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Volume 18, Number 8—August 2012

Volume 18, Number 8—August 2012   PDF Version [PDF - 5.45 MB - 183 pages]

Synopses

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Vaccination of Health Care Workers to Protect Patients at Increased Risk for Acute Respiratory Disease PDF Version [PDF - 379 KB - 10 pages]
    G. P. Dolan et al.
    View Summary

    Evidence is limited but sufficient to sustain current vaccination recommendations.

        View Abstract

    Health care workers (HCWs) may transmit respiratory infection to patients. We assessed evidence for the effectiveness of vaccinating HCWs to provide indirect protection for patients at risk for severe or complicated disease after acute respiratory infection. We searched electronic health care databases and sources of gray literature by using a predefined strategy. Risk for bias was assessed by using validated tools, and results were synthesized by using a narrative approach. Seventeen of the 12,352 identified citations met the full inclusion criteria, and 3 additional articles were identified from reference or citation tracking. All considered influenza vaccination of HCWs, and most were conducted in long-term residential care settings. Consistency in the direction of effect was observed across several different outcome measures, suggesting a likely protective effect for patients in residential care settings. However, evidence was insufficient for us to confidently extrapolate this to other at-risk patient groups.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dolan GP, Harris RM, Clarkson M, Sokal R, Morgan G, Mukaigawara M, et al. Vaccination of Health Care Workers to Protect Patients at Increased Risk for Acute Respiratory Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1225-1234. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111355
    AMA Dolan GP, Harris RM, Clarkson M, et al. Vaccination of Health Care Workers to Protect Patients at Increased Risk for Acute Respiratory Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1225-1234. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111355.
    APA Dolan, G. P., Harris, R. M., Clarkson, M., Sokal, R., Morgan, G., Mukaigawara, M....Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S. (2012). Vaccination of Health Care Workers to Protect Patients at Increased Risk for Acute Respiratory Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1225-1234. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111355.

Research

  • VIM-2–producing Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST175 Clone, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 237 KB - 7 pages]
    E. Viedma et al.
    View Summary

    This clone is a major public health problem because it limits antimicrobial drug therapy.

        View Abstract

    A total of 183 patients were colonized or infected with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates at a hospital in Spain during 2007–2010; prevalence increased over this period from 2.8% to 15.3%. To characterize these isolates, we performed molecular epidemiologic and drug resistance analysis. Genotyping showed that 104 (56.8%) isolates belonged to a single major clone (clone B), which was identified by multilocus sequence typing as sequence type (ST) 175. This clone was initially isolated from 5 patients in 2008, and then isolated from 23 patients in 2009 and 76 patients in 2010. PCR analysis of clone B isolates identified the blaVIM-2 gene in all but 1 isolate, which harbored blaIMP-22. ST175 isolates were susceptible to only amikacin (75%) and colistin (100%). Emergence of the ST175 clone represents a major health problem because it compromises therapy for treatment of P. aeruginosa nosocomial infections.

        Cite This Article
    EID Viedma E, Juan C, Villa J, Barrado L, Orellana M, Sanz F, et al. VIM-2–producing Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST175 Clone, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1235-1241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111234
    AMA Viedma E, Juan C, Villa J, et al. VIM-2–producing Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST175 Clone, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1235-1241. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111234.
    APA Viedma, E., Juan, C., Villa, J., Barrado, L., Orellana, M., Sanz, F....Chaves, F. (2012). VIM-2–producing Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST175 Clone, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1235-1241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111234.
  • Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Klebsiella oxytoca Infections Associated with Contaminated Handwashing Sinks PDF Version [PDF - 344 KB - 6 pages]
    C. Lowe et al.
    View Summary

    Sinks are a potential reservoir for environment-to-patient and patient-to-patient transmission.

        View Abstract

    Klebsiella oxytoca is primarily a health care–associated pathogen acquired from environmental sources. During October 2006–March 2011, a total of 66 patients in a hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, acquired class A extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing K. oxytoca with 1 of 2 related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. New cases continued to occur despite reinforcement of infection control practices, prevalence screening, and contact precautions for colonized/infected patients. Cultures from handwashing sinks in the intensive care unit yielded K. oxytoca with identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns to cultures from the clinical cases. No infections occurred after implementation of sink cleaning 3×/day, sink drain modifications, and an antimicrobial stewardship program. In contrast, a cluster of 4 patients infected with K. oxytoca in a geographically distant medical ward without contaminated sinks was contained with implementation of active screening and contact precautions. Sinks should be considered potential reservoirs for clusters of infection caused by K. oxytoca.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lowe C, Willey B, O’Shaughnessy A, Lee W, Lum M, Pike K, et al. Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Klebsiella oxytoca Infections Associated with Contaminated Handwashing Sinks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1242-1247. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111268
    AMA Lowe C, Willey B, O’Shaughnessy A, et al. Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Klebsiella oxytoca Infections Associated with Contaminated Handwashing Sinks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1242-1247. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111268.
    APA Lowe, C., Willey, B., O’Shaughnessy, A., Lee, W., Lum, M., Pike, K....McGeer, A. (2012). Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–producing Klebsiella oxytoca Infections Associated with Contaminated Handwashing Sinks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1242-1247. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111268.
  • Population Diversity among Bordetella pertussis Isolates, United States, 1935–2009 PDF Version [PDF - 365 KB - 8 pages]
    A. J. Schmidtke et al.
    View Summary

    Resurgence of pertussis was not directly correlated with changes in vaccine composition or schedule.

