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Issue Cover for Volume 16, Number 4—April 2010

Volume 16, Number 4—April 2010

[PDF - 5.32 MB - 175 pages]

Research

Livestock-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398 in Humans, Canada [PDF - 387 KB - 8 pages]
G. R. Golding et al.

Rates of colonization with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 398 have been high for pigs and pig farmers in Canada, but prevalence rates for the general human population are unknown. In this study, 5 LA-MRSA isolates, 4 of which were obtained from skin and soft tissue infections, were identified from 3,687 tested MRSA isolates from persons in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada. Further molecular characterization determined that these isolates all contained staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mecV, were negative for Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and were closely related by macrorestriction analysis with the restriction enzyme Cfr91. The complete DNA sequence of the SCCmec region from the isolate showed a novel subtype of SCCmecV harboring clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated genes. Although prevalence of livestock-associated MRSA seems to be low for the general population in Canada, recent emergence of infections resulting from this strain is of public health concern.

EID Golding GR, Bryden L, Levett PN, McDonald RR, Wong A, Wylie J, et al. Livestock-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398 in Humans, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):587-594. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091435
AMA Golding GR, Bryden L, Levett PN, et al. Livestock-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398 in Humans, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):587-594. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091435.
APA Golding, G. R., Bryden, L., Levett, P. N., McDonald, R. R., Wong, A., Wylie, J....Mulvey, M. R. (2010). Livestock-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398 in Humans, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 587-594. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091435.

Influenza A Strain-Dependent Pathogenesis in Fatal H1N1 and H5N1 Subtype Infections of Mice [PDF - 739 KB - 9 pages]
M. Garigliany et al.

To determine if fatal infections caused by different highly virulent influenza A viruses share the same pathogenesis, we compared 2 different influenza A virus subtypes, H1N1 and H5N1. The subtypes, which had shown no pathogenicity in laboratory mice, were forced to evolve by serial passaging. Although both adapted viruses evoked diffuse alveolar damage and showed a similar 50% mouse lethal dose and the same peak lung concentration, each had a distinct pathologic signature and caused a different course of acute respiratory distress syndrome. In the absence of any virus labeling, a histologist could readily distinguish infections caused by these 2 viruses. The different histologic features described in this study here refute the hypothesis of a single, universal cytokine storm underlying all fatal influenza diseases. Research is thus crucially needed to identify sets of virulence markers and to examine whether treatment should be tailored to the influenza virus pathotype.

EID Garigliany M, Habyarimana A, Lambrecht B, Van de Paar E, Cornet A, van den Berg T, et al. Influenza A Strain-Dependent Pathogenesis in Fatal H1N1 and H5N1 Subtype Infections of Mice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):595-603. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091061
AMA Garigliany M, Habyarimana A, Lambrecht B, et al. Influenza A Strain-Dependent Pathogenesis in Fatal H1N1 and H5N1 Subtype Infections of Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):595-603. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091061.
APA Garigliany, M., Habyarimana, A., Lambrecht, B., Van de Paar, E., Cornet, A., van den Berg, T....Desmecht, D. (2010). Influenza A Strain-Dependent Pathogenesis in Fatal H1N1 and H5N1 Subtype Infections of Mice. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 595-603. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091061.

Clostridium difficile Infections among Hospitalized Children, United States, 1997–2006 [PDF - 287 KB - 6 pages]
M. D. Zilberberg et al.

We evaluated the annual rate (cases/10,000 hospitalizations) of pediatric hospitalizations with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI; International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, clinical modification code 008.45) in the United States. We performed a time-series analysis of data from the Kids’ Inpatient Database within the Health Care Cost and Utilization Project during 1997–2006 and a cross-sectional analysis within the National Hospital Discharge Survey during 2006. The rate of pediatric CDI-related hospitalizations increased from 7.24 to 12.80 from 1997 through 2006; the lowest rate was for children <1 year of age. Although incidence was lowest for newborns (0.5), incidence for children <1 year of age who were not newborns (32.01) was similar to that for children 5–9 years of age (35.27), which in turn was second only to incidence for children 1–4 years of age (44.87). Pediatric CDI-related hospitalizations are increasing. A better understanding of the epidemiology and outcomes of CDI is urgently needed.

EID Zilberberg MD, Tillotson GS, McDonald LC. Clostridium difficile Infections among Hospitalized Children, United States, 1997–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):604-609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090680
AMA Zilberberg MD, Tillotson GS, McDonald LC. Clostridium difficile Infections among Hospitalized Children, United States, 1997–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):604-609. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090680.
APA Zilberberg, M. D., Tillotson, G. S., & McDonald, L. C. (2010). Clostridium difficile Infections among Hospitalized Children, United States, 1997–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 604-609. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090680.

Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, Germany, 1987–2008 [PDF - 262 KB - 7 pages]
C. Jenke et al.

Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a subtyping technique for characterizing human pathogenic bacteria such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157. We determined the phylogeny of 202 epidemiologically unrelated EHEC O157:H7/H clinical isolates through 8 MLVA loci obtained in Germany during 1987–2008. Biodiversity in the loci ranged from 0.66 to 0.90. Four of 8 loci showed null alleles and a frequency <44.1%. These loci were distributed among 48.5% of all strains. Overall, 141 MLVA profiles were identified. Phylogenetic analysis assigned 67.3% of the strains to 19 MLVA clusters. Specific MLVA profiles with an evolutionary persistence were identified, particularly within sorbitol-fermenting EHEC O157:H.These pathogens belonged to the same MLVA cluster. Our findings indicate successful persistence of this clone.

