Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 16, Number 5—May 2010


Historical Distribution and Molecular Diversity of Bacillus anthracis, Kazakhstan

Alim M. Aikembayev1, Larissa Lukhnova, Gulnara Temiraliyeva, Tatyana Meka-Mechenko, Yerlan Pazylov, Sarkis Zakaryan, Georgiy Denissov, W. Ryan Easterday, Matthew N. Van Ert2, Paul Keim, Stephen C. Francesconi, Jason K. Blackburn3, Martin Hugh-JonesComments to Author , and Ted Hadfield
Author affiliations: Kazakhstan Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases, Almaty, Kazakhstan (A.M. Aikembayev, L. Lukhnova, G. Temiraliyeva, T. Meka-Mechenko, Y. Pazylov, S. Zakaryan, G. Denissov); Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA (W.R. Easterday, P. Keim); Midwest Research Institute, Palm Bay, Florida, USA (M.N. Van Ert, T. Hadfield); The Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (P. Keim); Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA (S.C. Francesconi); California State University, Fullerton, California, USA (J.K. Blackburn); Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA (M. Hugh-Jones);

Main Article

Table 2

Anthrax outbreaks, number of animal deaths per outbreak by species affected, and miscellaneous anthrax-positive samples, Kazakhstan, 1937–2005

Animal species No. outbreaks/ samples Deaths/ outbreak* Total no. deaths
Sheep 1,735 0–851 16,080
Cattle 1,678 0–84 3825
Equine 304 0–28 634
Swine 192 0–78 832
Camel 5 1–2 7
Mink 3 28–37 95
Goat 1 1 1
Fox 1 1 1
Dog 2 1 2
Arctic fox 2 5 6

Miscellaneous anthrax-positive samples†
Soil samples 17
Wool 1

*0 indicates animals that recovered from infection.
Bacillus anthracis spores were recovered, but there were no infections.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Republican Sanitary Epidemiologic Station, Almaty, Kasakhstan.

2Current affiliation: VEN Consulting, LLC, Melbourne, Florida, USA.

3Current affiliation: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.