        View Abstract

    Since the 1980s, pertussis notifications in the United States have been increasing. To determine the types of Bordetella pertussis responsible for these increases, we divided 661 B. pertussis isolates collected in the United States during 1935–2009 into 8 periods related to the introduction of novel vaccines or changes in vaccination schedule. B. pertussis diversity was highest from 1970–1990 (94%) but declined to ≈70% after 1991 and has remained constant. During 2006–2009, 81.6% of the strains encoded multilocus sequence type prn2-ptxP3-ptxS1A-fim3B, and 64% were multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis type 27. US trends were consistent with those seen internationally; emergence and predominance of the fim3B allele was the only molecular characteristic associated with the increase in pertussis notifications. Changes in the vaccine composition and schedule were not the direct selection pressures that resulted in the allele changes present in the current B. pertussis population.

        Cite This Article
    EID Schmidtke AJ, Boney KO, Martin SW, Skoff TH, Tondella M, Tatti KM, et al. Population Diversity among Bordetella pertussis Isolates, United States, 1935–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1248-1255. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120082
    AMA Schmidtke AJ, Boney KO, Martin SW, et al. Population Diversity among Bordetella pertussis Isolates, United States, 1935–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1248-1255. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120082.
    APA Schmidtke, A. J., Boney, K. O., Martin, S. W., Skoff, T. H., Tondella, M., & Tatti, K. M. (2012). Population Diversity among Bordetella pertussis Isolates, United States, 1935–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1248-1255. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120082.
  • Solid Organ Transplant–associated Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis, United States, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 273 KB - 7 pages]
    A. MacNeil et al.
    View Summary

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is carried by rodents. In very rare instances, it has been transmitted from person-to-person by organ transplantation. In 2011, a total of 14 organ recipients were infected with the virus, of which 11 died in the United States. The 4 most recent patients received organs from the same donor, which resulted in 2 deaths. Only after these 4 organ recipients became sick was it discovered that the donor had been exposed to rodents. Had this exposure been known before transplantation, the organ recipients may have been more closely monitored. Early diagnosis and treatment might have improved their chances of survival. Although organ donor screening reduces the risk for transmission of some viruses, it is not possible to screen for all possible viruses, including LCMV. For patients who get severely ill after receiving a transplant, clinicians should add LCMV infection to their list of possible causes.

        View Abstract

    Three clusters of organ transplant–associated lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) transmissions have been identified in the United States; 9 of 10 recipients died. In February 2011, we identified a fourth cluster of organ transplant–associated LCMV infections. Diabetic ketoacidosis developed in the organ donor in December 2010; she died with generalized brain edema after a short hospitalization. Both kidneys, liver, and lung were transplanted to 4 recipients; in all 4, severe posttransplant illness developed; 2 recipients died. Through multiple diagnostic methods, we identified LCMV infection in all persons, including in at least 1 sample from the donor and 4 recipients by reverse transcription PCR, and sequences of a 396-bp fragment of the large segment of the virus from all 5 persons were identical. In this cluster, all recipients developed severe illness, but 2 survived. LCMV infection should be considered as a possible cause of severe posttransplant illness.

        Cite This Article
    EID MacNeil A, Ströher U, Farnon E, Campbell S, Cannon D, Paddock CD, et al. Solid Organ Transplant–associated Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis, United States, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1256-1262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120212
    AMA MacNeil A, Ströher U, Farnon E, et al. Solid Organ Transplant–associated Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis, United States, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1256-1262. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120212.
    APA MacNeil, A., Ströher, U., Farnon, E., Campbell, S., Cannon, D., Paddock, C. D....Nichol, S. T. (2012). Solid Organ Transplant–associated Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis, United States, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1256-1262. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120212.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Paragonimus kellicotti Flukes in Missouri, USA PDF Version [PDF - 213 KB - 5 pages]
    M. A. Lane et al.
    View Summary

    You don’t have to be a contestant on Fear Factor to eat unusual things. An investigation of 9 new cases of lung fluke infection in Missouri found that in all cases, patients had eaten raw crayfish while on rafting or camping trips and most had been drinking alcohol. Although all patients recovered after treatment, a few whose diagnosis was delayed had unnecessary procedures and serious illness. Physicians should consider lung fluke infection in patients with nonspecific cough and fever, especially patients who have recently returned from a recreational river trip. Crayfish in Missouri rivers often carry lung flukes and should not be eaten raw.