EID Jenke C, Harmsen D, Weniger T, Rothgänger J, Hyytiä-Trees E, Bielaszewska M, et al. Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, Germany, 1987–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):610-616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091361
AMA Jenke C, Harmsen D, Weniger T, et al. Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, Germany, 1987–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):610-616. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091361.
APA Jenke, C., Harmsen, D., Weniger, T., Rothgänger, J., Hyytiä-Trees, E., Bielaszewska, M....Mellmann, A. (2010). Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, Germany, 1987–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 610-616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091361.

Use of Norovirus Genotype Profiles to Differentiate Origins of Foodborne Outbreaks [PDF - 208 KB - 8 pages]
L. Verhoef et al.

Because secondary transmission masks the connection between sources and outbreaks, estimating the proportion of foodborne norovirus infections is difficult. We studied whether norovirus genotype frequency distributions (genotype profiles) can enhance detection of the sources of foodborne outbreaks. Control measures differ substantially; therefore, differentiating this transmission mode from person-borne or food handler–borne outbreaks is of public health interest. Comparison of bivalve mollusks collected during monitoring (n = 295) and outbreak surveillance strains (n = 2,858) showed 2 distinguishable genotype profiles in 1) human feces and 2) source-contaminated food and bivalve mollusks; genotypes I.2 and I.4 were more frequently detected in foodborne outbreaks. Overall, ≈21% of all outbreaks were foodborne; further analysis showed that 25% of the outbreaks reported as food handler–associated were probably caused by source contamination of the food.

EID Verhoef L, Vennema H, van Pelt W, Lees D, Boshuizen H, Henshilwood K, et al. Use of Norovirus Genotype Profiles to Differentiate Origins of Foodborne Outbreaks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):617-624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090723
AMA Verhoef L, Vennema H, van Pelt W, et al. Use of Norovirus Genotype Profiles to Differentiate Origins of Foodborne Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):617-624. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090723.
APA Verhoef, L., Vennema, H., van Pelt, W., Lees, D., Boshuizen, H., Henshilwood, K....Koopmans, M. (2010). Use of Norovirus Genotype Profiles to Differentiate Origins of Foodborne Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 617-624. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090723.

Reassortment of Human Rotavirus Gene Segments into G11 Rotavirus Strains [PDF - 203 KB - 6 pages]
J. Matthijnssens et al.

G11 rotaviruses are believed to be of porcine origin. However, a limited number of G11 rotaviruses have been recently isolated from humans in combination with P[25], P[8], P[6], and P[4]. To investigate the evolutionary relationships of these strains, we analyzed the complete genomes of 2 human G11P[25] strains, 2 human G11P[8] strains, and 3 porcine reference strains. Most of the 11 gene segments of these 7 strains belonged to genotype 1 (Wa-like). However, phylogenetic clustering patterns suggested that an unknown G11P[25] strain with a new I12 VP6 genotype was transmitted to the human population, in which it acquired human genotype 1 gene segments through reassortment, resulting in a human G11P[8] rotavirus strain with an entire human Wa-genogroup backbone. This Wa-like backbone is believed to have caused the worldwide spread of human G9 and G12 rotaviruses. G11 human rotavirus strains should be monitored because they may also become major human pathogens.

EID Matthijnssens J, Rahman M, Ciarlet M, Zeller M, Heylen E, Nakagomi T, et al. Reassortment of Human Rotavirus Gene Segments into G11 Rotavirus Strains. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):625-630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091591
AMA Matthijnssens J, Rahman M, Ciarlet M, et al. Reassortment of Human Rotavirus Gene Segments into G11 Rotavirus Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):625-630. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091591.
APA Matthijnssens, J., Rahman, M., Ciarlet, M., Zeller, M., Heylen, E., Nakagomi, T....Van Ranst, M. (2010). Reassortment of Human Rotavirus Gene Segments into G11 Rotavirus Strains. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 625-630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091591.

Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, San Antonio, Texas, USA, April–May 2009 [PDF - 253 KB - 7 pages]
O. W. Morgan et al.

To assess household transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in San Antonio, Texas, USA, during April 15–May 8, 2009, we investigated 77 households. The index case-patient was defined as the household member with the earliest onset date of symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), influenza-like illness (ILI), or laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Median interval between illness onset in index and secondary case-patients was 4 days (range 1–9 days); the index case-patient was likely to be <18 years of age (p = 0.034). The secondary attack rate was 4% for pandemic (H1N1) 2009, 9% for ILI, and 13% for ARI. The secondary attack rate was highest for children <5 years of age (8%–19%) and lowest for adults >50 years of age (4%–12%). Early in the outbreak, household transmission primarily occurred from children to other household members and was lower than the transmission rate for seasonal influenza.

EID Morgan OW, Parks S, Shim T, Blevins PA, Lucas PM, Sanchez R, et al. Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, San Antonio, Texas, USA, April–May 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):631-637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091658
AMA Morgan OW, Parks S, Shim T, et al. Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, San Antonio, Texas, USA, April–May 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):631-637. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091658.
APA Morgan, O. W., Parks, S., Shim, T., Blevins, P. A., Lucas, P. M., Sanchez, R....Olsen, S. J. (2010). Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, San Antonio, Texas, USA, April–May 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 631-637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091658.

Escherichia albertii in Wild and Domestic Birds [PDF - 847 KB - 9 pages]
J. L. Oaks et al.

