D. J., & Bohnsack, J. F. (2009). Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 774-776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080222.

Cowpox Virus Transmission from Pet Rats to Humans, Germany [PDF - 215 KB - 4 pages]
H. Campe et al.

We describe a cluster of cowpox virus (CPXV) infections in humans that occurred near Munich, Germany, around the beginning of 2009. Previously, only sporadic reports of CPXV infections in humans after direct contact with various animals had been published. This outbreak involved pet rats from the same litter.

EID Campe H, Zimmermann P, Glos K, Bayer M, Bergemann H, Dreweck C, et al. Cowpox Virus Transmission from Pet Rats to Humans, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):777-780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.090159
AMA Campe H, Zimmermann P, Glos K, et al. Cowpox Virus Transmission from Pet Rats to Humans, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):777-780. doi:10.3201/eid1505.090159.
APA Campe, H., Zimmermann, P., Glos, K., Bayer, M., Bergemann, H., Dreweck, C....Sing, A. (2009). Cowpox Virus Transmission from Pet Rats to Humans, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 777-780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.090159.

Cowpox Virus Transmission from Pet Rats to Humans, France [PDF - 359 KB - 4 pages]
L. Ninove et al.

In early 2009, four human cases of cowpox virus cutaneous infection in northern France, resulting from direct contact with infected pet rats (Rattus norvegicus), were studied. Pet rats, originating from the same pet store, were shown to be infected by a unique virus strain. Infection was then transmitted to humans who purchased or had contact with pet rats.

EID Ninove L, Domart Y, Vervel C, Voinot C, Salez N, Raoult D, et al. Cowpox Virus Transmission from Pet Rats to Humans, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):781-784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.090235
AMA Ninove L, Domart Y, Vervel C, et al. Cowpox Virus Transmission from Pet Rats to Humans, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):781-784. doi:10.3201/eid1505.090235.
APA Ninove, L., Domart, Y., Vervel, C., Voinot, C., Salez, N., Raoult, D....Charrel, R. N. (2009). Cowpox Virus Transmission from Pet Rats to Humans, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 781-784. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.090235.

Babesiosis Acquired through Blood Transfusion, California, USA [PDF - 142 KB - 3 pages]
V. Ngo and R. Civen

Babesiosis was reported in a California resident who received a transfusion of blood products collected in the disease-endemic northeastern region of the United States. Babesiosis should be considered year-round in the diagnosis of febrile and afebrile patients with abnormal blood cell counts who have received blood products from disease-endemic areas.

EID Ngo V, Civen R. Babesiosis Acquired through Blood Transfusion, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):785-787. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081562
AMA Ngo V, Civen R. Babesiosis Acquired through Blood Transfusion, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):785-787. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081562.
APA Ngo, V., & Civen, R. (2009). Babesiosis Acquired through Blood Transfusion, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 785-787. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081562.

Probable Congenital Babesiosis in Infant, New Jersey, USA [PDF - 234 KB - 4 pages]
S. Sethi et al.

Only 2 neonates with transplacentally or perinatally acquired (congenital) babesiosis have been reported. We describe a probable third congenital case of babesiosis in a 26-day-old infant; transmission was determined on the basis of a blood smear from the infant (15% parasitemia) and serologic results from the infant and mother.

EID Sethi S, Alcid D, Kesarwala H, Tolan RW. Probable Congenital Babesiosis in Infant, New Jersey, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):788-791. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.070808
AMA Sethi S, Alcid D, Kesarwala H, et al. Probable Congenital Babesiosis in Infant, New Jersey, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):788-791. doi:10.3201/eid1505.070808.
APA Sethi, S., Alcid, D., Kesarwala, H., & Tolan, R. W. (2009). Probable Congenital Babesiosis in Infant, New Jersey, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 788-791. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.070808.

Genotype Distribution and Sequence Variation of Hepatitis E Virus, Hong Kong [PDF - 199 KB - 3 pages]
W. Lam et al.

Most acute cases of infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Hong Kong were autochthonous, sporadic, and occurred in older adults. All except 1 isolate belonged to genotype 4; most were phylogenetically related to swine isolates. The epidemiology is similar to that in industrialized countries, where zoonosis is the major source of HEV infection in humans.