        View Abstract

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Asia, P. westermani infections are relatively common because of dietary practices. However, in North America, cases of paragonimiasis, which are caused by P. kellicotti flukes, are rare. Only 7 autochthonous cases of paragonimiasis were reported during 1968–2008. In 2009, we reported 3 new case-patients with paragonimiasis who had been seen at our medical center over an 18-month period. Six additional case-patients were identified in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, and treated at Washington University–affiliated health centers in 2009–2010. We report detailed descriptions of these case-patients, which includes unusual clinical manifestations. We also describe public health interventions that were undertaken to inform the general public and physicians about the disease and its mode of transmission.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lane MA, Marcos LA, Onen NF, Demertzis LM, Hayes EV, Davila SZ, et al. Paragonimus kellicotti Flukes in Missouri, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1263-1267. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120335
    AMA Lane MA, Marcos LA, Onen NF, et al. Paragonimus kellicotti Flukes in Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1263-1267. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120335.
    APA Lane, M. A., Marcos, L. A., Onen, N. F., Demertzis, L. M., Hayes, E. V., Davila, S. Z....Weil, G. J. (2012). Paragonimus kellicotti Flukes in Missouri, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1263-1267. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120335.
  • Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Wild Rats, United States PDF Version [PDF - 328 KB - 6 pages]
    J. B. Lack et al.
    View Summary

    Rodents infected with this virus may be a serious threat to public health.

        View Abstract

    The role of rodents in the epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been a subject of considerable debate. Seroprevalence studies suggest widespread HEV infection in commensal Rattus spp. rats, but experimental transmission has been largely unsuccessful and recovery of zoonotic genotype 3 HEV RNA from wild Rattus spp. rats has never been confirmed. We surveyed R. rattus and R. norvegicus rats from across the United States and several international populations by using a hemi-nested reverse transcription PCR approach. We isolated HEV RNA in liver tissues from 35 of 446 rats examined. All but 1 of these isolates was relegated to the zoonotic HEV genotype 3, and the remaining sequence represented the recently discovered rat genotype from the United States and Germany. HEV-positive rats were detected in urban and remote localities. Genetic analyses suggest all HEV genotype 3 isolates obtained from wild Rattus spp. rats were closely related.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lack JB, Volk K, Van Den Bussche RA. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Wild Rats, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1268-1273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120070
    AMA Lack JB, Volk K, Van Den Bussche RA. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Wild Rats, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1268-1273. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120070.
    APA Lack, J. B., Volk, K., & Van Den Bussche, R. A. (2012). Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Wild Rats, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1268-1273. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120070.
  • Hepatitis E Virus Strains in Rabbits and Evidence of a Closely Related Strain in Humans, France PDF Version [PDF - 383 KB - 8 pages]
    J. Izopet et al.
    View Summary

    The host range of HEV in Europe is expanding, and zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits is possible.

        View Abstract

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains from rabbits indicate that these mammals may be a reservoir for HEVs that cause infection in humans. To determine HEV prevalence in rabbits and the strains’ genetic characteristics, we tested bile, liver, and additional samples from farmed and wild rabbits in France. We detected HEV RNA in 7% (14/200) of bile samples from farmed rabbits (in 2009) and in 23% (47/205) of liver samples from wild rabbits (in 2007–2010). Full-length genomic sequences indicated that all rabbit strains belonged to the same clade (nucleotide sequences 72.2%–78.2% identical to HEV genotypes 1–4). Comparison with HEV sequences of human strains and reference sequences identified a human strain closely related to rabbit strain HEV. We found a 93-nt insertion in the X domain of open reading frame 1 of the human strain and all rabbit HEV strains. These findings indicate that the host range of HEV in Europe is expanding and that zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits is possible.

        Cite This Article
    EID Izopet J, Dubois M, Bertagnoli S, Lhomme S, Marchandeau S, Boucher S, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Strains in Rabbits and Evidence of a Closely Related Strain in Humans, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1274-1281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120057
    AMA Izopet J, Dubois M, Bertagnoli S, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Strains in Rabbits and Evidence of a Closely Related Strain in Humans, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1274-1281. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120057.
    APA Izopet, J., Dubois, M., Bertagnoli, S., Lhomme, S., Marchandeau, S., Boucher, S....Guérin, J. (2012). Hepatitis E Virus Strains in Rabbits and Evidence of a Closely Related Strain in Humans, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1274-1281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120057.
  • Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Production Chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain, 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 332 KB - 8 pages]
    I. Di Bartolo et al.
    View Summary

    Processing does not substantially abate endogenous virus.

        View Abstract

    We evaluated the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the pork production chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain during 2010. A total of 337 fecal, liver, and meat samples from animals at slaughterhouses were tested for HEV by real-time quantitative PCR. Overall, HEV was higher in Italy (53%) and Spain (39%) than in Czech Republic (7.5%). HEV was detected most frequently in feces in Italy (41%) and Spain (39%) and in liver (5%) and meat (2.5%) in Czech Republic. Of 313 sausages sampled at processing and point of sale, HEV was detected only in Spain (6%). HEV sequencing confirmed only g3 HEV strains. Indicator virus (porcine adenovirus) was ubiquitous in fecal samples and absent in liver samples and was detected in 1 slaughterhouse meat sample. At point of sale, we found porcine adenovirus in sausages (1%–2%). The possible dissemination of HEV and other fecal viruses through pork production demands containment measures.

