Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 18, Number 1—January 2012
Historical Review

Differential Mortality Rates by Ethnicity in 3 Influenza Pandemics Over a Century, New Zealand

Nick WilsonComments to Author , Lucy Telfar Barnard, Jennifer A. Summers, G. Dennis Shanks, and Michael G. Baker
Author affiliations: University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand (N. Wilson, L. Telfar Barnard, J.A. Summers, M.G. Baker); Australian Army Malaria Institute, Enoggera, Queensland, Australia (G.D. Shanks)

Main Article

Figure 2

Figure 2. Mortality rate ratios (age-standardized on the basis of 2009 data) for Māori versus European/other New Zealanders (non-Māori/non-Pacific) during 3 influenza pandemics in New Zealand. *Data from (6); †official mortality rate data; ‡age-standardized to the Māori population. Error bar represents 95% CI.

Main Article

References
  1. Mamelund  S-E. Geography may explain adult mortality from the 1918–20 influenza pandemic. Epidemics. 2011;3:4660. DOIPubMed
  2. La Ruche  G, Tarantola  A, Barboza  P, Vaillant  L, Gueguen  J, Gastellu-Etchegorry  M. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza and indigenous populations of the Americas and the Pacific. Euro Surveill. 2009;14:pii:19366.
  3. Flint  SM, Davis  JS, Su  JY, Oliver-Landry  EP, Rogers  BA, Goldstein  A, Disproportionate impact of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza on Indigenous people in the Top End of Australia’s Northern Territory. Med J Aust. 2010;192:61722.PubMed
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Deaths related to 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) among American Indian/Alaska Natives—12 states, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58:13414.PubMed
  5. Zarychanski  R, Stuart  TL, Kumar  A, Doucette  S, Elliott  L, Kettner  J, Correlates of severe disease in patients with 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1) virus infection. CMAJ. 2010;182:25764. DOIPubMed
  6. Rice  G. Black November: the 1918 influenza pandemic in New Zealand. Christchurch (New Zealand): Canterbury University Press; 2005.
  7. Auckland War Memorial Museum. Cenotaph database. Auckland, New Zealand. Auckland War Memorial Museum, 2008 [cited 2010 Dec 1]. http://www.aucklandmuseum.com/130/cenotaph-database
  8. Inwood  K, Oxley  L, Roberts  E. Physical stature in nineteenth-century New Zealand: a preliminary interpretation. Aust Econ Hist Rev. 2010;50:26283. DOI
  9. Pacific Research & Development Services & SHORE/Whariki Massey University. Pacific drugs & alcohol consumption survey 2003. Final report: volume I. Auckland (New Zealand): Massey University, 2004.
  10. Department of Internal Affairs. Birth, Death and Marriage Historical Records. Wellington (New Zealand): New Zealand Government [cited 2010 Dec 1]. http://bdmhistoricalrecords.identityservices.govt.nz/home/
  11. Davis  L. Report on the 1957 pandemic of influenza (to the World Health Organization, Geneva). Wellington (New Zealand): Division of Public Hygiene, Department of Health; 1958. p. 1–4.
  12. Department of Statistics. New Zealand Official Yearbook 1973. Wellington (New Zealand): Government Printer; 1973.
  13. Mortality  PI; Morbidity Review Group. Report for the Minister of Health from the Pandemic Influenza Mortality and Morbidity Review Group. Wellington (New Zealand): Ministry of Health; 2010.
  14. Rice  G. Maori mortality in the 1918 influenza epidemic. N Z Popul Rev. 1983;9:4461.PubMed
  15. Pool  DI. The effects of the 1918 pandemic of influenza on the Maori population of New Zealand. Bull Hist Med. 1973;47:27381.PubMed
  16. Bryder  L. The 1918 influenza epidemic in Auckland [master’s thesis]. Auckland (New Zealand): Auckland University; 1980.
  17. Donovan  JW. A study in New Zealand mortality: 6. epidemic diseases. N Z Med J. 1969;70:40615.PubMed
  18. Bandaranayake  D, Huang  QS, Bissielo  A, Wood  T, Mackereth  G, Baker  MG, Risk factors and immunity in a nationally representative population following the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13211. DOIPubMed
  19. Baker  MG, Wilson  N, Huang  QS, Paine  S, Lopez  L, Bandaranayake  D, Pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v in New Zealand: the experience from April to August 2009. Euro Surveill. 2009;14:ArticleId=19319.
  20. Verrall  A, Norton  K, Rooker  S, Dee  S, Olsen  L, Tan  CE, Hospitalizations for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Maori and Pacific Islanders, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1002. DOIPubMed
