Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 17, Number 3—March 2011
Research

Mycobacterium lentiflavum in Drinking Water Supplies, Australia

Henry M. MarshallComments to Author , Robyn Carter, Matthew J. Torbey, Sharri Minion, Carla Tolson, Hanna E. Sidjabat, Flavia Huygens, Megan Hargreaves, and Rachel M. Thomson
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (H.M. Marshall); The Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane (R. Carter, M.J. Torbey, S. Minion, C. Tolson); University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane (H.E. Sidjabat); Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (F. Huygens, M. Hargreaves); Queensland Tuberculosis Control Centre, Brisbane (R.M. Thomson)

Main Article

Table 1

American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America diagnostic criteria for NTM lung disease*

Clinical criteria
Pulmonary symptoms AND
Nodular or cavitary opacities on chest radiograph OR
Multifocal bronchiectasis with multiple small nodules on
high-resolution computerized tomography AND
Appropriate exclusion of other diagnoses
Microbiologic
Positive culture results from at least 2 separate expectorated
sputum samples OR
Positive culture results from at least 1 bronchial wash or
lavage OR
Biopsy† showing granulomatous inflammation or acid-fast
bacilli and positive culture OR
Biopsy† showing granulomatous inflammation or acid-fast
bacilli and one or more culture-positive sputum or bronchial
washings
Comments
Risk-benefit of therapy should be considered for each patient
•     before institution of therapy
Expert consultation should be obtained when NTM are
•recovered that are either infrequently encountered or that
•     usually represent environmental contamination
Patients suspected of having NTM lung disease but who do
•not meet the diagnostic criteria should be followed until the
•     diagnosis is firmly established or excluded

*Adapted from (2). NTM, nontuberculous mycobacteria.
†Transbronchial or other lung biopsy.