        Cite This Article
    EID Di Bartolo I, Diez-Valcarce M, Vasickova P, Kralik P, Hernandez M, Angeloni G, et al. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Production Chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1282-1289. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111783
    AMA Di Bartolo I, Diez-Valcarce M, Vasickova P, et al. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Production Chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1282-1289. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111783.
    APA Di Bartolo, I., Diez-Valcarce, M., Vasickova, P., Kralik, P., Hernandez, M., Angeloni, G....Ruggeri, F. (2012). Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Production Chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1282-1289. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111783.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Factors Related to Increasing Prevalence of Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Other Antimicrobial Drugs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, United States PDF Version [PDF - 311 KB - 8 pages]
    E. Goldstein et al.
    View Summary

    What would you do if you had a sexually transmitted disease that was untreatable with antibiotics? That is the situation we may be heading toward. In the United States, gonorrhea is the second most common reportable infection. Over the years, the organism that causes it, N. gonorrhoeae, has acquired resistance to several classes of antibiotics including, most recently, the fluoroquinolones. In fact, widespread resistance led CDC to stop recommending fluoroquinolones for gonorrhea treatment in 2007. Today, cephalosporin-based combination therapy is the last remaining option currently recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Understanding of the causes of drug resistance is needed so that control measures can be improved and the effectiveness of the few remaining drugs can be maintained. This article investigates possible causes for the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae that occurred several years ago. Fluoroquinolone-resistant strains spread in the United States in the late 1990s and spread more rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among heterosexual men. One possible explanation for the rise in drug resistance, especially among heterosexuals, is acquisition of resistant gonorrhea through travel. Certain drug-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, particularly the multidrug resistant strains (also resistant to penicillin and tetracycline) circulating among MSM, seemed to be able to reach high prevalence levels through domestic transmission, rather than through frequent importation. After resistance emerged in a geographic area, resistant strains appeared among MSM and heterosexuals within several months. When resistance is detected in either MSM or heterosexuals, prevention efforts should be directed toward both populations.

        View Abstract

    Using data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, we studied changes in ciprofloxacin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in the United States during 2002–2007. Compared with prevalence in heterosexual men, prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae infections showed a more pronounced increase in men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly through an increase in prevalence of strains also resistant to tetracycline and penicillin. Moreover, that multidrug resistance profile among MSM was negatively associated with recent travel. Across the surveillance project sites, first appearance of ciprofloxacin resistance in heterosexual men was positively correlated with such resistance for MSM. The increase in prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance may have been facilitated by use of fluoroquinolones for treating gonorrhea and other conditions. The prominence of multidrug resistance suggests that using other classes of antimicrobial drugs for purposes other than treating gonorrhea helped increase the prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant strains that are also resistant to those drugs.

        Cite This Article
    EID Goldstein E, Kirkcaldy RD, Reshef D, Berman S, Weinstock H, Sabeti P, et al. Factors Related to Increasing Prevalence of Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Other Antimicrobial Drugs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1290-1297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111202
    AMA Goldstein E, Kirkcaldy RD, Reshef D, et al. Factors Related to Increasing Prevalence of Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Other Antimicrobial Drugs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1290-1297. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111202.
    APA Goldstein, E., Kirkcaldy, R. D., Reshef, D., Berman, S., Weinstock, H., Sabeti, P....Lipsitch, M. (2012). Factors Related to Increasing Prevalence of Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Other Antimicrobial Drugs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1290-1297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111202.
  • Comparison of Enzootic Risk Measures for Predicting West Nile Disease, Los Angeles, California, USA, 2004–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 305 KB - 9 pages]
    J. L. Kwan et al.
    View Summary

    The best model comprised enzootic surveillance data from avian, mosquito, and climate sources.

        View Abstract

    In Los Angeles, California, USA, 2 epidemics of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have occurred since WNV was recognized in 2003. To assess which measure of risk was most predictive of human cases, we compared 3 measures: the California Mosquito-Borne Virus Surveillance and Response Plan Assessment, the vector index, and the Dynamic Continuous-Area Space-Time system. A case–crossover study was performed by using symptom onset dates from 384 persons with WNV infection to determine their relative environmental exposure to high-risk conditions as measured by each method. Receiver-operating characteristic plots determined thresholds for each model, and the area under the curve was used to compare methods. We found that the best risk assessment model for human WNV cases included surveillance data from avian, mosquito, and climate sources.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kwan JL, Park BK, Carpenter TE, Ngo V, Civen R, Reisen WK, et al. Comparison of Enzootic Risk Measures for Predicting West Nile Disease, Los Angeles, California, USA, 2004–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1298-1306. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111558
    AMA Kwan JL, Park BK, Carpenter TE, et al. Comparison of Enzootic Risk Measures for Predicting West Nile Disease, Los Angeles, California, USA, 2004–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1298-1306. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111558.
    APA Kwan, J. L., Park, B. K., Carpenter, T. E., Ngo, V., Civen, R., & Reisen, W. K. (2012). Comparison of Enzootic Risk Measures for Predicting West Nile Disease, Los Angeles, California, USA, 2004–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1298-1306. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111558.
  • Molecular Epidemiologic Investigation of an Anthrax Outbreak among Heroin Users, Europe PDF Version [PDF - 209 KB - 7 pages]
    E. P. Price et al.
    View Summary

    Heroin may have been accidentally contaminated by an animal-derived source along a major drug trafficking route.

