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Volume 18, Number 5—May 2012
Letter

Epidemic Genotype of Coxiella burnetii among Goats, Sheep, and Humans in the Netherlands

Jeroen J.H.C. Tilburg, Hendrik-Jan I.J. Roest, Sylvain Buffet, Marrigje H. Nabuurs-Franssen, Alphons M. Horrevorts, Didier Raoult, and Corné H.W. KlaassenComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (J.J.H.C. Tilburg, M.H. Nabuurs-Franssen, A.M. Horrevorts, C.H.W. Klaassen); Central Veterinary Institute part of Wageningen UR, Lelystad, the Netherlands (H.I.J. Roest); Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France (S. Buffet, D. Raoult)

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Table A1

Coxiella burnetii MST genotypes from humans and ruminants sampled during the Q fever outbreak, the Netherlands, 2008–2010*

Sample no. Host Source Location Year Ct value MST genotype† Cox2 Cox5 Cox18 Cox20 Cox22 Cox37 Cox51 Cox56 Cox57‡ Cox61
Q001 Sheep Vaginal swab 1 2008 25.7 33 7 5 1 –§ 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q002 Sheep Vaginal swab 1 2008 16.3 33 7 5 1 6 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q003 Sheep Vaginal swab 1 2008 18.8 33 7 5 1 6 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q004 Lamb Throat swab 1 2008 27.9 33 7 5 1 6 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q005 Lamb Throat swab 1 2008 29.9 33 7 5 1 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q006 Lamb Throat swab 1 2008 28.9 33 7 5 1 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q050 Human BAL 2 2009 22.4 33 7 5 1 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q052 Human Sputum 3 2009 20.7 33 7 5 1 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q054 Human Sputum 3 2009 19.4 33 7 5 1 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q057 Human Sputum 3 2009 20.6 33 7 5 1 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q063 Human Sputum 4 2009 29.6 33 7 5 1 5 9 9 4 2
Q066 Human Sputum 5 2009 27.7 33 7 5 1 5 9 9 4 2
Q076 Human Aorta valve 6 2009 17.0 33 7 5 1 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q084 Human Aorta valve 7 2008 17.0 33 7 5 1 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q107 Human Aorta valve 5 2010 9.0 33 7 5 1 6 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q085 Goat Placenta 8 2009 18.0 33 7 5 1 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q087 Goat Placenta 9 2009 18.1 33 7 5 1 5 9 9 4 3 2
Q086 Goat Placenta 9 2009 18.0 20 3 2 6 5 4 4 10 6 5
Q097 Cattle Swab 10 2009 19.0 20 3 2 6 5 4 4 10 6 5
Q090 Cattle Milk 11 2010 32.0 20 3 2 6 5 4 4 10 5
Q091 Cattle Milk 12 2010 32.6 20 3 2 6 5 4 4 10 5
Q093 Cattle Milk 13 2010 31.7 20 3 2 6 5 4 4 10 5
Q096 Cattle Milk 14 2010 33.4 20 3 2 6 5 4 4 10 5
Q123 Cattle Milk 15 2010 31.6 20 3 2 6 5 4 4 10 5
Q056 Human BAL 16 2010 28.2 New 3 3 2 9
Dugway NA CP000733# NA NA NA 20 3 2 6 1 5 4 4 10 6 5
RSA331 NA CP000890# NA NA NA 18 3 8 1 6 3 4 7 9 6 3
RSA493 NA AE016828# NA NA NA 16 3 8 5 3 4 1 6 7 6 5
CbuG Q212 NA CP001019# NA NA NA 21 2 1 4 6 2 3 1 11 1 1
CbuK Q154 NA CP001020# NA NA NA 8 5 4 2 5 1 5 3 3 4 4

*MST, multispacer sequence typing; Ct, cycle threshold; BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage; NA, not applicable.
†MST genotypes were identified by using the MST database (http://ifr48.timone.univ-mrs.fr/MST_Coxiella/mst).
‡Result obtained by using improved amplification primers for Cox57 (9).
§ –, no result was obtained. The lack of results may be explained by the significantly larger PCR product that is targeted, low quantity of DNA or to overall poor performance of the PCR amplification.
¶This combination of 4 alleles has not been observed and justifies the assignment of a new MST genotype.
#GenBank accession number.

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References
  1. Roest  HIJ, Tilburg  JJHC, van der Hoek  W, Vellema  P, van Zijderveld  FG, Klaassen  CHW, The Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands: history, onset, response and reflection. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:112. DOIPubMed
  2. Huijsmans  CJJ, Schellekens  JJA, Wever  PC, Toman  R, Savelkoul  PHM, Janse  I, Single-nucleotide-polymorphism-genotyping of Coxiella burnetii during a Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:20517. DOIPubMed
  3. Klaassen  CHW, Nabuurs-Franssen  MH, Tilburg  JJHC, Hamans  MAWM, Horrevorts  AM. Multigenotype Q fever outbreaks, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:6134. DOIPubMed
  4. Roest  HIJ, Ruuls  RC, Tilburg  JJHC, Nabuurs-Franssen  MH, Klaassen  CHW, Vellema  P, Molecular epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from ruminants in Q fever outbreak, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:66875.PubMed
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  8. Tilburg  JJHC, Melchers  WJG, Pettersson  AM, Rossen  JWA, Hermans  MHA, van Hannen  EJ, Interlaboratory evaluation of different extraction and real-time PCR methods for detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in serum. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:39237. DOIPubMed
  9. Bleichert  P, Hanczaruk  M, Stasun  L, Frangoulidis  D. MST vs. IS1111 distribution: a comparison of two genotyping systems for Coxiella burnetii. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Meeting on Rickettsiae and Rickettsial Diseases; Heraklion, Crete, Greece; 2011 Jun 5–7. p. 187.
  10. Muskens  J, van Engelen  E, van Maanen  C, Bartels  C, Lam  TJGM. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in Dutch dairy herds based on testing bulk tank milk and individual samples by PCR and ELISA. Vet Rec. 2011;168:7982. DOIPubMed

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Page updated: April 10, 2012
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