EID Lam W, Chan RC, Sung J, Chan RC. Genotype Distribution and Sequence Variation of Hepatitis E Virus, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):792-794. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081579
AMA Lam W, Chan RC, Sung J, et al. Genotype Distribution and Sequence Variation of Hepatitis E Virus, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):792-794. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081579.
APA Lam, W., Chan, R. C., Sung, J., & Chan, R. C. (2009). Genotype Distribution and Sequence Variation of Hepatitis E Virus, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 792-794. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081579.

Canine Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Spain [PDF - 203 KB - 4 pages]
J. Martín-Sánchez et al.

To examine prevalence changes and risk factors for canine leishmaniasis, we conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and a survey during April–June 2006. Seroprevalence had increased at the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic level over 22 years. Risk was highest for dogs that were older, large, lived outside, and lived at the meso-Mediterranean level.

EID Martín-Sánchez J, Morales-Yuste M, Acedo-Sánchez C, Barón S, Díaz V, Morillas-Márquez F. Canine Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):795-798. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080969
AMA Martín-Sánchez J, Morales-Yuste M, Acedo-Sánchez C, et al. Canine Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):795-798. doi:10.3201/eid1505.080969.
APA Martín-Sánchez, J., Morales-Yuste, M., Acedo-Sánchez, C., Barón, S., Díaz, V., & Morillas-Márquez, F. (2009). Canine Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 795-798. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080969.

Real-Time Surveillance for Respiratory Disease Outbreaks, Ontario, Canada [PDF - 199 KB - 3 pages]
A. van Dijk et al.

To validate the utility of a chief complaint–based emergency department surveillance system, we compared it with respiratory diagnostic data and calls to Telehealth Ontario about respiratory disease. This local syndromic surveillance system accurately monitored status of respiratory diseases in the community and contributed to early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks.

EID van Dijk A, Aramini J, Edge G, Moore KM. Real-Time Surveillance for Respiratory Disease Outbreaks, Ontario, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):799-801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081174
AMA van Dijk A, Aramini J, Edge G, et al. Real-Time Surveillance for Respiratory Disease Outbreaks, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):799-801. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081174.
APA van Dijk, A., Aramini, J., Edge, G., & Moore, K. M. (2009). Real-Time Surveillance for Respiratory Disease Outbreaks, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 799-801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081174.

Possible Seasonality of Clostridium difficile in Retail Meat, Canada [PDF - 255 KB - 4 pages]
A. Rodriguez-Palacios et al.

We previously reported Clostridium difficile in 20% of retail meat in Canada, which raised concerns about potential foodborne transmissibility. Here, we studied the genetic diversity of C. difficile in retail meats, using a broad Canadian sampling infrastructure and 3 culture methods. We found 6.1% prevalence and indications of possible seasonality (highest prevalence in winter).

EID Rodriguez-Palacios A, Reid-Smith RJ, Staempfli HR, Daignault D, Janecko N, Avery BP, et al. Possible Seasonality of Clostridium difficile in Retail Meat, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):802-805. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081084
AMA Rodriguez-Palacios A, Reid-Smith RJ, Staempfli HR, et al. Possible Seasonality of Clostridium difficile in Retail Meat, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):802-805. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081084.
APA Rodriguez-Palacios, A., Reid-Smith, R. J., Staempfli, H. R., Daignault, D., Janecko, N., Avery, B. P....Weese, J. (2009). Possible Seasonality of Clostridium difficile in Retail Meat, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 802-805. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081084.

Novel Respiratory Virus Infections in Children, Brazil [PDF - 279 KB - 3 pages]
M. C. Albuquerque et al.

Recently discovered respiratory viruses were detected in 19 (9.2%) of 205 nasal swab specimens from children in Brazil with respiratory illnesses. Five each were positive for human metapneumovirus (HMPV) alone and human bocavirus (HBoV) alone, 3 for human coronaviruses (HCoV-HKU1 or -NL63) alone, and 6 for more than 1 recently discovered virus.

EID Albuquerque MC, Pena GP, Varella RB, Gallucci G, Erdman DD, Santos N. Novel Respiratory Virus Infections in Children, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):806-808. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081603
AMA Albuquerque MC, Pena GP, Varella RB, et al. Novel Respiratory Virus Infections in Children, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):806-808. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081603.
APA Albuquerque, M. C., Pena, G. P., Varella, R. B., Gallucci, G., Erdman, D. D., & Santos, N. (2009). Novel Respiratory Virus Infections in Children, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 806-808. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081603.