Escherichia albertii has been associated with diarrhea in humans but not with disease or infection in animals. However, in December 2004, E. albertii was found, by biochemical and genetic methods, to be the probable cause of death for redpoll finches (Carduelis flammea) in Alaska. Subsequent investigation found this organism in dead and subclinically infected birds of other species from North America and Australia. Isolates from dead finches in Scotland, previously identified as Escherichia coli O86:K61, also were shown to be E. albertii. Similar to the isolates from humans, E. albertii isolates from birds possessed intimin (eae) and cytolethal distending toxin (cdtB) genes but lacked Shiga toxin (stx) genes. Genetic analysis of eae and cdtB sequences, multilocus sequence typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns showed that the E. albertii strains from birds are heterogeneous but similar to isolates that cause disease in humans.

EID Oaks JL, Besser TE, Walk ST, Gordon DM, Beckmen KB, Burek KA, et al. Escherichia albertii in Wild and Domestic Birds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):638-646. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090695
AMA Oaks JL, Besser TE, Walk ST, et al. Escherichia albertii in Wild and Domestic Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):638-646. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090695.
APA Oaks, J. L., Besser, T. E., Walk, S. T., Gordon, D. M., Beckmen, K. B., Burek, K. A....Whittam, T. S. (2010). Escherichia albertii in Wild and Domestic Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 638-646. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090695.

Medscape CME Activity
Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit [PDF - 351 KB - 9 pages]
A. M. Milstone et al.

Virulent community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus-aureus (CA-MRSA) strains have spread rapidly in the United States. To characterize the degree to which CA-MRSA strains are imported into and transmitted in pediatric intensive care units (PICU), we performed a retrospective study of children admitted to The Johns Hopkins Hospital PICU, March 1, 2007–May 31, 2008. We found that 72 (6%) of 1,674 PICU patients were colonized with MRSA. MRSA-colonized patients were more likely to be younger (median age 3 years vs. 5 years; p = 0.02) and African American (p<0.001) and to have been hospitalized within 12 months (p<0.001) than were noncolonized patients. MRSA isolates from 66 (92%) colonized patients were fingerprinted; 40 (61%) were genotypically CA-MRSA strains. CA-MRSA strains were isolated from 50% of patients who became colonized with MRSA and caused the only hospital-acquired MRSA catheter-associated bloodstream infection in the cohort. Epidemic CA-MRSA strains are becoming endemic to PICUs, can be transmitted to hospitalized children, and can cause invasive hospital-acquired infections. Further appraisal of MRSA control is needed.

EID Milstone AM, Carroll KC, Ross T, Shangraw KA, Perl TM. Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):647-655. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090107
AMA Milstone AM, Carroll KC, Ross T, et al. Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):647-655. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090107.
APA Milstone, A. M., Carroll, K. C., Ross, T., Shangraw, K. A., & Perl, T. M. (2010). Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 647-655. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090107.

Contribution of Streptococcus anginosus to Infections Caused by Groups C and G Streptococci, Southern India [PDF - 307 KB - 8 pages]
S. Reißmann et al.

Vellore, a region in southern India, has a high incidence of severe human infections with β-hemolytic group C and G streptococci (GCGS). To determine the causative species in these infections, we conducted 16S rRNA gene sequencing: Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (81%) and S. anginosus (19%) were the causative organisms in the 2-year study period (2006–2007). We used PCR to detect the virulence-related emm gene; results showed that it was restricted to S. dysgalactieae subsp. equisimilis isolates of 99.2% tested positive. Due to a novel marker, S. anginosus and S. constellatus can be quickly and accurately distinguished from other members of the genus. The notable contribution of the anginosus group to human infections suggests that this group of obligate pathogens deserves more attention in healthcare and research.

EID Reißmann S, Friedrichs C, Rajkumari R, Itzek A, Fulde M, Rodloff AC, et al. Contribution of Streptococcus anginosus to Infections Caused by Groups C and G Streptococci, Southern India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):656-663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090448
AMA Reißmann S, Friedrichs C, Rajkumari R, et al. Contribution of Streptococcus anginosus to Infections Caused by Groups C and G Streptococci, Southern India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):656-663. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090448.
APA Reißmann, S., Friedrichs, C., Rajkumari, R., Itzek, A., Fulde, M., Rodloff, A. C....Nitsche-Schmitz, D. P. (2010). Contribution of Streptococcus anginosus to Infections Caused by Groups C and G Streptococci, Southern India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 656-663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090448.
Historical Review

Alfred Russel Wallace and the Antivaccination Movement in Victorian England [PDF - 219 KB - 5 pages]
T. P. Weber

Alfred Russel Wallace, eminent naturalist and codiscoverer of the principle of natural selection, was a major participant in the antivaccination campaigns in late 19th-century England. Wallace combined social reformism and quantitative arguments to undermine the claims of provaccinationists and had a major impact on the debate. A brief account of Wallace’s background, his role in the campaign, and a summary of his quantitative arguments leads to the conclusion that it is unwarranted to portray Victorian antivaccination campaigners in general as irrational and antiscience. Public health policy can benefit from history, but the proper context of the evidence used should always be kept in mind.

EID Weber TP. Alfred Russel Wallace and the Antivaccination Movement in Victorian England. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):664-668. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090434
AMA Weber TP. Alfred Russel Wallace and the Antivaccination Movement in Victorian England. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):664-668. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090434.
APA Weber, T. P. (2010). Alfred Russel Wallace and the Antivaccination Movement in Victorian England. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 664-668. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090434.
Dispatches

Innovative Uses for Syndromic Surveillance [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
E. K. O’Connell et al.

To determine if expanded queries can be used to identify specific reportable diseases/conditions not detected by using automated syndrome categories, we developed new categories to use with the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community Based Epidemics. Results suggest innovative queries can enhance clinicians’ compliance with reportable disease requirements.