        View Abstract

    In December 2009, two unusual cases of anthrax were diagnosed in heroin users in Scotland. A subsequent anthrax outbreak in heroin users emerged throughout Scotland and expanded into England and Germany, sparking concern of nefarious introduction of anthrax spores into the heroin supply. To better understand the outbreak origin, we used established genetic signatures that provided insights about strain origin. Next, we sequenced the whole genome of a representative Bacillus anthracis strain from a heroin user (Ba4599), developed Ba4599-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism assays, and genotyped all available material from other heroin users with anthrax. Of 34 case-patients with B. anthracis–positive PCR results, all shared the Ba4599 single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype. Phylogeographic analysis demonstrated that Ba4599 was closely related to strains from Turkey and not to previously identified isolates from Scotland or Afghanistan, the presumed origin of the heroin. Our results suggest accidental contamination along the drug trafficking route through a cutting agent or animal hides used to smuggle heroin into Europe.

        Cite This Article
    EID Price EP, Seymour ML, Sarovich DS, Latham J, Wolken SR, Mason J, et al. Molecular Epidemiologic Investigation of an Anthrax Outbreak among Heroin Users, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1307-1313. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111343
    AMA Price EP, Seymour ML, Sarovich DS, et al. Molecular Epidemiologic Investigation of an Anthrax Outbreak among Heroin Users, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1307-1313. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111343.
    APA Price, E. P., Seymour, M. L., Sarovich, D. S., Latham, J., Wolken, S. R., Mason, J....Keim, P. (2012). Molecular Epidemiologic Investigation of an Anthrax Outbreak among Heroin Users, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1307-1313. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111343.

Dispatches

  • Escherichia coli O104 Associated with Human Diarrhea, South Africa, 2004–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 371 KB - 4 pages]
    N. P. Tau et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the origin of >4,000 suspected diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated during 2004–2011 in South Africa, we identified 7 isolates as serotype O104; 5 as enteroaggregative E. coli O104:H4, and 2 as enteropathogenic E. coli O104:non-H4. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that these isolates were unrelated to the 2011 E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain from Germany.

        Cite This Article
    EID Tau NP, Meidany P, Smith AM, Sooka A, Keddy KH. Escherichia coli O104 Associated with Human Diarrhea, South Africa, 2004–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1314-1317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111616
    AMA Tau NP, Meidany P, Smith AM, et al. Escherichia coli O104 Associated with Human Diarrhea, South Africa, 2004–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1314-1317. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111616.
    APA Tau, N. P., Meidany, P., Smith, A. M., Sooka, A., & Keddy, K. H. (2012). Escherichia coli O104 Associated with Human Diarrhea, South Africa, 2004–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1314-1317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111616.
  • Vertical Transmission of Babesia microti, United States PDF Version [PDF - 299 KB - 4 pages]
    J. T. Joseph et al.
        View Abstract

    Babesiosis is usually acquired from a tick bite or through a blood transfusion. We report a case of babesiosis in an infant for whom vertical transmission was suggested by evidence of Babesia spp. antibodies in the heel-stick blood sample and confirmed by detection of Babesia spp. DNA in placenta tissue.

        Cite This Article
    EID Joseph JT, Purtill K, Wong SJ, Munoz J, Teal A, Madison-Antenucci S, et al. Vertical Transmission of Babesia microti, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1318-1321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.110988
    AMA Joseph JT, Purtill K, Wong SJ, et al. Vertical Transmission of Babesia microti, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1318-1321. doi:10.3201/eid1808.110988.
    APA Joseph, J. T., Purtill, K., Wong, S. J., Munoz, J., Teal, A., Madison-Antenucci, S....Wormser, G. P. (2012). Vertical Transmission of Babesia microti, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1318-1321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.110988.
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gastrointestinal Tract and Pyogenic Liver Abscess PDF Version [PDF - 238 KB - 4 pages]
    C. Fung et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine the role of gastrointestinal carriage in Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess, we studied 43 patients. Bacterial isolates from liver and fecal samples from 10 patients with this condition and 7 healthy carriers showed identical serotypes and genotypes with the same virulence. This finding indicated that gastrointestinal carriage is a predisposing factor for liver abscess.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fung C, Lin Y, Lin J, Chen T, Yeh K, Chang F, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gastrointestinal Tract and Pyogenic Liver Abscess. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1322-1325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111053
    AMA Fung C, Lin Y, Lin J, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gastrointestinal Tract and Pyogenic Liver Abscess. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1322-1325. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111053.
    APA Fung, C., Lin, Y., Lin, J., Chen, T., Yeh, K., Chang, F....Siu, L. (2012). Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gastrointestinal Tract and Pyogenic Liver Abscess. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1322-1325. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111053.
  • Third-Generation Cephalosporin–Resistant Vibrio cholerae, India PDF Version [PDF - 302 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Mandal et al.
        View Abstract

