Volume 18, Number 5—May 2012
No Association between 2008–09 Influenza Vaccine and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection, Manitoba, Canada, 2009
|Variable||No. community case-patients, n = 626||No. hospitalized case-patients, n = 205||Odds ratio (95% CI)
|Model A†||Model B‡||Model C§|
|2007–08||123||37||0.9 (0.6–1.4)||0.6 (0.3–1.0)||0.4 (0.2–0.8)|
|2008–09||109||39||1.1 (0.7–1.7)||0.8 (0.5–1.3)||0.6 (0.3–1.3)|
|2007–08 only||51||17||1.0 (0.6–1.9)||0.7 (0.3–1.4)||0.5 (0.2–1.2)|
|2008–09 only||37||19||1.6 (0.9–2.9)||1.3 (0.6–2.6)||0.8 (0.4–1.8)|
|Both||72||20||0.9 (0.5–1.5)||0.5 (0.3–1.0)||0.2 (0.1–0.5)|
|No. TIVs in past 5 y|
|>1||243||86||1.1 (0.8–1.6)||0.9 (0.6–1.4)||0.8 (0.5–1.2)|
|1–3||187||65||1.1 (0.8–1.6)||1.0 (0.6–1.4)||0.8 (0.5–1.3)|
|4–5||56||21||1.2 (0.7–2.1)||0.8 (0.4–1.6)||0.5 (0.2–1.3)|
|5||19||9||1.5 (0.7–3.4)||1.1 (0.4–3.2)||0.6 (0.2–2.3)|
|Ever received PPV23||41||32||2.6 (1.6–4.3)||1.8 (1.0–3.6)||1.7 (0.8–3.8)|
|2008–09 TIV only||86||20||0.8 (0.5–1.3)||0.6 (0.3–1.1)||0.5 (0.2–1.1)|
|PPV23 only||18||13||2.4 (1.1–4.9)||1.4 (0.6–3.4)||1.2 (0.4–3.1)|
|Both||23||19||2.7 (1.4–5.1)||1.9 (0.8–4.6)||1.6 (0.5–4.7)|
*TIV, inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine; PPV23, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.
‡Model adjusted for age, sex, region of residence, Socioeconomic Factor Index (24), and week of specimen collection.
§Model adjusted for all model B variables plus no. hospital admissions and family physician visits in previous 12 mo, pregnancy, presence of a chronic or immunocompromising medical condition, and antiviral drug use. Model also included mutual adjustment for 2007–09 TIV and PPV23.
- Skowronski DM, De Serres G, Crowcroft NS, Janjua NZ, Boulianne N, Hottes TS, Association between the 2008–09 seasonal influenza vaccine and pandemic H1N1 illness during spring–summer 2009: four observational studies from Canada. PLoS Med. 2010;7:e1000258.
- Garcia-Garcia L, Valdespino-Gomez JL, Lazcano-Ponce E, Jimenez-Corona A, Higuera-Iglesias A, Cruz-Hervert P, Partial protection of seasonal trivalent inactivated vaccine against novel pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009: case–control study in Mexico City. BMJ. 2009;339:b3928.
- Echevarría-Zuno S, Mejía-Aranguré JM, Mar-Obeso AJ, Grajales-Muñiz C, Robles-Pérez E, González-León M, Infection and death from influenza A H1N1 virus in Mexico: a retrospective analysis. Lancet. 2009;374:2072–9.
- Carcione D, Giele C, Goggin LS, Kwan KS, Smith DW, Dowse GK, Association between 2009 seasonal influenza vaccine and influenza-like illness during the 2009 pandemic: preliminary results of a large household transmission study in Western Australia. Euro Surveill. 2010;15:pii:19616.
- Kelly HA, Grant KA, Fielding JE, Carville KS, Looker CO, Tran T, Pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 infection in Victoria, Australia: no evidence for harm or benefit following receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine in 2009. Vaccine. 2011;29:6419–26.
- Pebody R, Andrews N, Waight P, Malkani R, McCartney C, Ellis J, No effect of 2008/09 seasonal influenza vaccination on the risk of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza infection in England. Vaccine. 2011;29:2613–8.
- Puig-Barberà J, Arnedo-Pena A, Pardo-Serrano F, Tirado-Balaguer MD, Pérez-Vilar S, Silvestre-Silvestre E, Effectiveness of seasonal 2008–2009, 2009–2010 and pandemic vaccines, to prevent influenza hospitalizations during the autumn 2009 influenza pandemic wave in Castellón, Spain. A test-negative, hospital-based, case–control study. Vaccine. 2010;28:7460–7.
- Larrauri A, Savulescu C, Jiménez-Jorge S, Pérez-Breña P, Pozo F, Casas I, Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009 activity during summer 2009: effectiveness of the 2008–9 trivalent vaccine against pandemic influenza in Spain. Gac Sanit. 2011;25:23–8.
- Iuliano AD, Reed C, Guh A, Desai M, Dee D, Kutty P, Notes from the field: outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus at a large public university in Delaware, April–May 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:1811–20.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Effectiveness of 2008–09 trivalent influenza vaccine against 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1)—United States, May–June 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58:1241–5.
- Lessler J, Reich NG, Cummings DAT. Outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) at a New York City school. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2628–36.
- Hancock K, Veguilla V, Lu X, Zhong W, Butler EN, Sun H, Cross-reactive antibody responses to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1945–52.