Main Article

References
  1. Springer  B, Wu  WK, Bodmer  T, Haase  G, Pfyffer  GE, Kroppenstedt  RM, Isolation and characterization of a unique group of slowly growing mycobacteria: description of Mycobacterium lentiflavum sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:11007.PubMed
  2. Griffith  DE, Aksamit  T, Brown-Elliott  BA, Catanzaro  A, Daley  C, Gordin  F, An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. [Erratum in: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;175:744–5]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;175:367416. DOIPubMed
  3. Zhang  Y, Yakrus  M, Graviss  E, Williams-Bouyer  N, Turenne  C, Kabani  A, Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis study of Mycobacterium abscessus isolates previously affected by DNA degradation. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:55827. DOIPubMed
  4. Sampaio  JL, Viana-Niero  C, de Freitas  D, Höfling-Lima  AL, Leão  SC. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR is a useful tool for typing Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus isolates. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;55:10718. DOIPubMed
  5. Sampaio  JL, Chimara  E, Ferrazoli  L, da Silva Telles  MA, Del Guercio  VM, Jericó  ZV, Application of four molecular typing methods for analysis of Mycobacterium fortuitum group strains causing post-mammaplasty infections. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:1429. DOIPubMed
  6. Cangelosi  GA, Freeman  RJ, Lewis  KN, Livingston-Rosanoff  D, Shah  KS, Milan  SJ, Evaluation of a high-throughput repetitive-sequence-based PCR system for DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex strains. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:268593. DOIPubMed
  7. Wilton  S, Cousins  D. Detection and identification of multiple mycobacterial pathogens by DNA amplification in a single tube. PCR Methods Appl. 1992;1:26973.PubMed
  8. Thomson  R, Carter  R, Gilpin  C, Coulter  C, Hargreaves  M. Comparison of methods for processing drinking water samples for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:30948. DOIPubMed
  9. Harmsen  D, Rothgänger  J, Frosch  M, Albert  J. RIDOM: Ribosomal Differentiation of Medical Microorganisms database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:4167. DOIPubMed
  10. Benson  DA, Karsch-Mizrachi  I, Lipman  DJ, Ostell  J, Sayers  EW. GenBank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37 (database issue):D26–31. Epub 2008 Oct 21.
  11. Ibáñez  R, Serrano-Heranz  R, Jiménez-Palop  M, Román  C, Corteguera  M. Jiménez SDisseminated infection caused by slow-growing Mycobacterium lentiflavum. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;21:6912. DOIPubMed
  12. Montejo  M, Goicoetxea  J, Agesta  N, Gil  A, Urra  E, Jimenez  MS. Cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium lentiflavum in a patient with HIV. Dermatology. 2006;213:1734. DOIPubMed
  13. Haase  G, Kentrup  H, Skopnik  H, Springer  B, Bottger  EC. Mycobacterium lentiflavum: an etiologic agent of cervical lymphadenitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25:12456. DOIPubMed
  14. Tortoli  E, Piersimoni  C, Kirschner  P, Bartoloni  A, Burrini  C, Lacchini  C, Characterization of mycobacterial isolates phylogenetically related to, but different from Mycobacterium simiae. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:697702.PubMed
  15. Cabria  F, Torres  MV, Garcia-Cia  JI, Dominguez-Garrido  MN, Esteban  J, Jimenez  MS. Cervical lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium lentiflavum. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:5745. DOIPubMed
  16. Tortoli  E, Bartoloni  A, Erba  ML, Levre  E, Lombardi  N, Mantella  A, Human infections due to Mycobacterium lentiflavum. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:7289. DOIPubMed
  17. Piersimoni  C, Goteri  G, Nista  D, Mariottini  A, Mazzarelli  G, Bornigia  S. Mycobacterium lentiflavum as an emerging causative agent of cervical lymphadenitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:38947. DOIPubMed
  18. Tortoli  E, Mattei  R, Russo  C, Scarparo  C. Mycobacterium lentiflavum, an emerging pathogen? J Infect. 2006;52:e1857. DOIPubMed
  19. Iwamoto  T, Sonobe  T, Hayashi  K, Okazaki  M, Umeda  B. A chronic pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium lentiflavum in a patient with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Clin Microbiol Newsl. 2003;25:79. DOI
  20. Buijtels  PC, Petit  PL, Verbrugh  HA, van Belkum  A, van Soolingen  D. Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria in Zambia: eight case reports. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:60206. DOIPubMed
  21. Molteni  C, Gazzola  L, Cesari  M, Lombardi  A, Salerno  F, Tortoli  E, Mycobacterium lentiflavum infection in immunocompetent patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:11922.PubMed
  22. Safdar  A, Han  XY. Mycobacterium lentiflavum, a recently identified slow-growing mycobacterial species: clinical significance in immunosuppressed cancer patients and summary of reported cases of infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;24:5548. DOIPubMed
  23. Suffys  P, Rocha Ada  S, Brandao  A, Vanderborght  B, Mijs  W, Jannes  G, Detection of mixed infections with Mycobacterium lentiflavum and Mycobacterium avium by molecular genotyping methods. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:12731. DOIPubMed
  24. Neonakis  IK, Gitti  Z, Kourbeti  IS, Michelaki  H, Baritaki  M, Alevraki  G, Mycobacterial species diversity at a general hospital on the island of Crete: first detection of Mycobacterium lentiflavum in Greece. Scand J Infect Dis. 2007;39:8759. DOIPubMed
  25. Niobe  SN, Bebear  CM, Clerc  M, Pellegrin  JL, Bebear  C, Maugein  J. Disseminated Mycobacterium lentiflavum infection in a human immunodeficiency virus–infected patient. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:20302. DOIPubMed
  26. Galarraga  MC, Torreblanca  A, Jimenez  MS. Isolation of Mycobacterium lentiflavum in a case of suspected lung cancer [in Spanish]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2002;20:934.PubMed
  27. Uria  MJ, Garcia  J, Menendez  JJ, Jimenez  MS. Mycobacterium lentiflavum infection: case history and review of the medical literature [in Spanish]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2003;21:2745.PubMed
  28. Shin  S, Yoon  JH, Song  SH, Kim  EC. Isolation of Mycobacterium lentiflavum from a patient with a lung destroyed by tuberculosis. Korean J Lab Med. 2007;27:1247. DOIPubMed
  29. Lee  IK, Liu  JW. Osteomyelitis concurrently caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. South Med J. 2007;100:9035. DOIPubMed
  30. Franco-Paredes  C, Blumberg  HM. Psoas muscle abscess caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus: case report and review. Am J Med Sci. 2001;321:4157. DOIPubMed
  31. Thomson  RM. Changing epidemiology of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:157683.PubMed
  32. Torvinen  E, Suomalainen  S, Lehtola  MJ, Miettinen  IT, Zacheus  O, Paulin  L, Mycobacteria in water and loose deposits of drinking water distribution systems in Finland. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:197381. DOIPubMed
  33. Tsitko  I, Rahkila  R, Priha  O, Ali-Vehmas  T, Terefework  Z, Soini  H, Isolation and automated ribotyping of Mycobacterium lentiflavum from drinking water distribution system and clinical specimens. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;256:23643. DOIPubMed
  34. Lee  ES, Lee  MY, Han  SH, Ka  JO. Occurrence and molecular differentiation of environmental mycobacteria in surface waters. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:120715.PubMed
  35. Zelazny  AM, Root  JM, Shea  YR, Colombo  RE, Shamputa  IC, Stock  F, Cohort study of molecular identification and typing of Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium massiliense, and Mycobacterium bolletii. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:198595. DOIPubMed

Main Article

Page created: January 17, 2012
Page updated: January 17, 2012
Page reviewed: January 17, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external