    Vibrio cholerae resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is rarely reported. We detected a strain that was negative for extended-spectrum β-lactamase and positive for the AmpC disk test, modified Hodge test, and EDTA disk synergy test and harbored the blaDHA-1 and blaNDM-1 genes. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile of V. cholerae should be monitored.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mandal J, Sangeetha V, Ganesan V, Parveen M, Preethi V, Harish B, et al. Third-Generation Cephalosporin–Resistant Vibrio cholerae, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1326-1328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111686
    AMA Mandal J, Sangeetha V, Ganesan V, et al. Third-Generation Cephalosporin–Resistant Vibrio cholerae, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1326-1328. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111686.
    APA Mandal, J., Sangeetha, V., Ganesan, V., Parveen, M., Preethi, V., Harish, B....Parija, S. (2012). Third-Generation Cephalosporin–Resistant Vibrio cholerae, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1326-1328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111686.
  • Seroprevalence and Cross-reactivity of Human Polyomavirus 9 PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 4 pages]
    J. Nicol et al.
        View Abstract

    Many humans have antibodies against simian lymphotropic polyomavirus (LPyV), but its DNA has not been found in humans. Identification of human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) led us to compare the seroprevalence and cross-reactivity of LPyV and HpyV9. Results could indicate that humans who have antibodies against LPyV are infected by HPyV9.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nicol J, Touzé A, Robinot R, Arnold F, Mazzoni E, Tognon M, et al. Seroprevalence and Cross-reactivity of Human Polyomavirus 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1329-1332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111625
    AMA Nicol J, Touzé A, Robinot R, et al. Seroprevalence and Cross-reactivity of Human Polyomavirus 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1329-1332. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111625.
    APA Nicol, J., Touzé, A., Robinot, R., Arnold, F., Mazzoni, E., Tognon, M....Coursaget, P. (2012). Seroprevalence and Cross-reactivity of Human Polyomavirus 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1329-1332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111625.
  • Lack of Evidence for Schmallenberg Virus Infection in Highly Exposed Persons, Germany, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 175 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Ducomble et al.
        View Abstract

    Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus, is spreading among ruminants, especially sheep, throughout Europe. To determine the risk for human infection, we conducted a survey among shepherds to assess possible exposure and symptoms. We also performed serologic and molecular assays. No evidence of transmission to humans was detected.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ducomble T, Wilking H, Stark K, Takla A, Askar M, Schaade L, et al. Lack of Evidence for Schmallenberg Virus Infection in Highly Exposed Persons, Germany, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1333-1335. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120533
    AMA Ducomble T, Wilking H, Stark K, et al. Lack of Evidence for Schmallenberg Virus Infection in Highly Exposed Persons, Germany, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1333-1335. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120533.
    APA Ducomble, T., Wilking, H., Stark, K., Takla, A., Askar, M., Schaade, L....Kurth, A. (2012). Lack of Evidence for Schmallenberg Virus Infection in Highly Exposed Persons, Germany, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1333-1335. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120533.
  • Capsular Switching in Invasive Neisseria meningitidis, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 146 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Castiñeiras et al.
        View Abstract

    During the 1990s, an epidemic of B:4 Neisseria meningitidis infections affected Brazil. Subsequent increase in C:4 disease suggested B→C capsular switching. This study identified B→C switches within the sequence type 32 complex. Substantial disease related to capsular switching emphasizes the need for surveillance of circulating meningococcal strains to optimize disease control.

        Cite This Article
    EID Castiñeiras T, Barroso DE, Marsh JW, Tulenko MM, Krauland MG, Rebelo MC, et al. Capsular Switching in Invasive Neisseria meningitidis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1336-1338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111344
    AMA Castiñeiras T, Barroso DE, Marsh JW, et al. Capsular Switching in Invasive Neisseria meningitidis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1336-1338. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111344.
    APA Castiñeiras, T., Barroso, D. E., Marsh, J. W., Tulenko, M. M., Krauland, M. G., Rebelo, M. C....Harrison, L. H. (2012). Capsular Switching in Invasive Neisseria meningitidis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1336-1338. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111344.
  • Avian Influenza and Ban on Overnight Poultry Storage in Live Poultry Markets, Hong Kong PDF Version [PDF - 147 KB - 3 pages]
    Y. Leung et al.
        View Abstract

    We analyzed ≈12 years of surveillance data on avian influenza in Hong Kong live poultry markets. A ban on keeping live poultry overnight in these markets reduced virus isolation rates by 84% in chickens (p = 0.006) and 100% (p = 0.01) in minor poultry.

        Cite This Article
    EID Leung Y, Lau E, Zhang L, Guan Y, Cowling BJ, Peiris J, et al. Avian Influenza and Ban on Overnight Poultry Storage in Live Poultry Markets, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1339-1341. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111879
    AMA Leung Y, Lau E, Zhang L, et al. Avian Influenza and Ban on Overnight Poultry Storage in Live Poultry Markets, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1339-1341. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111879.
    APA Leung, Y., Lau, E., Zhang, L., Guan, Y., Cowling, B. J., & Peiris, J. (2012). Avian Influenza and Ban on Overnight Poultry Storage in Live Poultry Markets, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1339-1341. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111879.
  • Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Transmission and Resistance Amplification within Families PDF Version [PDF - 250 KB - 4 pages]
    J. A. Seddon et al.
        View Abstract

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis is caused by transmission of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and by acquisition of resistance through inadequate treatment. We investigated the clinical and molecular features of the disease in 2 families after drug-resistant tuberculosis was identified in 2 children. The findings demonstrate the potential for resistance to be transmitted and amplified within families.