EID O’Connell EK, Zhang G, Leguen F, Llau A, Rico E. Innovative Uses for Syndromic Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):669-671. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090688
AMA O’Connell EK, Zhang G, Leguen F, et al. Innovative Uses for Syndromic Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):669-671. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090688.
APA O’Connell, E. K., Zhang, G., Leguen, F., Llau, A., & Rico, E. (2010). Innovative Uses for Syndromic Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 669-671. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090688.

Plasmodium knowlesi in Human, Indonesian Borneo [PDF - 194 KB - 3 pages]
M. Figtree et al.

Plasmodium knowlesi is now established as the fifth Plasmodium species to cause malaria in humans. We describe a case of P. knowlesi infection acquired in Indonesian Borneo that was imported into Australia. Clinicians need to consider this diagnosis in a patient who has acquired malaria in forest areas of Southeast Asia.

EID Figtree M, Lee R, Bain L, Kennedy T, Mackertich S, Urban M, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi in Human, Indonesian Borneo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):672-674. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091624
AMA Figtree M, Lee R, Bain L, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi in Human, Indonesian Borneo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):672-674. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091624.
APA Figtree, M., Lee, R., Bain, L., Kennedy, T., Mackertich, S., Urban, M....Hudson, B. J. (2010). Plasmodium knowlesi in Human, Indonesian Borneo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 672-674. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091624.

Fluoroquinolone Resistance and Clostridium difficile, Germany [PDF - 236 KB - 3 pages]
N. H. Zaiß et al.

We characterized 670 Clostridium difficile isolates collected from patients in 84 hospitals in Germany in 2008. PCR ribotyping showed high prevalence of ribotype 001 and restricted dissemination of ribotype 027 strains. Fluoroquinolone resistance and associated gyrase mutations were frequent in various ribotypes, but no resistance to metronidazole or vancomycin was noted.

EID Zaiß NH, Witte W, Nübel U. Fluoroquinolone Resistance and Clostridium difficile, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):675-677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090859
AMA Zaiß NH, Witte W, Nübel U. Fluoroquinolone Resistance and Clostridium difficile, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):675-677. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090859.
APA Zaiß, N. H., Witte, W., & Nübel, U. (2010). Fluoroquinolone Resistance and Clostridium difficile, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 675-677. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090859.

Hypervirulent Clostridium difficile Strains in Hospitalized Patients, Canada [PDF - 224 KB - 4 pages]
M. R. Mulvey et al.

To determine the incidence rate of infections with North American pulsed-field types 7 and 8 (NAP7/NAP8) strains of Clostrodium difficile, ribotype 078, and toxinotype V strains, we examined data collected for the Canadian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Program (CNISP) CDI surveillance project during 2004–2008. Incidence of human infections increased from 0.5% in 2004/2005 to 1.6% in 2008.

EID Mulvey MR, Boyd DA, Gravel D, Hutchinson J, Kelly S, McGeer A, et al. Hypervirulent Clostridium difficile Strains in Hospitalized Patients, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):678-681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091152
AMA Mulvey MR, Boyd DA, Gravel D, et al. Hypervirulent Clostridium difficile Strains in Hospitalized Patients, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):678-681. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091152.
APA Mulvey, M. R., Boyd, D. A., Gravel, D., Hutchinson, J., Kelly, S., McGeer, A....Miller, M. A. (2010). Hypervirulent Clostridium difficile Strains in Hospitalized Patients, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 678-681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091152.

Porcine-Origin Gentamicin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Humans, Denmark [PDF - 176 KB - 3 pages]
J. Larsen et al.

During 2001–2002, high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) Enterococcus faecalis isolates were detected in 2 patients in Denmark who had infective endocarditis and in pigs and pork. Our results demonstrate that these isolates belong to the same clonal group, which suggests that pigs are a source of HLGR E. faecalis infection in humans.

EID Larsen J, Schønheyder HC, Lester CH, Olsen SS, Porsbo LJ, Garcia-Migura L, et al. Porcine-Origin Gentamicin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Humans, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):682-684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090500
AMA Larsen J, Schønheyder HC, Lester CH, et al. Porcine-Origin Gentamicin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Humans, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):682-684. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090500.
APA Larsen, J., Schønheyder, H. C., Lester, C. H., Olsen, S. S., Porsbo, L. J., Garcia-Migura, L....Hammerum, A. M. (2010). Porcine-Origin Gentamicin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Humans, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 682-684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090500.

Merkel Cell Polyomavirus in Cutaneous Swabs [PDF - 196 KB - 3 pages]
V. Foulongne et al.

To assess the usefulness of using cutaneous swabs to detect Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA, we analyzed swabs from persons with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), others with skin diseases, and healthy volunteers. MCPyV was detected in at least 1 sample from virtually all participants. Viral loads were higher in samples from patients with MCC.

EID Foulongne V, Kluger N, Dereure O, Mercier G, Molès J, Guillot B, et al. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus in Cutaneous Swabs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):685-687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091278
AMA Foulongne V, Kluger N, Dereure O, et al. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus in Cutaneous Swabs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):685-687. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091278.
APA Foulongne, V., Kluger, N., Dereure, O., Mercier, G., Molès, J., Guillot, B....Segondy, M. (2010). Merkel Cell Polyomavirus in Cutaneous Swabs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 685-687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091278.

Novel Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Domestic Cats [PDF - 254 KB - 4 pages]
A. J. Hall et al.

Novel nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a domestic cat with severe otitis. Contact investigation and carrier study of human and animal contacts yielded 3 additional, identical isolates from cats, although no evidence of zoonotic transmission was identified. Molecular methods distinguished the feline isolates from known C. diphtheriae.

