Wild Chimpanzees Infected with 5 Plasmodium Species
Marco Kaiser, Anna Löwa, Markus Ulrich, Heinz Ellerbrok, Adeelia S. Goffe, Anja Blasse, Zinta Zommers, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Fred Babweteera, Klaus Zuberbühler, Sonja Metzger, Sebastian Geidel, Christophe Boesch, Thomas R. Gillespie, and Fabian H. Leendertz
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Robert Koch-Institute, Berlin, Germany (M. Kaiser, A. Löwa, H. Ellerbrok, A.S. Goffe, A. Blasse, F.H. Leendertz); GenExpress GmbH, Berlin (M. Kaiser, M. Ulrich); University of Oxford, Tubney Abingdon, UK (A.S. Goffe, Z. Zommers); LANADA/LCPA, Bingerville, Côte d’Ivoire (E. Couacy-Hymann); Budongo Conservation Field Station, Masindi, Uganda (F. Babweteera, K. Zuberbühler); University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Scotland, UK (K. Zuberbühler); Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany (S. Metzger, S. Geidel, C. Boesch, F.H. Leendertz); Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (T.R. Gillespie)
Figure 1. Maximum-likelihood trees of Plasmodium spp. obtained from the analysis of a 1,087-bp CytB alignment. Blue indicates sequences determined from chimpanzee hosts; green, bonobos; gray, gorillas; and red, humans. Black indicates sequences obtained from nonprimate hosts. Plasmodium spp. sequences derived from chimpanzees in this study are marked with an asterisk. Bootstrap values are shown when >70. The tree was rooted using avian plasmodium sequences. Accession numbers of all sequences used are shown in the Table. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.
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