        Cite This Article
    EID Seddon JA, Warren RM, Enarson DA, Beyers N, Schaaf H. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Transmission and Resistance Amplification within Families. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1342-1345. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111650
    AMA Seddon JA, Warren RM, Enarson DA, et al. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Transmission and Resistance Amplification within Families. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1342-1345. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111650.
    APA Seddon, J. A., Warren, R. M., Enarson, D. A., Beyers, N., & Schaaf, H. (2012). Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Transmission and Resistance Amplification within Families. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1342-1345. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111650.
  • Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria in Travelers Returning from Haiti after 2010 Earthquake PDF Version [PDF - 183 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Gharbi et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated chloroquine sensitivity to Plasmodium falciparum in travelers returning to France and Canada from Haiti during a 23-year period. Two of 19 isolates obtained after the 2010 earthquake showed mixed pfcrt 76K+T genotype and high 50% inhibitory concentration. Physicians treating malaria acquired in Haiti should be aware of possible chloroquine resistance.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gharbi M, Pillai DR, Lau R, Hubert V, Khairnar K, Existe A, et al. Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria in Travelers Returning from Haiti after 2010 Earthquake. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1346-1349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111779
    AMA Gharbi M, Pillai DR, Lau R, et al. Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria in Travelers Returning from Haiti after 2010 Earthquake. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1346-1349. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111779.
    APA Gharbi, M., Pillai, D. R., Lau, R., Hubert, V., Khairnar, K., Existe, A....Le Bras, J. (2012). Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria in Travelers Returning from Haiti after 2010 Earthquake. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1346-1349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111779.
  • New Variants of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, China, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 240 KB - 4 pages]
    W. Li et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2011, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection rates rose substantially in vaccinated swine herds. To determine the distribution profile of PEDV outbreak strains, we sequenced the full-length spike gene from samples from 9 farms where animals exhibited severe diarrhea and mortality rates were high. Three new PEDV variants were identified.

        Cite This Article
    EID Li W, Li H, Liu Y, Pan Y, Deng F, Song Y, et al. New Variants of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, China, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1350-1353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120002
    AMA Li W, Li H, Liu Y, et al. New Variants of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1350-1353. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120002.
    APA Li, W., Li, H., Liu, Y., Pan, Y., Deng, F., Song, Y....He, Q. (2012). New Variants of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1350-1353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120002.
  • Severe Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis Transmitted by Blood Transfusion PDF Version [PDF - 321 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Jereb et al.
        View Abstract

    A 36-year-old woman acquired severe human granulocytic anaplasmosis after blood transfusion following a cesarean section. Although intensive treatment with mechanical ventilation was needed, the patient had an excellent recovery. Disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was confirmed in 1 blood donor and in the transfusion recipient.

        Cite This Article
    EID Jereb M, Pecaver B, Tomazic J, Muzlovic I, Avsic-Zupanc T, Premru-Srsen T, et al. Severe Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis Transmitted by Blood Transfusion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1354-1357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120180
    AMA Jereb M, Pecaver B, Tomazic J, et al. Severe Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis Transmitted by Blood Transfusion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1354-1357. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120180.
    APA Jereb, M., Pecaver, B., Tomazic, J., Muzlovic, I., Avsic-Zupanc, T., Premru-Srsen, T....Strle, F. (2012). Severe Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis Transmitted by Blood Transfusion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1354-1357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120180.
  • Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Food Chain, United Kingdom, 2009–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Berto et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated contamination by hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the pork production chain in the United Kingdom. We detected HEV in pig liver samples in a slaughterhouse, in surface samples from a processing plant, and in pork sausages and surface samples at point of sale. Our findings provide evidence for possible foodborne transmission of HEV during pork production.

        Cite This Article
    EID Berto A, Martelli F, Grierson S, Banks M. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Food Chain, United Kingdom, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1358-1360. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111647
    AMA Berto A, Martelli F, Grierson S, et al. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Food Chain, United Kingdom, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1358-1360. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111647.
    APA Berto, A., Martelli, F., Grierson, S., & Banks, M. (2012). Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Food Chain, United Kingdom, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1358-1360. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111647.
  • Autochthonous Infections with Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4, France PDF Version [PDF - 269 KB - 4 pages]
    P. Colson et al.
        View Abstract

    During January–March 2011, diagnoses of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection increased in Marseille University hospitals in southeastern France. HEV genotype 4, which is described almost exclusively in Asia, was recovered from 2 persons who ate uncooked pork liver sausage. Genetic sequences were 96.7% identical to those recently described in swine in Europe.