EID Hall AJ, Cassiday PK, Bernard KA, Bolt F, Steigerwalt AG, Bixler D, et al. Novel Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Domestic Cats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):688-691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091107
AMA Hall AJ, Cassiday PK, Bernard KA, et al. Novel Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Domestic Cats. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):688-691. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091107.
APA Hall, A. J., Cassiday, P. K., Bernard, K. A., Bolt, F., Steigerwalt, A. G., Bixler, D....Tondella, M. L. (2010). Novel Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Domestic Cats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 688-691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091107.

Sympatric Occurrence of 3 Arenaviruses, Tanzania [PDF - 282 KB - 4 pages]
J. Goüy de Bellocq et al.

To determine the specificity of Morogoro virus for its reservoir host, we studied its host range and genetic diversity in Tanzania. We found that 2 rodent species other than Mastomys natalensis mice carry arenaviruses. Analysis of 340 nt of the viral RNA polymerase gene showed sympatric occurrence of 3 distinct arenaviruses.

EID Goüy de Bellocq J, Borremans B, Katakweba A, Makundi R, Baird SJ, Becker-Ziaja B, et al. Sympatric Occurrence of 3 Arenaviruses, Tanzania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):692-695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091721
AMA Goüy de Bellocq J, Borremans B, Katakweba A, et al. Sympatric Occurrence of 3 Arenaviruses, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):692-695. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091721.
APA Goüy de Bellocq, J., Borremans, B., Katakweba, A., Makundi, R., Baird, S. J., Becker-Ziaja, B....Leirs, H. (2010). Sympatric Occurrence of 3 Arenaviruses, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 692-695. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091721.

Evolution of Porcine Kobuvirus Infection, Hungary [PDF - 196 KB - 3 pages]
G. Reuter et al.

Porcine kobuvirus was first identified in early 2007 in Hungary. Originally thought to be confined to the intestine, almost 2 years later the virus was found in the blood of clinically healthy pigs on the same farm. Porcine kobuvirus may be widely distributed on pig farms worldwide.

EID Reuter G, Kecskeméti S, Pankovics P. Evolution of Porcine Kobuvirus Infection, Hungary. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):696-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090937
AMA Reuter G, Kecskeméti S, Pankovics P. Evolution of Porcine Kobuvirus Infection, Hungary. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):696-698. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090937.
APA Reuter, G., Kecskeméti, S., & Pankovics, P. (2010). Evolution of Porcine Kobuvirus Infection, Hungary. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 696-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090937.

Influenza Virus Transmission from Horses to Dogs, Australia [PDF - 315 KB - 3 pages]
P. D. Kirkland et al.

During the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, respiratory disease in dogs in close contact with infected horses was noted; influenza (H3N8) virus infection was confirmed. Nucleotide sequence of the virus from dogs was identical to that from horses. No evidence of dog-to-dog transmission or virus persistence in dogs was found.

EID Kirkland PD, Finlaison DS, Crispe E, Hurt AC. Influenza Virus Transmission from Horses to Dogs, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):699-702. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091489
AMA Kirkland PD, Finlaison DS, Crispe E, et al. Influenza Virus Transmission from Horses to Dogs, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):699-702. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091489.
APA Kirkland, P. D., Finlaison, D. S., Crispe, E., & Hurt, A. C. (2010). Influenza Virus Transmission from Horses to Dogs, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 699-702. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091489.

Limited Susceptibility of Chickens, Turkeys, and Mice to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus [PDF - 192 KB - 3 pages]
D. Kalthoff et al.

To determine susceptibility of chickens, turkeys, and mice to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, we conducted contact exposure and inoculation experiments. We demonstrated that chickens were refractory to infection. However, oculo-oronasally inoculated turkeys and intranasally inoculated mice seroconverted without clinical signs of infection.

EID Kalthoff D, Grund C, Harder TC, Lange E, Vahlenkamp TW, Mettenleiter TC, et al. Limited Susceptibility of Chickens, Turkeys, and Mice to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):703-705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091491
AMA Kalthoff D, Grund C, Harder TC, et al. Limited Susceptibility of Chickens, Turkeys, and Mice to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):703-705. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091491.
APA Kalthoff, D., Grund, C., Harder, T. C., Lange, E., Vahlenkamp, T. W., Mettenleiter, T. C....Beer, M. (2010). Limited Susceptibility of Chickens, Turkeys, and Mice to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 703-705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091491.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in Swine Herds, Manitoba, Canada [PDF - 251 KB - 3 pages]
T. Pasma and T. Joseph

In Manitoba, Canada, several swine herds were infected by pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in the summer of 2009. Results of several investigations concluded that outbreaks of infection with this virus are similar in duration to outbreaks of infections with swine influenza viruses A (H1N1) and A (H3N2).

EID Pasma T, Joseph T. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in Swine Herds, Manitoba, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):706-708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091636
AMA Pasma T, Joseph T. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in Swine Herds, Manitoba, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):706-708. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091636.
APA Pasma, T., & Joseph, T. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in Swine Herds, Manitoba, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 706-708. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091636.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Breeding Turkeys, Valparaiso, Chile [PDF - 206 KB - 3 pages]
C. Mathieu et al.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was detected in breeding turkeys on 2 farms in Valparaiso, Chile. Infection was associated with measurable declines in egg production and shell quality. Although the source of infection is not yet known, the outbreak was controlled, and the virus was eliminated from the birds.

