Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 16, Number 10—October 2010


Epidemiology of Human Parvovirus 4 Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa

Colin P. Sharp, Marion Vermeulen, Yacouba K. Nébié, Cyrille F. Djoko, Matthew LeBreton, Ubald Tamoufe, Anne W. Rimoin, Patrick K. Kayembe, Jean K. Carr, Annabelle Servant-Delmas, Syria Laperche, G.L. Abby Harrison, Oliver G. Pybus, Eric Delwart, Nathan D. Wolfe, Andrew Saville, Jean-Jacques Lefrère, and Peter SimmondsComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland (C.P. Sharp, P. Simmonds); South African National Blood Service, Weltevreden Park, South Africa (M. Vermeulen, A. Saville); Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (Y. Nébié); Global Viral Forecasting Initiative, Yaounde, Cameroon, and San Francisco, California, USA (C.F. Djoko, M. LeBreton, U. Tamoufe, N.D. Wolfe); University of California School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California, USA (A.W. Rimoin); Kinshasa School of Public Health, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (P.K. Kayembe); University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (J.K. Carr); Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, Paris, France (A. Servant-Delmas, S. Laperche, J.-J. Lefrère); University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (G.L.A. Harrison, O.G. Pybus); Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco (E. Delwart); Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA (N.D. Wolfe); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens, France (J.-J. Lefrère)

Main Article


Seroprevalence of human parvovirus 4 antibodies in sub-Saharan African and control populations*

Co-infection Mean year of birth (range)
Collection year
PARV4 positive,
no. (%)
Burkina Faso Blood donors 167 0 0 1982 (1951–1999) 2007 62 (37.1)
Cameroon General population 238 0 0 1968 (1962–1972) 2007 59 (24.8)
Democratic Republic of the Congo Military population 221 0 1968 (1936–1986) 2007 78 (35.3)
South Africa Blood donors
(HIV-positive) 170 170 0 1976 (1945–1990) 2007 62 (36.4)
South Africa Blood donors
(HIV-negative) 180 0 0 NA 2009 8 (4.4)
United Kingdom General population 161 ND ND 1950 (1937–1977) 2005 0
France Blood donors 199 0 0 1965 (1943–1989) 2008 0

*HCV, hepatitis C virus; PARV4, human parvovirus 4; NA, not available; ND, screening not done.
†HIV-1 screening methods: South Africa, France: fourth-generation ELISA.
‡HCV screening methods: Burkina-Faso, South Africa, France: third-generation ELISA, recombinant immunoblot assay confirmation of positive results; Democratic Republic of the Congo: third-generation ELISA, exclusion of reactive samples; Cameroon: PCR-based screening, exclusion of PCR-positive samples. United Kingdom: not screened (ND), low risk background and absence of parenteral or HIV risk factors.
§1 of 2 HIV-positive samples was seropositive for PARV4.

Main Article