Reduced Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Salmonella enterica Isolates from Travelers, Finland [PDF - 278 KB - 4 pages]
M. M. Lindgren et al.

We tested the fluoroquinolone susceptibility of 499 Salmonella enterica isolates collected from travelers returning to Finland during 2003–2007. Among isolates from travelers to Thailand and Malaysia, reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility decreased from 65% to 22% (p = 0.002). All isolates showing nonclassical quinolone resistance were from travelers to these 2 countries.

EID Lindgren MM, Kotilainen P, Huovinen P, Hurme S, Lukinmaa S, Webber MA, et al. Reduced Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Salmonella enterica Isolates from Travelers, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):809-812. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080849
AMA Lindgren MM, Kotilainen P, Huovinen P, et al. Reduced Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Salmonella enterica Isolates from Travelers, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):809-812. doi:10.3201/eid1505.080849.
APA Lindgren, M. M., Kotilainen, P., Huovinen, P., Hurme, S., Lukinmaa, S., Webber, M. A....Hakanen, A. J. (2009). Reduced Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Salmonella enterica Isolates from Travelers, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 809-812. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080849.

Molecular Epidemiology of Feline and Human Bartonella henselae Isolates [PDF - 183 KB - 4 pages]
R. Bouchouicha et al.

Multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis was performed on 178 Bartonella henselae isolates from 9 countries; 99 profiles were distributed into 2 groups. Human isolates/strains were placed into the second group. Genotype I and II isolates shared no common profile. All genotype I isolates clustered within group B. The evolutive implications are discussed.

EID Bouchouicha R, Durand B, Monteil M, Chomel B, Berrich M, Arvand M, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Feline and Human Bartonella henselae Isolates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):813-816. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080995
AMA Bouchouicha R, Durand B, Monteil M, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Feline and Human Bartonella henselae Isolates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):813-816. doi:10.3201/eid1505.080995.
APA Bouchouicha, R., Durand, B., Monteil, M., Chomel, B., Berrich, M., Arvand, M....Haddad, N. (2009). Molecular Epidemiology of Feline and Human Bartonella henselae Isolates. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 813-816. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080995.

Clostridium difficile in Ready-to-Eat Salads, Scotland [PDF - 150 KB - 2 pages]
M. M. Bakri et al.

Of 40 ready-to-eat salads, 3 (7.5%) were positive for Clostridium difficile by PCR. Two isolates were PCR ribotype 017 (toxin A–, B+), and 1 was PCR ribotype 001. Isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole but variably resistant to other antimicrobial drugs. Ready-to-eat salads may be potential sources for virulent C. difficile.

EID Bakri MM, Brown DJ, Butcher JP, Sutherland AD. Clostridium difficile in Ready-to-Eat Salads, Scotland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):817-818. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081186
AMA Bakri MM, Brown DJ, Butcher JP, et al. Clostridium difficile in Ready-to-Eat Salads, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):817-818. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081186.
APA Bakri, M. M., Brown, D. J., Butcher, J. P., & Sutherland, A. D. (2009). Clostridium difficile in Ready-to-Eat Salads, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 817-818. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081186.

Clostridium difficile in Retail Meat Products, USA, 2007 [PDF - 263 KB - 3 pages]
J. G. Songer et al.

To determine the presence of Clostridium difficile, we sampled cooked and uncooked meat products sold in Tucson, Arizona. Forty-two percent contained toxigenic C. difficile strains (either ribotype 078/toxinotype V [73%] or 027/toxinotype III [NAP1 or NAP1-related; 27%]). These findings indicate that food products may play a role in interspecies C. difficile transmission.

EID Songer JG, Trinh HT, Killgore GE, Thompson AD, McDonald LC, Limbago BM. Clostridium difficile in Retail Meat Products, USA, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):819-821. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081071
AMA Songer JG, Trinh HT, Killgore GE, et al. Clostridium difficile in Retail Meat Products, USA, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):819-821. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081071.
APA Songer, J. G., Trinh, H. T., Killgore, G. E., Thompson, A. D., McDonald, L. C., & Limbago, B. M. (2009). Clostridium difficile in Retail Meat Products, USA, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 819-821. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081071.
Letters

Bovine Kobuvirus in Europe [PDF - 140 KB - 2 pages]
G. Reuter and L. Egyed
EID Reuter G, Egyed L. Bovine Kobuvirus in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):822-823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081427
AMA Reuter G, Egyed L. Bovine Kobuvirus in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):822-823. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081427.
APA Reuter, G., & Egyed, L. (2009). Bovine Kobuvirus in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 822-823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081427.