EID Mathieu C, Moreno V, Retamal P, Gonzalez A, Rivera A, Fuller J, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Breeding Turkeys, Valparaiso, Chile. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):709-711. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091402
AMA Mathieu C, Moreno V, Retamal P, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Breeding Turkeys, Valparaiso, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):709-711. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091402.
APA Mathieu, C., Moreno, V., Retamal, P., Gonzalez, A., Rivera, A., Fuller, J....Avalos, P. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Breeding Turkeys, Valparaiso, Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 709-711. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091402.

16S rRNA Methyltransferase RmtC in Salmonella enterica Serovar Virchow [PDF - 380 KB - 4 pages]
K. L. Hopkins et al.

We screened Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates, collected 2004–2008 in the United Kingdom, for 16S rRNA methyltransferases. rmtC was identified in S. enterica serovar Virchow isolates from clinical samples and food. All isolates were clonally related and bore the rmtC gene on the bacterial chromosome. Surveillance for and research on these resistance determinants are essential.

EID Hopkins KL, Escudero JA, Hidalgo L, Gonzalez-Zorn B. 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RmtC in Salmonella enterica Serovar Virchow. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):712-715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090736
AMA Hopkins KL, Escudero JA, Hidalgo L, et al. 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RmtC in Salmonella enterica Serovar Virchow. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):712-715. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090736.
APA Hopkins, K. L., Escudero, J. A., Hidalgo, L., & Gonzalez-Zorn, B. (2010). 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RmtC in Salmonella enterica Serovar Virchow. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 712-715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090736.

Reemergence of Dengue in Mauritius [PDF - 348 KB - 3 pages]
M. I. Issack et al.

Dengue reemerged in Mauritius in 2009 after an absence of >30 years, and >200 cases were confirmed serologically. Molecular studies showed that the outbreak was caused by dengue virus type 2. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene identified 2 clades of the virus. No case of hemorrhagic fever was recorded.

EID Issack MI, Pursem VN, Barkham TM, Ng L, Inoue M, Manraj SS. Reemergence of Dengue in Mauritius. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):716-718. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091582
AMA Issack MI, Pursem VN, Barkham TM, et al. Reemergence of Dengue in Mauritius. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):716-718. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091582.
APA Issack, M. I., Pursem, V. N., Barkham, T. M., Ng, L., Inoue, M., & Manraj, S. S. (2010). Reemergence of Dengue in Mauritius. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 716-718. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091582.
Letters

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Risk for Nurses after Trivalent Vaccination [PDF - 78 KB - 2 pages]
M. B. Loeb et al.
EID Loeb MB, Earn DJ, Smieja M, Webby R. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Risk for Nurses after Trivalent Vaccination. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):719-720. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091588
AMA Loeb MB, Earn DJ, Smieja M, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Risk for Nurses after Trivalent Vaccination. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):719-720. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091588.
APA Loeb, M. B., Earn, D. J., Smieja, M., & Webby, R. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Risk for Nurses after Trivalent Vaccination. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 719-720. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091588.

Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Intensive Care Units, Israel [PDF - 83 KB - 2 pages]
E. Kopel et al.
EID Kopel E, Amitai Z, Grotto I, Kaliner E, Volovik I. Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Intensive Care Units, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):720-721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091696
AMA Kopel E, Amitai Z, Grotto I, et al. Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Intensive Care Units, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):720-721. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091696.
APA Kopel, E., Amitai, Z., Grotto, I., Kaliner, E., & Volovik, I. (2010). Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Intensive Care Units, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 720-721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091696.

Risk for Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus by Blood Transfusion [PDF - 97 KB - 2 pages]
C. Matsumoto et al.
EID Matsumoto C, Sobata R, Uchida S, Hidaka T, Momose S, Hino S, et al. Risk for Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus by Blood Transfusion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):722-723. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091795
AMA Matsumoto C, Sobata R, Uchida S, et al. Risk for Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus by Blood Transfusion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):722-723. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091795.
APA Matsumoto, C., Sobata, R., Uchida, S., Hidaka, T., Momose, S., Hino, S....Tadokoro, K. (2010). Risk for Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus by Blood Transfusion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 722-723. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091795.

Rapid Emergence of Oseltamivir Resistance [PDF - 143 KB - 3 pages]
C. L. Sy et al.
EID Sy CL, Lee SS, Liu M, Tsai H, Chen Y. Rapid Emergence of Oseltamivir Resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):723-725. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091706
AMA Sy CL, Lee SS, Liu M, et al. Rapid Emergence of Oseltamivir Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):723-725. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091706.
APA Sy, C. L., Lee, S. S., Liu, M., Tsai, H., & Chen, Y. (2010). Rapid Emergence of Oseltamivir Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 723-725. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091706.

Dual Seasonal Patterns for Influenza, China [PDF - 127 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Shu et al.
EID Shu Y, Liu W, de Vlas SJ, Gao Y, Richardus JH, Cao W. Dual Seasonal Patterns for Influenza, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):725-726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091578
AMA Shu Y, Liu W, de Vlas SJ, et al. Dual Seasonal Patterns for Influenza, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):725-726. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091578.
APA Shu, Y., Liu, W., de Vlas, S. J., Gao, Y., Richardus, J. H., & Cao, W. (2010). Dual Seasonal Patterns for Influenza, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 725-726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091578.

Avian Influenza Prevalence in Pigs, Egypt [PDF - 88 KB - 2 pages]
A. El-Sayed et al.
EID El-Sayed A, Awad W, Fayed A, Hamann H, Zschöck M. Avian Influenza Prevalence in Pigs, Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):726-727. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091316
AMA El-Sayed A, Awad W, Fayed A, et al. Avian Influenza Prevalence in Pigs, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):726-727. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091316.
APA El-Sayed, A., Awad, W., Fayed, A., Hamann, H., & Zschöck, M. (2010). Avian Influenza Prevalence in Pigs, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 726-727. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091316.

