Dynamics of Cholera Outbreaks in Great Lakes Region of Africa, 1978–2008
Didier Bompangue Nkoko, Patrick Giraudoux, Pierre-Denis Plisnier, Annie Mutombo Tinda, Martine Piarroux, Bertrand Sudre, Stephanie Horion, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Benoît Kebela Ilunga, and Renaud Piarroux
Author affiliations: Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France (D. Bompangue Nkoko, P. Giraudoux, M. Piarroux, B. Sudre); Ministère de la Santé Publique, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (D. Bompangue Nkoko, A. Mutombo Tinda, J.-J. Muyembe Tamfum, B. Kebela Ilunga); Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium (P.-D. Plisnier); Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra, Italy (S. Horion); Université de Kinshasa, Kinshasha (J.-J. Muyembe Tamfum); Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France (R. Piarroux); University Hospital La Timone, Marseille (R. Piarroux)
Figure 1. Yearly number of cholera cases in the African Great Lakes region (Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda), 1978–2008. Red bars indicate years with large increases in cholera cases. Numbers on arrows represent the increase factor in cholera cases. Warm climatic events (indicated by light orange background) had a duration of >5 months and a sea surface temperature increase of >0.5°C simultaneously in Niño 3 (eastern Pacific, from 90°W–150°W and 5°S–5°N) and Niño 4 (western Pacific, from 160°E–150°W and 5°S–5°N) regions.
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