Candidate Porcine Kobuvirus, China [PDF - 171 KB - 3 pages]
J. Yu et al.
EID Yu J, Duan Z, Zhang Q, Li H, Li D, Xu Z, et al. Candidate Porcine Kobuvirus, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):823-825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081518
AMA Yu J, Duan Z, Zhang Q, et al. Candidate Porcine Kobuvirus, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):823-825. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081518.
APA Yu, J., Duan, Z., Zhang, Q., Li, H., Li, D., Xu, Z....Duan, Z. (2009). Candidate Porcine Kobuvirus, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 823-825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081518.

Postoperative Panophthalmitis Caused by Whipple Disease [PDF - 145 KB - 3 pages]
M. Drancourt et al.
EID Drancourt M, Fenollar F, Denis D, Raoult D. Postoperative Panophthalmitis Caused by Whipple Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):825-827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081209
AMA Drancourt M, Fenollar F, Denis D, et al. Postoperative Panophthalmitis Caused by Whipple Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):825-827. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081209.
APA Drancourt, M., Fenollar, F., Denis, D., & Raoult, D. (2009). Postoperative Panophthalmitis Caused by Whipple Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 825-827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081209.

Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase, Canada [PDF - 162 KB - 3 pages]
D. R. Pillai et al.
EID Pillai DR, Melano RG, Rawte P, Lo S, Tijet N, Fuksa M, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):827-829. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081536
AMA Pillai DR, Melano RG, Rawte P, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):827-829. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081536.
APA Pillai, D. R., Melano, R. G., Rawte, P., Lo, S., Tijet, N., Fuksa, M....Krajden, S. (2009). Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 827-829. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081536.

Cryptosporidium Rabbit Genotype, a Newly Identified Human Pathogen [PDF - 139 KB - 2 pages]
R. M. Chalmers et al.
EID Chalmers RM, Robinson G, Elwin K, Hadfield SJ, Xiao L, Ryan U, et al. Cryptosporidium Rabbit Genotype, a Newly Identified Human Pathogen. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):829-830. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081419
AMA Chalmers RM, Robinson G, Elwin K, et al. Cryptosporidium Rabbit Genotype, a Newly Identified Human Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):829-830. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081419.
APA Chalmers, R. M., Robinson, G., Elwin, K., Hadfield, S. J., Xiao, L., Ryan, U....Mallaghan, C. (2009). Cryptosporidium Rabbit Genotype, a Newly Identified Human Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 829-830. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081419.

Acceptance of Public Health Measures by Air Travelers, Switzerland [PDF - 132 KB - 2 pages]
N. Senpinar-Brunner et al.
EID Senpinar-Brunner N, Eckert T, Wyss K. Acceptance of Public Health Measures by Air Travelers, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):831-832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080933
AMA Senpinar-Brunner N, Eckert T, Wyss K. Acceptance of Public Health Measures by Air Travelers, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):831-832. doi:10.3201/eid1505.080933.
APA Senpinar-Brunner, N., Eckert, T., & Wyss, K. (2009). Acceptance of Public Health Measures by Air Travelers, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 831-832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080933.

Near-Fatal Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Induced by Plasmodium malariae [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
P. Descheemaeker et al.
EID Descheemaeker P, Mira J, Bruneel F, Houzé S, Tanguy M, Gangneux J, et al. Near-Fatal Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Induced by Plasmodium malariae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):832-834. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081091
AMA Descheemaeker P, Mira J, Bruneel F, et al. Near-Fatal Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Induced by Plasmodium malariae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):832-834. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081091.
APA Descheemaeker, P., Mira, J., Bruneel, F., Houzé, S., Tanguy, M., Gangneux, J....Mallédant, Y. (2009). Near-Fatal Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Induced by Plasmodium malariae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 832-834. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081091.

