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Volume 16, Number 7—July 2010


Novel Human Parvovirus 4 Genotype 3 in Infants, Ghana

Marcus Panning1, Robin Kobbe, Silke Vollbach, Jan Felix Drexler, Samuel Adjei, Ohene Adjei, Sung Sup Park, Jürgen May, and Anna Maria Eis-HübingerComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Institute of Virology, Bonn, Germany (M. Panning, S. Vollbach, J.F. Drexler, C. Drosten, A.M. Eis-Hübinger); Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany (R. Kobbe, J. May); Ministry of Health/Ghana Health Service, Agona, Ghana (S. Adjei); Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kumasi, Ghana (O. Adjei)

Main Article


Socioeconomic risk factors associated with PARV4 genotype 3 in whole blood from infants, Ghana, January 2004–September 2005*

Factor† No. tested‡ PARV4 viremia until month 24
No. (%) positive RR (95% CI) p value§
Kitchen available
No 137 15 (11.0) 1
Yes 126 5 (4.0) 0.36 (0.14–0.97) 0.033
Data lacking

River close
No 197 13 (6.6) 1
Yes 69 10 (14.5) 2.2 (1.01–4.78) 0.045
Data lacking

Water source
Pipe 164 10 (6.1) 1
Pump, well, or borehole 88 10 (11.4) 1.86 (0.81–4.31) 0.140
Other 14 2 (14.3) 2.34 (0.57–9.66) 0.241
Data lacking 13

*PARV4, parvovirus 4; RR, relative risk; CI, confidence interval.
†Other socioeconomic factors recorded, all without association with PARV4 genotype 3 viremia, were occupation of mother, education of mother, occupation of father, education of father, number of pregnancies, age of mother, age of father, no. children in household, no. adults in household, house type, no. rooms in house, financial situation, knowledge of malaria protection, mosquito protection, electricity in household, availability of radio or television.
‡Socioeconomic interviews could not be conducted for 11 participants, and 5 questionnaires were incomplete.
§χ2 test.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Freiburg, Germany.