Volume 17, Number 4—April 2011
Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine Escape Variants and Potential New Serotype Emergence
|Mutant (position replaced)||log Nt/N0 vaccine serum (HAVRIX)||log Nt/N0 vaccine serum (Avaxim)||log Nt/N0 convalescent-phase serum (HCS2)||log Nt/N0 MAb K34C8|
|C6 (1170)||–0.08 ± 0.14||–0.08 ± 0.14||–0.02 ± 0.04||–0.08 ± 0.14|
|P29 (1187)||–0.70 ± 0.09||–0.30 ± 0.19||–0.70 ± 0.07||–0.37 ± 0.19|
|D23 (1217)||–0.88 ± 0.02||–0.54 ± 0.01||–0.61 ± 0.07||–0.58 ± 0.12|
|HM175/43c||–0.69 ± 0.09||–0.60 ± 0.05||–0.65 ± 0.05||–0.61 ± 0.10|
*Assays were performed by using vaccine and convalescent-phase serum samples as well as K34C8 MAb. MAb, monoclonal antibody; HAVRIX, HAVRIX vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline, Rixenart, Belgium); Avaxim, Avaxim vaccine (Sanofi-Pasteur, Paris, France).
†Following the model of the hepatitis A virus protomer of Ming Luo (Figure 1). Three neutralization assays were performed with each antivaccine serum sample, the convalescent-phase serum sample, and the MAb K34C8. As controls, neutralization of the D23 H7C27 MAb escape variant (9) as well as that of the HM175/43c wild-type strain, was also measured. The highest dilution showing a log Nt/N0 = –0.60 (75% neutralization) of the wild-type strain was used to test the variants; Nt, the viral titer after neutralization; N0, the initial titer. Neutralization limits were the following: log Nt/N0>–0.26 (<45%) for resistant variants, –0.26>log Nt/N0>–0.60 (45%–75%) for partially resistant variants, and log Nt/N0<–0.60 (>75%) for sensitive variants (9).
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1These authors contributed equally to this article.