Volume 16, Number 4—April 2010
Porcine-Origin Gentamicin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Humans, Denmark
|Identification no.||Other name||Origin||Sampling date||MIC for gentamicin, μg/mL||MLST type|
|124832||IE patient A||2001 Nov 18||>2,048||16|
|48250||IE patient B||2002 May 2||>2,048||16|
|7330318-4||D6||Pig||2001 Mar 29||>2,048||16|
|7330612-2||D29||Pig||2001 Jul 25||2,048||16|
|7330948-5||D34||Pig||2001 Nov 23||2,048||16|
|7330115-2||Pig||2001 Jan 29||>2,048||16|
|7330445-1||Pig||2001 May 21||2,048||16|
|7430040-2||Pig||2002 Feb 18||1,024||16|
|7430049-2||Pig||2002 Feb 22||1,024||16|
|7430275-3||Pig||2002 May 16||>2,048||16|
|7430291-2||Pig||2002 May 21||2,048||16|
|7430297-2||Pig||2002 May 22||>2,048||16|
|7430315-3||Pig||2002 May 23||2,048||35|
|7430317-5||Pig||2002 May 23||2,048||16|
|7430328-3||Pig||2002 May 27||>2,048||16|
|7430405-1||Pig||2002 Jun 24||>2,048||16|
|7430411-3||Pig||2002 Jun 25||1,024||16|
|7430416-2||Pig||2002 Jun 24||1,024||16|
|7430416-3||Pig||2002 Jun 24||>2,048||16|
|7430803-2||Pig||2002 Nov 18||>2,048||16|
|7430821-4||Pig||2002 Nov 21||>2,048||16|
|19116||Pork||2002 Oct 6||>2,048||16|
|1448||CD human||2003 Oct 1||>2,048||16|
|3382||CD human||2005 Dec 9||>2,048||16|
*MLST, multilocus sequence typing; IE, infective endocarditis; CD, community dwelling. MLST types in boldface have been published (7).
- Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, Fowler VG Jr, Bolger AF, Levison ME, Infective endocarditis: diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and management of complications: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, American Heart Association: endorsed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Circulation. 2005;111:e394–434.
- Aslangul E, Ruimy R, Chau F, Garry L, Andremont A, Fantin B. Relationship between the level of acquired resistance to gentamicin and synergism with amoxicillin in Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:4144–8.
- Claesson C, Hallgren A, Nilsson M, Svensson E, Hanberger H, Nilsson LE. Susceptibility of staphylococci and enterococci to antimicrobial agents at different ward levels in four north European countries. Scand J Infect Dis. 2007;39:1002–12.
- Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program. DANMAP 2000—consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, foods and humans in Denmark [cited 2009 Sep 1]. http://www.danmap.org/pdfFiles/Danmap_2000.pdf
- Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program. DANMAP 2001—use of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, foods and humans in Denmark [cited 2009 Sep 1]. http://www.danmap.org/pdfFiles/Danmap_2001.pdf
- Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program. DANMAP 2002—use of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, foods and humans in Denmark [cited 2009 Sep 1]. http://www.danmap.org/pdfFiles/Danmap_2002.pdf
- Shankar N, Baghdayan AS, Willems R, Hammerum AM, Jensen LB. Presence of pathogenicity island genes in Enterococcus faecalis isolates from pigs in Denmark. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:4200–3.
- Li JS, Sexton DJ, Mick N, Nettles R, Fowler VG Jr, Ryan T, Proposed modifications to the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:633–8.
- Garner JS, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Horan TC, Hughes JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control. 1988;16:128–40.
- Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: Fifteenth Informational Supplement M100-S15. Wayne (PA): The Institute; 2005.
- Ruiz-Garbajosa P, Bonten MJ, Robinson DA, Top J, Nallapareddy SR, Torres C, Multilocus sequence typing scheme for Enterococcus faecalis reveals hospital-adapted genetic complexes in a background of high rates of recombination. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2220–8.
- Turabelidze D, Kotetishvili M, Kreger A, Morris JG Jr, Sulakvelidze A. Improved pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for typing vancomycin-resistant enterococci. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:4242–5.
- Morrison D, Woodford N, Barrett SP, Sisson P, Cookson BD. DNA banding pattern polymorphism in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and criteria for defining strains. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:1084–91.
- Donabedian SM, Thal LA, Hershberger E, Perri MB, Chow JW, Bartlett P, Molecular characterization of gentamicin-resistant enterococci in the United States: evidence of spread from animals to humans through food. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:1109–13.
- Ruiz-Garbajosa P, Canton R, Pintado V, Coque TM, Willems R, Baquero F, Genetic and phenotypic differences among Enterococcus faecalis clones from intestinal colonisation and invasive disease. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:1193–8.
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