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Volume 18, Number 8—August 2012


Molecular Epidemiologic Investigation of an Anthrax Outbreak among Heroin Users, Europe

Erin P. Price1, Meagan L. Seymour, Derek S. Sarovich1, Jennie Latham, Spenser R. Wolken, Joanne Mason, Gemma Vincent, Kevin P. Drees, Stephen M. Beckstrom-Sternberg, Adam M. Phillippy, Sergey Koren, Richard T. Okinaka, Wai-Kwan Chung, James M. Schupp, David M. Wagner, Richard Vipond, Jeffrey T. Foster, Nicholas H. Bergman, James Burans, Talima Pearson, Tim Brooks, and Paul KeimComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA (E.P. Price, M.L. Seymour, D.S. Sarovich, S.R. Wolken, K.P. Drees, S.M. Beckstrom-Sternberg, R.T. Okinaka, W.-K. Chung, J.M. Schupp, D.M. Wagner, J.T. Foster, T. Pearson, P. Keim); Health Protection Agency, London, UK (J. Latham, J. Mason, G. Vincent, R. Vipond, T. Brooks); National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center, Frederick, Maryland, USA (A.M. Phillippy, S. Koren, N. H. Bergman, J. Burans); and Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (S.M. Beckstrom-Sternberg, J.M. Schupp, P. Keim)

Main Article


Genotyping results of 36 culture- or PCR-confirmed cases of anthrax in heroin users, 2009–2010, Europe*

Sample no. Status† Collection date Location SNP1053700 SNP1173928
Ames‡ NA 1981 Texas, USA A G
Ba4599§ C+/PCR+ 2009 Dec 16 Glasgow, Scotland G C
A112 C+/PCR+ 2009 Dec 18 Germany G C
4622 C+/PCR+ 2009 Dec 19 Glasgow, Scotland G C
4646 C-/PCR+ 2009 Dec 22 Airdrie, Scotland G C
4670 C+/PCR+ 2009 Dec 23 Glasgow, Scotland G C
4745 C-/PCR+ 2009 Dec 31 Glasgow, Scotland G C
0002 C+/PCR+ 2010 Jan 4 Glasgow, Scotland G C
0007 C+/PCR+ 2010 Jan 4 Glasgow, Scotland G C
0001 C+/PCR+ 2010 Jan 4 Dundee, Scotland G C
0046 C-/PCR+ 2010 Jan 6 Stirling, Scotland G C
0074 C+/PCR+ 2010 Jan 7 Kirkcaldy, Scotland G C
0075 C+/PCR+ 2010 Jan 7 Kirkcaldy, Scotland G C
0117(2) C+/PCR+ 2010 Jan 9 Dundee, Scotland G C
0142 C+/PCR+ 2010 Jan 9 Glasgow, Scotland G C
0271 C-/PCR+ 2010 Jan 15 Glasgow, Scotland G C
0393 C+/PCR+ 2010 Jan 20 Kilmarnock, Scotland G C
0426 C+/PCR+ 2010 Jan 21 Glasgow, Scotland G C
0491 C+/PCR+ 2010 Jan 22 Glasgow, Scotland G C
0773 C+/PCR+ 2010 Feb 4 London, England G C
0871 C+/PCR+ 2010 Feb 9 Glasgow, Scotland G C
0874 C+/PCR+ 2010 Feb 9 Glasgow, Scotland G C
0844 C-/PCR+ 2010 Feb 9 Blackpool, England G C
1297 C+/PCR+ 2010 Feb 26 London, England G C
1060 C+/PCR+ 2010 Mar 5 Fife, Scotland G C
1134 C+/PCR+ 2010 Mar 5 Dumfries, Scotland G C
1320 C+/PCR+ 2010 Mar 5 Dumfries, Scotland G C
0981 C-/PCR+ 2010 Mar 5 Airdrie, Scotland G C
1458 C-/PCR+ 2010 Apr 1 Dumfries, Scotland G C
1927 C-/PCR+ 2010 Apr 1 Paisley, Scotland G C
2145 C-/PCR+ 2010 Apr 16 Livingston, Scotland G C
2199 C-/PCR+ 2010 Apr 16 Glasgow, Scotland G C
2506 C+/PCR+ 2010 Apr 27 Edinburgh, Scotland G C
2728 C+/PCR+ 2010 May 7 Glasgow, Scotland G C
3739 C+/PCR+ 2010 Jul 16 Glasgow, Scotland G C
4936/5011 C-/PCR+ 2010 Aug 26 Leicester, England G C
6696 C+/PCR+ 2010 Nov 1 Maidstone, England G C

*ID, identification; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; NA, not applicable; C, culture. Boldface indicates pairs of isolates from the same patient.
†PCR+ samples were determined by using assays targeting cap, lef (Special Pathogens Reference Unit (UK), pers. comm.) and bagC loci (14).
‡Ancestral allele DNA control.
§Derived allele DNA control.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Menzies School of Health Research, Casuarina, Northern Territory, Australia.