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Volume 18, Number 1—January 2012


Outbreak of Leptospirosis after Flood, the Philippines, 2009

Al-shere T. Amilasan1, Mugen Ujiie1, Motoi SuzukiComments to Author , Eumelia Salva, Maria Cecilia P. Belo, Nobuo Koizumi, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Shane Marte, Efren M. Dimaano, Jose Benito Villarama, and Koya Ariyoshi
Author affiliations: San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, Republic of the Philippines (A.T. Amilasan, E. Salva, M.C.P. Belo, S. Marte, E.M. Dimaano, J.B. Villarama); National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan (M. Ujiie); Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan (M. Ujiie, M. Suzuki, W.-P. Schmidt, K. Ariyoshi); National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (N. Koizumi); Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan (K. Yoshimatsu)

Main Article

Table 2

Effects of therapeutic approaches on death from leptospirosis, San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, the Philippines, 2009

Therapeutic factorTotal cases, n = 471*Fatal cases, n = 51*Univariate analysis
Multivariate analysis
Risk ratio95% CIRisk ratio95% CI
Days from onset to first antimicrobial drug therapy, n = 4664.9 ± 2.65.6 ±–1.181.09†1.00–1.17
<7351 (75.3)31 (63.3)ReferenceReference
>7115 (24.7)18 (36.7)1.771.03–3.051.76†1.03–3.01
First antimicrobial agent used, n = 469
Penicillin G434 (92.5)47 (94)ReferenceReference
Ceftriaxone10 (2.1)2 (4)0.790.26–2.420.62‡0.16–2.38
Doxycycline9 (1.9)0 (0)
Others16 (3.4)1 (2)
Days from onset to admission†5.1 ± 2.65.7 ±–1.161.08†1.0–1.16
Rapid volume replacement therapy
Performed334 (70.9)46 (90.2)3.771.53–9.32.63§0.6–11.4
Not performed137 (29.1)5 (9.8)ReferenceReference
Used356 (75.6)46 (90.2)2.971.21–7.311.15§0.31–4.23
Not used115 (24.4)5 (9.8)ReferenceReference

*Values are no. (%) or mean ± SD.
†Adjusted for age group (<30 or >30 y).
‡Adjusted for age group and duration from symptom onset to antimicrobial therapy initiation.
§Adjusted for age group and creatinine level.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.