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Volume 16, Number 4—April 2010


Limited Susceptibility of Chickens, Turkeys, and Mice to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus

Donata Kalthoff, Christian Grund, Timm C. Harder, Elke Lange, Thomas W. Vahlenkamp, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, and Martin BeerComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany

Main Article


Susceptibility of chicken, turkeys, and mice to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus*

Animal and dose (virus strain) No. animals Route of inoculation Swab samples Tissue samples, 
no. positive/no. tested† Seroconversion 
(no. positive/no. tested)‡
Chicken 5 Oculo-oronasal NA
Chick 28 Intra–air sac Day 2: 2/3; Day 4: 2/3; Day 8: 1/3
Chicken 10 Intravenous NA NA
Chicken 5 Contact with infected pigs NA
Turkey, 106 TCID50 (A/Regensburg/D6/2009) 6 Oculo-oronasal NA + (3/6)
Turkey, 108 TCID50 (A/Bayern/74/2009) 6 Oculo-oronasal + (respiratory), – (cloacal) NA + (4/6)
Poult 28 Intra–air sac Day 2: 3/3; Day 4: 1/3; Day 6: 1/3
Turkey 5 Contact with infected pigs NA
Mouse, 102–103 TCID50 8 Oculo-oronasal NA NA
Mouse, 104 TCID50 4 Oculo-oronasal NA NA + (3/4)
Mouse, 105 TCID50 4 Oculo-oronasal NA NA + (4/4)
Mouse, 105 TCID50 4 Intraperitoneal NA NA

*NP, nucleoprotein; –, negative; NA, not applicable; +, positive; TCID50, 50% tissue culture infectious dose.
†Three juvenile chickens and turkeys inoculated through the air sac were killed on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 posinoculation, and left and right lung lobes were removed for analysis by real-time reverse transcription–PCR. Tissues from the left (inoculation site) lung lobe of 5 chicks and 4 poults killed at the indicated days postinfection were positive for virus RNA with high cycle threshold values (>35), and 1 additional poult was positive for virus RNA with a cycle threshold value of 27 on day 2 postinfection.
‡Seroconversion was verified by testing for antibodies against virus NP by commercially available ELISAs (ELISA Avian Influenza Type A; Pourquier, Montpellier, France, and FlockChek AI MultiS-Screen; IDEXX, Ludwigsburg, Germany).

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