Retraction: Triple Reassortant Swine Influenza A (H3N2) Virus in Waterfowl [PDF - 214 KB - 3 pages]
S. M. Goyal
EID Goyal SM. Retraction: Triple Reassortant Swine Influenza A (H3N2) Virus in Waterfowl. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):728-730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091583
AMA Goyal SM. Retraction: Triple Reassortant Swine Influenza A (H3N2) Virus in Waterfowl. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):728-730. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091583.
APA Goyal, S. M. (2010). Retraction: Triple Reassortant Swine Influenza A (H3N2) Virus in Waterfowl. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 728-730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091583.

Ventilator-associated Pneumonia and MRSA ST398, Italy [PDF - 98 KB - 2 pages]
C. Mammina et al.
EID Mammina C, Calà C, Plano MR, Bonura C, Vella A, Monastero R, et al. Ventilator-associated Pneumonia and MRSA ST398, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):730-731. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091584
AMA Mammina C, Calà C, Plano MR, et al. Ventilator-associated Pneumonia and MRSA ST398, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):730-731. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091584.
APA Mammina, C., Calà, C., Plano, M. R., Bonura, C., Vella, A., Monastero, R....Palma, D. M. (2010). Ventilator-associated Pneumonia and MRSA ST398, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 730-731. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091584.

Clostridium difficile in Ground Meat, France [PDF - 105 KB - 3 pages]
S. Bouttier et al.
EID Bouttier S, Barc M, Felix B, Lambert S, Collignon A, Barbut F. Clostridium difficile in Ground Meat, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):733-735. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091138
AMA Bouttier S, Barc M, Felix B, et al. Clostridium difficile in Ground Meat, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):733-735. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091138.
APA Bouttier, S., Barc, M., Felix, B., Lambert, S., Collignon, A., & Barbut, F. (2010). Clostridium difficile in Ground Meat, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 733-735. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091138.

WUPyV in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections, China [PDF - 84 KB - 2 pages]
X. Li et al.
EID Li X, Chen J, Kong M, Su X, Zou M, Zhang H, et al. WUPyV in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):735-736. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.100011
AMA Li X, Chen J, Kong M, et al. WUPyV in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):735-736. doi:10.3201/eid1604.100011.
APA Li, X., Chen, J., Kong, M., Su, X., Zou, M., Zhang, H....Han, Y. (2010). WUPyV in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 735-736. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.100011.

Buruli Ulcer Lesions in HIV-Positive Patient [PDF - 79 KB - 2 pages]
K. Kibadi et al.
EID Kibadi K, Colebunders R, Muyembe-Tamfum J, Meyers WM, Portaels F. Buruli Ulcer Lesions in HIV-Positive Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):738-739. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091343
AMA Kibadi K, Colebunders R, Muyembe-Tamfum J, et al. Buruli Ulcer Lesions in HIV-Positive Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):738-739. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091343.
APA Kibadi, K., Colebunders, R., Muyembe-Tamfum, J., Meyers, W. M., & Portaels, F. (2010). Buruli Ulcer Lesions in HIV-Positive Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 738-739. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091343.

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, French Guiana [PDF - 100 KB - 3 pages]
S. Matheus et al.
EID Matheus S, Djossou F, Moua D, Bourbigot AM, Hommel D, Lacoste V, et al. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):739-741. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090831
AMA Matheus S, Djossou F, Moua D, et al. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):739-741. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090831.
APA Matheus, S., Djossou, F., Moua, D., Bourbigot, A. M., Hommel, D., Lacoste, V....Lavergne, A. (2010). Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, French Guiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 739-741. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090831.

Fatal Human Case of West Nile Disease, Mexico, 2009 [PDF - 100 KB - 3 pages]
C. Rios-Ibarra et al.
EID Rios-Ibarra C, Blitvich BJ, Farfan-Ale JA, Ramos-Jimenez J, Muro-Escobedo S, Martínez-Rodriguez HR, et al. Fatal Human Case of West Nile Disease, Mexico, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):741-743. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091614
AMA Rios-Ibarra C, Blitvich BJ, Farfan-Ale JA, et al. Fatal Human Case of West Nile Disease, Mexico, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):741-743. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091614.
APA Rios-Ibarra, C., Blitvich, B. J., Farfan-Ale, J. A., Ramos-Jimenez, J., Muro-Escobedo, S., Martínez-Rodriguez, H. R....Rivas-Estilla, A. M. (2010). Fatal Human Case of West Nile Disease, Mexico, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 741-743. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091614.

Bartonella spp. Infections, Thailand [PDF - 90 KB - 3 pages]
S. Bhengsri et al.
EID Bhengsri S, Baggett HC, Peruski LF, Morway C, Bai Y, Fisk TL, et al. Bartonella spp. Infections, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):743-745. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090699
AMA Bhengsri S, Baggett HC, Peruski LF, et al. Bartonella spp. Infections, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):743-745. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090699.
APA Bhengsri, S., Baggett, H. C., Peruski, L. F., Morway, C., Bai, Y., Fisk, T. L....Kosoy, M. Y. (2010). Bartonella spp. Infections, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 743-745. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090699.

Cholera Outbreak, Laos, 2007 [PDF - 118 KB - 2 pages]
N. Sithivong et al.
EID Sithivong N, Izumiya H, Munnalath K, Phouthavane T, Chomlasak K, Sisavath L, et al. Cholera Outbreak, Laos, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):745-746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091493
AMA Sithivong N, Izumiya H, Munnalath K, et al. Cholera Outbreak, Laos, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):745-746. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091493.
APA Sithivong, N., Izumiya, H., Munnalath, K., Phouthavane, T., Chomlasak, K., Sisavath, L....Ohinishi, M. (2010). Cholera Outbreak, Laos, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 745-746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091493.