- Lee VJ, Tay JK, Chen MIC, Phoon M, Xie M, Wu Y, Inactivated trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine induces limited cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses against 2009 pandemic and 1934 PR8 H1N1 strains. Vaccine. 2010;28:6852–7.
- Pascua PNQ, Song MS, Lee JH, Park KJ, Kwon H, Baek YH, Evaluation of the efficacy and cross-protectivity of recent human and swine vaccines against the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8431.
- Loeb M, Earn DJ, Smieja M, Webby R. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 risk for nurses after trivalent vaccination. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:719–20.
- Chen MIC, Lee VJM, Lim WY, Barr IG, Lin RTP, Koh GCH, 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) seroconversion rates and risk factors among distinct adult cohorts in Singapore. JAMA. 2010;303:1383–91.
- Kelly H, Barry S, Laurie K, Mercer G. Seasonal influenza vaccination and the risk of infection with pandemic influenza: a possible illustration of non-specific temporary immunity following infection. Euro Surveill. 2010;15:pii:19722.
- Glezen WP. How did the 2008–2009 seasonal influenza vaccine affect the pandemic? Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:1380–2.
- Embree J. Pandemic 2009 (A)H1N1 influenza (swine flu)—the Manitoba experience. Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;88:589–93.
- Campbell A, Rodin R, Kropp R, Mao Y, Hong Z, Vachon J, Risk of severe outcomes among patients admitted to hospital with pandemic (H1N1) influenza. CMAJ. 2010;182:349–55.
- National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI). Statement on influenza vaccination for the 2008–2009 season. An Advisory Committee Statement (ACS) [in French]. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2008;34(ACS-3):1–46. PMID 18802991
- LeBlanc JJ, Li Y, Bastien N, Forward KR, Davidson RJ, Hatchette TF. Switching gears for an influenza pandemic: validation of a duplex reverse transcriptase PCR assay for simultaneous detection and confirmatory identification of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3805–13.
- Roberts JD, Poffenroth LA, Roos LL, Bebchuk JD, Carter AO. Monitoring childhood immunizations: a Canadian approach. Am J Public Health. 1994;84:1666–8.
- Martens PJ, Frohlich N, Carriere KC, Derksen S, Brownell M. Embedding child health within a framework of regional health: population health status and sociodemographic indicators. Can J Public Health. 2002;93(Suppl 2):S15–20.
- Lix L, Yogendran M, Burchill C, Metge C, McKeen N, Moore D, Defining and validating chronic diseases: an administrative data approach. Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada): Manitoba Centre for Health Policy; 2006.
- Hardy JR, Holford TR, Hall GC, Bracken MB. Strategies for identifying pregnancies in the automated medical records of the General Practice Research Database. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2004;13:749–59.
- Zarychanski R, Stuart TL, Kumar A, Doucette S, Elliott L, Kettner J, Correlates of severe disease in patients with 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1) virus infection. CMAJ. 2010;182:257–64.
- Dupont WD. Power calculations for matched case–control studies. Biometrics. 1988;44:1157–68.
- Garten RJ, Davis CT, Russell CA, Shu B, Lindstrom S, Balish A, Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans. Science. 2009;325:197–201.
- Cowling BJ, Ng S, Ma ESK, Cheng CKY, Wai W, Fang VJ, Protective efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination against seasonal and pandemic influenza virus infection during 2009 in Hong Kong. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:1370–9.
- Janjua NZ, Skowronski DM, Hottes TS, De Serres G, Crowcroft NS, Rosella LC. Seasonal vaccine and H1N1. Selection bias explains seasonal vaccine’s protection. BMJ. 2009;339:b4972.
- Janjua NZ, Skowronski DM, Hottes TS, De Serres G, Crowcroft NS, Rosella LC. Seasonal vaccine effectiveness against pandemic A/H1N1 [letter]. Lancet. 2010;375:801–2.
- Echevarría-Zuno S, Mejía-Aranguré JM, Grajales-Muñiz C, Gonzalez-Bonilla C, Borja-Aburto VH. Seasonal vaccine effectiveness against pandemic A/H1N1 [letter]. Lancet. 2010;375:author reply 802–3.
- Johns MC, Eick AA, Blazes DL, Lee S, Perdue CL, Lipnick R, Seasonal influenza vaccine and protection against pandemic (H1N1) 2009–associated illness among US military personnel. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10722.
- Crum-Cianflone NF, Blair PJ, Faix D, Arnold J, Echols S, Sherman SS, Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of an outbreak of novel H1N1 (swine origin) influenza A virus among United States military beneficiaries. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:1801–10.
- Savitz DA. Interpreting epidemiologic evidence: strategies for study design and analysis. Oxford (New York): Oxford University Press; 2003.
- Wacholder S, McLaughlin JK, Silverman DT, Mandel JS. Selection of controls in case–control studies: I. principles. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135:1019–28.
- Statistics Canada. Table 105-0501. Health indicator profile, annual estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2007 boundaries) and peer groups, occasional, CANSIM (database). 2011 [cited 2011 Apr 17]. http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1050501&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=
- Robinson JR, Young TK, Roos LL, Gelskey DE. Estimating the burden of disease: comparing administrative data and self-reports. Med Care. 1997;35:932–47.
- Shrank WH, Patrick AR, Brookhart MA. Healthy user and related biases in observational studies of preventive interventions: a primer for physicians. J Gen Intern Med. 2011;26:546–50.