  21. ANZIC Influenza Investigators and Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System. Critical illness due to 2009 A/H1N1 influenza in pregnant and postpartum women: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2010;340:c1279. DOIPubMed
  22. Statistics New Zealand. New Zealand: an urban/rural profile. Wellington (New Zealand): Statistics New Zealand; 2005.
  23. ANZIC Influenza Investigators; Webb SA, Pettila V, Seppelt I, Bellomo R, Bailey M, Cooper DJ, et al. Critical care services and 2009 H1N1 influenza in Australia and New Zealand. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:192534. DOIPubMed
  24. Ministry of Health. A portrait of health: key results of the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health, 2008 [cited 2010 Dec 1]. http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/indexmh/portrait-of-health
  25. Robson  B, Harris  R, eds. Hauora: Māori standards of health IV. A study of the years 2000–2005. Wellington (New Zealand): Te Rōpū Rangahau Hauora a Eru Pōmare, 2007 [cited 2010 Dec 1]. http://www.hauora.maori.nz/hauora
  26. Baker  M, Telfar Barnard  L, Zhang  J, Lanumata  T, Keall  M, Verral  A, Close-contact infectious diseases in New Zealand: trends and ethnic inequalities in hospitalisations, 1989 to 2008. 2nd ed. Wellington: Housing and Health Research Programme, University of Otago; 2010 [cited 2010 Dec 1]. http://www.healthyhousing.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Close-contact-IDs-2nd-edition1.pdf
  27. Baker  M, Das  D, Venugopal  K, Howden-Chapman  P. Tuberculosis associated with household crowding in a developed country. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008;62:71521. DOIPubMed
  28. Baker  M, McNicholas  A, Garrett  N, Jones  N, Stewart  J, Koberstein  V, Household crowding a major risk factor for epidemic meningococcal disease in Auckland children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:98390. DOIPubMed
  29. Jaine  R, Baker  M, Venugopal  K. Acute rheumatic fever associated with household crowding in a developed country. [Epub ahead of print]. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010.PubMed
  30. Epidemiological Task Group for Overseas French Territories of the Pacific; Barboza P, Baudon C, Cherie-Challine L, Gastellu-Etchegorry M, Gueguen J, La Ruche G, et al. Influenza A(H1N1)2009 in the French Pacific territories: assessment of the epidemic wave during the austral winter. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:3048. DOIPubMed
  31. Shanks  GD, Mackenzie  A, McLaughlin  R, Waller  M, Dennis  P, Lee  SE, Mortality risk factors during the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in the Australian army. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:18809. DOIPubMed
  32. Mamelund  S-E. Spanish Influenza mortality of ethnic minorities in Norway 1918–1919. Eur J Popul. 2003;19:83102. DOI
  33. Maclean  F. Challenge for health: a history of public health in New Zealand. Wellington (New Zealand): Government Printer; 1964.
  34. Cowan  J. Maoris in the great war: a history of the New Zealand native contingent and pioneer battalion—Gallipoli 1915 France and Flanders 1916–1918. Auckland (New Zealand): Whitcombe & Tombs; 1926.
  35. Pugsley  C. Te Hokowhitu a Tu: the Maori pioneer battalion in the first World War. Auckland (New Zealand): Reed; 1995.
  36. Blakely  T, Thomson  G, Wilson  N, Edwards  R, Gifford  H. The Māori Affairs Select Committee Inquiry and the road to a smokefree Aotearoa. N Z Med J. 2010;123:718.PubMed
  37. Massey  PD, Pearce  G, Taylor  KA, Orcher  L, Saggers  S, Durrheim  DN. Reducing the risk of pandemic influenza in Aboriginal communities. Rural Remote Health. 2009;9:1290.PubMed
  38. Rudge  S, Massey  PD. Responding to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in Aboriginal communities in NSW through collaboration between NSW Health and the Aboriginal community-controlled health sector. N S W Public Health Bull. 2010;21:269. DOIPubMed
  39. Groom  AV, Jim  C, Laroque  M, Mason  C, McLaughlin  J, Neel  L, Pandemic influenza preparedness and vulnerable populations in tribal communities. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(Suppl 2):S2718. DOIPubMed
  40. Hutchins  SS, Fiscella  K, Levine  RS, Ompad  DC, McDonald  M. Protection of racial/ethnic minority populations during an influenza pandemic. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(Suppl 2):S26170. DOIPubMed

Main Article

Page created: December 19, 2011
Page updated: December 19, 2011
Page reviewed: December 19, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external