Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 16, Number 10—October 2010


Bloodstream Infections among HIV-Infected Outpatients, Southeast Asia

Jay K. VarmaComments to Author , Kimberly D. McCarthy, Theerawit Tasaneeyapan, Patama Monkongdee, Michael E. Kimerling, Eng Buntheoun, Delphine Sculier, Chantary Keo, Praphan Phanuphak, Nipat Teeratakulpisarn, Nibondh Udomsantisuk, Nguyen H. Dung, Nguyen T.N. Lan, Nguyen T.B. Yen, and Kevin P. Cain
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Thailand Ministry of Public Health–US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thailand (J.K. Varma, T. Tasaneeyapan, P. Monkongdee); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (J.K. Varma, K.D. McCarthy, K.P. Cain); Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington, USA (M.E. Kimerling); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (E. Buntheoun); Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope, Phnom Penh, (D. Sculier); Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium (D. Sculier); Institute Pasteur Cambodia, Phnom Penh (C. Keo); Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, Bangkok, Thailand (P. Phanuphak, N. Teeratakulpisarn); Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (N. Udomsantisuk); Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (N.H. Dung, N.T.N. Lan, N.T.B. Yen)

Main Article

Table 2

Multivariate analysis of risk factors for clinically significant BSI caused by mycobacterial or other bacterial infection in HIV-infected outpatients, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam, September 2006–July 2008*

Characteristic Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for BSI
Any pathogen† Mycobacteria‡ Bacteria§
CD4 cell count <100/mm3 5.8 (2.5–13.7) 11.2 (3.0–41.3)
Female sex 0.4 (0.2–0.9)
Fever in past 24 h 4.7 (1.2–17.6)
Loss of appetite in past 24 h 2.0 (1.0–3.9)
Nausea or vomiting in past 24 h 2.5 (1.2–5.0)
Shaking chills in past 24 h 3.1 (1.1–9.1)
Difficulty breathing 4.1 (1.5–11.1)
Diarrhea in past 24 h 4.2 (1.6–11.3)
Jaundice 12.5 (1.4–112.3)
Ever injected drug
Temperature >38°C 3.2 (1.6–6.3) 5.7 (2.1–15.4)
Heart rate >100 bpm
Oral hairy leukoplakia 2.8 (1.4–5.7)
Hemoglobin level <12 g/dL 4.8 (2.0–11.7)
Leukocyte count >12 × 103/µL 3.7 (1.4–9.3) 15.3 (4.9–48.2)
Thrombocyte count <100,000 cells/µL 7.0 (1.8–27.6)
Paratracheal adenopathy on chest radiograph 5.0 (2.1–11.6) 11.3 (3.7–34.3)
Miliary pattern on chest radiograph 6.0 (1.8–19.5) 14.2 (3.4–58.6)
Took antimicrobial medication other than cotrimoxazole 5.1 (1.6–16.8)

*BSI, bloodstream infection; CI, confidence interval; bpm, beats per minute; –, variable was not included in the model.
†1,961 patients in final model.
‡1,944 patients in final model.
§1,961 patients in final model.

Main Article