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Volume 16, Number 2—February 2010


Investigating an Airborne Tularemia Outbreak, Germany

Anja M. HauriComments to Author , Iris Hofstetter, Erik Seibold, Philip Kaysser, Juergen Eckert, Heinrich Neubauer, and Wolf D. Splettstoesser1
Author affiliations: Hesse State Health Office, Dillenburg, Germany (A.M. Hauri); Public Health Authority Darmstadt-Dieburg, Darmstadt, Germany (I. Hofstetter, J. Eckert); National Reference Laboratory for Tularemia, Munich, Germany (E. Seibold, P. Kaysser, W.D. Splettstoesser); Institute of Bacterial Zoonoses, Jena, Germany (H. Neubauer).

Main Article

Table 1

Type of environmental samples taken and results of testing for Francisella tularensis, Germany, 2005*

Type No. samples Origin Results
PCR Culture Ag detection (LPS)
Water 2 Creek, water hose Neg Neg Neg
Swabs 16 Game chamber Neg Neg (4/4)
Hare fur, insects 3 Game chamber Neg
Liquid samples (flush) 9 Game chamber Neg -
Frozen parts of hares received from 9 different households (muscle, bone marrow, fluids recovered during thawing) 14 12–14 hares (Lepus europaeus), shot 2005 Oct 29 Pos 11*/14 Neg (6/6) Pos. 6†/14
Liver/spleen samples 29 15 hares, 1 nutria (Myocastor coypus), shot 2005 Dec 12 Neg
Organs of hares (liver, spleen, whole blood) 72 24 hares, shot 2006 Jan 7 and Jan 14 Neg‡

*For all parts, tissue, bone marrow, and fluid from thawing were tested. Samples were considered positive when >2 materials were repeatedly positive by 2 different PCRs. Ag, antigen; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; Neg, negative; Pos, positive.
†Samples also positive by PCR.
‡PCR inhibition noticed for 19/24 blood samples.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: University Hospital Rostock, Rostock, Germany.