Buruli Ulcer, Central African Republic [PDF - 206 KB - 3 pages]
F. Minime-Lingoupou et al.
EID Minime-Lingoupou F, Beyam N, Zandanga G, Manirakiza A, N’Domackrah A, Njuimo S, et al. Buruli Ulcer, Central African Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):746-748. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090195
AMA Minime-Lingoupou F, Beyam N, Zandanga G, et al. Buruli Ulcer, Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):746-748. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090195.
APA Minime-Lingoupou, F., Beyam, N., Zandanga, G., Manirakiza, A., N’Domackrah, A., Njuimo, S....Bercion, R. (2010). Buruli Ulcer, Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 746-748. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090195.

One Flu for One Health [PDF - 75 KB - 1 page]
I. Capua and G. Cattoli
EID Capua I, Cattoli G. One Flu for One Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):719. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091593
AMA Capua I, Cattoli G. One Flu for One Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):719. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091593.
APA Capua, I., & Cattoli, G. (2010). One Flu for One Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 719. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091593.

Intestinal Capillariasis, Western Mindanao, the Philippines [PDF - 90 KB - 3 pages]
V. Y. Belizario et al.
EID Belizario VY, Totañes FI, de Leon WU, Migriño JR, Macasaet LY. Intestinal Capillariasis, Western Mindanao, the Philippines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):736-738. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.080483
AMA Belizario VY, Totañes FI, de Leon WU, et al. Intestinal Capillariasis, Western Mindanao, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):736-738. doi:10.3201/eid1604.080483.
APA Belizario, V. Y., Totañes, F. I., de Leon, W. U., Migriño, J. R., & Macasaet, L. Y. (2010). Intestinal Capillariasis, Western Mindanao, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 736-738. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.080483.

Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–Positive MRSA, Shanghai [PDF - 128 KB - 3 pages]
L. Han et al.
EID Han L, Ho P, Ni Y, Zhang H, Jiang Y, Chu H, et al. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–Positive MRSA, Shanghai. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):731-733. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.081324
AMA Han L, Ho P, Ni Y, et al. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–Positive MRSA, Shanghai. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):731-733. doi:10.3201/eid1604.081324.
APA Han, L., Ho, P., Ni, Y., Zhang, H., Jiang, Y., Chu, H....Zhang, Y. (2010). Panton-Valentine Leukocidin–Positive MRSA, Shanghai. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 731-733. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.081324.
Books and Media

Infectious Disease Surveillance [PDF - 83 KB - 1 page]
M. A. Strassburg
EID Strassburg MA. Infectious Disease Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090584
AMA Strassburg MA. Infectious Disease Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):749. doi:10.3201/eid1604.090584.
APA Strassburg, M. A. (2010). Infectious Disease Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.090584.

Denialism: How Irrational Thinking Hinders Scientific Progress, Harms the Planet, and Threatens Our Lives
T. C. Smith
EID Smith TC. Denialism: How Irrational Thinking Hinders Scientific Progress, Harms the Planet, and Threatens Our Lives. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):749-750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091710
AMA Smith TC. Denialism: How Irrational Thinking Hinders Scientific Progress, Harms the Planet, and Threatens Our Lives. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):749-750. doi:10.3201/eid1604.091710.
APA Smith, T. C. (2010). Denialism: How Irrational Thinking Hinders Scientific Progress, Harms the Planet, and Threatens Our Lives. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 749-750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.091710.
About the Cover

A Clean, Well-Lighted Place [PDF - 121 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. A Clean, Well-Lighted Place. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):751-752. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.ac1604
AMA Potter P. A Clean, Well-Lighted Place. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):751-752. doi:10.3201/eid1604.ac1604.
APA Potter, P. (2010). A Clean, Well-Lighted Place. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 751-752. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.ac1604.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Clostridium difficile [PDF - 166 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Clostridium difficile . Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):674. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.e11604
AMA Etymologia: Clostridium difficile . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):674. doi:10.3201/eid1604.e11604.
APA (2010). Etymologia: Clostridium difficile . Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 674. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.e11604.
Conference Summaries

Factors Influencing Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Southeastern United States [PDF - 25 KB - 3 pages]
L. M. Gargano et al.

Findings, Gaps, and Future Direction for Research in Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Pandemic Influenza [PDF - 29 KB - 4 pages]
C. J. Vukotich et al.
Corrections

Errata—Vol. 16, No. 2 [PDF - 72 KB - 1 page]
EID Errata—Vol. 16, No. 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.c11604
AMA Errata—Vol. 16, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):750. doi:10.3201/eid1604.c11604.
APA (2010). Errata—Vol. 16, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.c11604.

Errata—Vol. 16, No. 2 [PDF - 72 KB - 1 page]
EID Errata—Vol. 16, No. 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.c21604
AMA Errata—Vol. 16, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):750. doi:10.3201/eid1604.c21604.
APA (2010). Errata—Vol. 16, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.c21604.

Erratum—Vol. 16, No. 3 [PDF - 72 KB - 1 page]
EID Erratum—Vol. 16, No. 3. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(4):750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.c31604
AMA Erratum—Vol. 16, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(4):750. doi:10.3201/eid1604.c31604.
APA (2010). Erratum—Vol. 16, No. 3. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(4), 750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1604.c31604.
Page created: December 07, 2012
Page updated: December 07, 2012
Page reviewed: December 07, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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