Pulmonary Involvement and Leptospirosis, Greece [PDF - 119 KB - 2 pages]
A. Papa et al.
EID Papa A, Theoharidou D, Antoniadis A. Pulmonary Involvement and Leptospirosis, Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):834-835. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080270
AMA Papa A, Theoharidou D, Antoniadis A. Pulmonary Involvement and Leptospirosis, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):834-835. doi:10.3201/eid1505.080270.
APA Papa, A., Theoharidou, D., & Antoniadis, A. (2009). Pulmonary Involvement and Leptospirosis, Greece. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 834-835. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.080270.

Chikungunya Outbreak, Singapore, 2008 [PDF - 122 KB - 2 pages]
Y. S. Leo et al.
EID Leo YS, Chow AL, Tan LK, Lye DC, Lin L, Ng LC. Chikungunya Outbreak, Singapore, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):836-837. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081390
AMA Leo YS, Chow AL, Tan LK, et al. Chikungunya Outbreak, Singapore, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):836-837. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081390.
APA Leo, Y. S., Chow, A. L., Tan, L. K., Lye, D. C., Lin, L., & Ng, L. C. (2009). Chikungunya Outbreak, Singapore, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 836-837. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081390.

Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, Point Barrow, Alaska, USA [PDF - 139 KB - 2 pages]
M. Drobni et al.
EID Drobni M, Bonnedahl J, Hernandez J, Haemig P, Olsen B. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, Point Barrow, Alaska, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):838-839. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081219
AMA Drobni M, Bonnedahl J, Hernandez J, et al. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, Point Barrow, Alaska, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):838-839. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081219.
APA Drobni, M., Bonnedahl, J., Hernandez, J., Haemig, P., & Olsen, B. (2009). Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, Point Barrow, Alaska, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 838-839. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081219.

Use of Templates to Identify Source of Norovirus Outbreak [PDF - 139 KB - 2 pages]
J. Liko and W. E. Keene
EID Liko J, Keene WE. Use of Templates to Identify Source of Norovirus Outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):839-840. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081625
AMA Liko J, Keene WE. Use of Templates to Identify Source of Norovirus Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):839-840. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081625.
APA Liko, J., & Keene, W. E. (2009). Use of Templates to Identify Source of Norovirus Outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 839-840. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081625.

Epidemiologic Questions from Anthrax Outbreak, Hunter Valley, Australia [PDF - 149 KB - 3 pages]
D. N. Durrheim et al.
EID Durrheim DN, Freeman P, Roth I, Hornitzky M. Epidemiologic Questions from Anthrax Outbreak, Hunter Valley, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):840-842. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081744
AMA Durrheim DN, Freeman P, Roth I, et al. Epidemiologic Questions from Anthrax Outbreak, Hunter Valley, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):840-842. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081744.
APA Durrheim, D. N., Freeman, P., Roth, I., & Hornitzky, M. (2009). Epidemiologic Questions from Anthrax Outbreak, Hunter Valley, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 840-842. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081744.

Distinct Ecologically Relevant Strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum [PDF - 120 KB - 4 pages]
J. E. Foley et al.
EID Foley JE, Nieto NC, Massung R, Barbet A, Madigan J, Brown RN. Distinct Ecologically Relevant Strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):842-843. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081502
AMA Foley JE, Nieto NC, Massung R, et al. Distinct Ecologically Relevant Strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):842-843. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081502.
APA Foley, J. E., Nieto, N. C., Massung, R., Barbet, A., Madigan, J., & Brown, R. N. (2009). Distinct Ecologically Relevant Strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 842-843. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081502.

Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Infection in Foal, Brazil [PDF - 188 KB - 2 pages]
É. A. Costa et al.
EID Costa ÉA, Bomfim MR, da Fonseca FG, Drumond BA, Coelho FM, Vasconcelos AC, et al. Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Infection in Foal, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):844-845. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081664
AMA Costa ÉA, Bomfim MR, da Fonseca FG, et al. Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Infection in Foal, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):844-845. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081664.
APA Costa, É. A., Bomfim, M. R., da Fonseca, F. G., Drumond, B. A., Coelho, F. M., Vasconcelos, A. C....Resende, M. (2009). Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Infection in Foal, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 844-845. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081664.

Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Infection, Italy [PDF - 140 KB - 3 pages]
A. Pan et al.
EID Pan A, Battisti A, Zoncada A, Bernieri F, Boldini M, Franco A, et al. Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Infection, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):845-847. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081417
AMA Pan A, Battisti A, Zoncada A, et al. Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Infection, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):845-847. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081417.
APA Pan, A., Battisti, A., Zoncada, A., Bernieri, F., Boldini, M., Franco, A....Pantosti, A. (2009). Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Infection, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 845-847. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081417.

Campylobacter jejuni in Penguins, Antarctica [PDF - 178 KB - 3 pages]
P. Griekspoor et al.
EID Griekspoor P, Olsen B, Waldenström J. Campylobacter jejuni in Penguins, Antarctica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):847-849. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081160
AMA Griekspoor P, Olsen B, Waldenström J. Campylobacter jejuni in Penguins, Antarctica. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):847-849. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081160.
APA Griekspoor, P., Olsen, B., & Waldenström, J. (2009). Campylobacter jejuni in Penguins, Antarctica. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 847-849. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081160.

Acute Diarrhea in Children after 2004 Tsunami, Andaman Islands [PDF - 127 KB - 2 pages]
S. Roy et al.
EID Roy S, Bhattacharya D, Ghoshal S, Thanasekaran K, Bharadwaj A, Singhania M, et al. Acute Diarrhea in Children after 2004 Tsunami, Andaman Islands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):849-850. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081096
AMA Roy S, Bhattacharya D, Ghoshal S, et al. Acute Diarrhea in Children after 2004 Tsunami, Andaman Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):849-850. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081096.
APA Roy, S., Bhattacharya, D., Ghoshal, S., Thanasekaran, K., Bharadwaj, A., Singhania, M....Sugunan, A. (2009). Acute Diarrhea in Children after 2004 Tsunami, Andaman Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 849-850. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081096.

Population-Attributable Risk Estimates for Campylobacter Infection, Australia [PDF - 320 KB - 3 pages]
I. Gillespie et al.
EID Gillespie I, Stafford RJ, Schluter PJ, Kirk MD, Wilson AJ. Population-Attributable Risk Estimates for Campylobacter Infection, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):850-852. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081553
AMA Gillespie I, Stafford RJ, Schluter PJ, et al. Population-Attributable Risk Estimates for Campylobacter Infection, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):850-852. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081553.
APA Gillespie, I., Stafford, R. J., Schluter, P. J., Kirk, M. D., & Wilson, A. J. (2009). Population-Attributable Risk Estimates for Campylobacter Infection, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 850-852. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081553.
Another Dimension

Nothing But Tears [PDF - 117 KB - 1 page]
D. J. Krysan
EID Krysan DJ. Nothing But Tears. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):854. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081412
AMA Krysan DJ. Nothing But Tears. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):854. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081412.
APA Krysan, D. J. (2009). Nothing But Tears. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 854. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081412.
Books and Media

The Travel and Tropical Medicine Manual, 4th Edition [PDF - 121 KB - 1 page]
E. V. Granowitz
EID Granowitz EV. The Travel and Tropical Medicine Manual, 4th Edition. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):853. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.090033
AMA Granowitz EV. The Travel and Tropical Medicine Manual, 4th Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):853. doi:10.3201/eid1505.090033.
APA Granowitz, E. V. (2009). The Travel and Tropical Medicine Manual, 4th Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 853. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.090033.
About the Cover

Nature Isn’t What It Used To Be [PDF - 221 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Nature Isn’t What It Used To Be. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):855-856. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.ac1505
AMA Potter P. Nature Isn’t What It Used To Be. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):855-856. doi:10.3201/eid1505.ac1505.
APA Potter, P. (2009). Nature Isn’t What It Used To Be. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 855-856. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.ac1505.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Babesia [bə-be′ ze-ə] [PDF - 112 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Babesia [bə-be′ ze-ə]. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):787. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.e11505
AMA Etymologia: Babesia [bə-be′ ze-ə]. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):787. doi:10.3201/eid1505.e11505.
APA (2009). Etymologia: Babesia [bə-be′ ze-ə]. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 787. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.e11505.
Corrections

Erratum—Vol. 15, No. 3
EID Erratum—Vol. 15, No. 3. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):853. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.c11505
AMA Erratum—Vol. 15, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):853. doi:10.3201/eid1505.c11505.
APA (2009). Erratum—Vol. 15, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 853. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.c11505.
Page created: December 21, 2010
Page updated: December 21, 2010
Page reviewed: December 21, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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