        Cite This Article
    EID Colson P, Romanet P, Moal V, Borentain P, Purgus R, Benezech A, et al. Autochthonous Infections with Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1361-1364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111827
    AMA Colson P, Romanet P, Moal V, et al. Autochthonous Infections with Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1361-1364. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111827.
    APA Colson, P., Romanet, P., Moal, V., Borentain, P., Purgus, R., Benezech, A....Gérolami, R. (2012). Autochthonous Infections with Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1361-1364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111827.
  • Putative Novel Genotype of Avian Hepatitis E Virus, Hungary, 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 258 KB - 4 pages]
    K. Bányai et al.
        View Abstract

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bányai K, Tóth Á, Ivanics É, Glávits R, Szentpáli-Gavallér K, Dán Á, et al. Putative Novel Genotype of Avian Hepatitis E Virus, Hungary, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1365-1368. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111669
    AMA Bányai K, Tóth Á, Ivanics É, et al. Putative Novel Genotype of Avian Hepatitis E Virus, Hungary, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1365-1368. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111669.
    APA Bányai, K., Tóth, Á., Ivanics, É., Glávits, R., Szentpáli-Gavallér, K., & Dán, Á. (2012). Putative Novel Genotype of Avian Hepatitis E Virus, Hungary, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1365-1368. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111669.

Letters

  • Novel Hepatitis E Virus in Ferrets, the Netherlands PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 2 pages]
    V. Raj et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Raj V, Smits SL, Pas SD, Provacia L, Moorman-Roest H, Osterhaus A, et al. Novel Hepatitis E Virus in Ferrets, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1369-1370. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111659
    AMA Raj V, Smits SL, Pas SD, et al. Novel Hepatitis E Virus in Ferrets, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1369-1370. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111659.
    APA Raj, V., Smits, S. L., Pas, S. D., Provacia, L., Moorman-Roest, H., Osterhaus, A....Haagmans, B. L. (2012). Novel Hepatitis E Virus in Ferrets, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1369-1370. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111659.
  • Epidemic Clostridium difficile Ribotype 027 in Chile PDF Version [PDF - 196 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Hernández-Rocha et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Hernández-Rocha C, Barra-Carrasco J, Pizarro-Guajardo M, Ibáñez P, Bueno SM, Sarker MR, et al. Epidemic Clostridium difficile Ribotype 027 in Chile. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1370-1372. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120211
    AMA Hernández-Rocha C, Barra-Carrasco J, Pizarro-Guajardo M, et al. Epidemic Clostridium difficile Ribotype 027 in Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1370-1372. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120211.
    APA Hernández-Rocha, C., Barra-Carrasco, J., Pizarro-Guajardo, M., Ibáñez, P., Bueno, S. M., Sarker, M. R....Paredes-Sabja, D. (2012). Epidemic Clostridium difficile Ribotype 027 in Chile. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1370-1372. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120211.
  • Zoonotic Pathogens among White-Tailed Deer, Northern Mexico, 2004–2009 PDF Version [PDF - 164 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Medrano et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Medrano C, Boadella M, Barrios H, Cantú A, García Z, de la Fuente J, et al. Zoonotic Pathogens among White-Tailed Deer, Northern Mexico, 2004–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1372-1374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111902
    AMA Medrano C, Boadella M, Barrios H, et al. Zoonotic Pathogens among White-Tailed Deer, Northern Mexico, 2004–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1372-1374. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111902.
    APA Medrano, C., Boadella, M., Barrios, H., Cantú, A., García, Z., de la Fuente, J....Gortazar, C. (2012). Zoonotic Pathogens among White-Tailed Deer, Northern Mexico, 2004–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1372-1374. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111902.
  • KIs Virus and Blood Donors, France PDF Version [PDF - 157 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Biagini et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Biagini P, Touinssi M, Galicher V, de Micco P. KIs Virus and Blood Donors, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1374-1375. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120442
    AMA Biagini P, Touinssi M, Galicher V, et al. KIs Virus and Blood Donors, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1374-1375. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120442.
    APA Biagini, P., Touinssi, M., Galicher, V., & de Micco, P. (2012). KIs Virus and Blood Donors, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1374-1375. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120442.
  • Usefulness of School Absenteeism Data for Predicting Influenza Outbreaks, United States PDF Version [PDF - 178 KB - 3 pages]
    J. R. Egger et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Egger JR, Hoen AG, Brownstein JS, Buckeridge DL, Olson DR, Konty KJ, et al. Usefulness of School Absenteeism Data for Predicting Influenza Outbreaks, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1375-1377. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111538
    AMA Egger JR, Hoen AG, Brownstein JS, et al. Usefulness of School Absenteeism Data for Predicting Influenza Outbreaks, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1375-1377. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111538.
    APA Egger, J. R., Hoen, A. G., Brownstein, J. S., Buckeridge, D. L., Olson, D. R., & Konty, K. J. (2012). Usefulness of School Absenteeism Data for Predicting Influenza Outbreaks, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1375-1377. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111538.
  • Rhodococcus erythropolis Encephalitis in Patient Receiving Rituximab PDF Version [PDF - 175 KB - 2 pages]
    S. R. Bagdure et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Bagdure SR, Fisher MA, Ryan ME, Khasawneh FA. Rhodococcus erythropolis Encephalitis in Patient Receiving Rituximab. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1378-1379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.110434
    AMA Bagdure SR, Fisher MA, Ryan ME, et al. Rhodococcus erythropolis Encephalitis in Patient Receiving Rituximab. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1378-1379. doi:10.3201/eid1808.110434.
    APA Bagdure, S. R., Fisher, M. A., Ryan, M. E., & Khasawneh, F. A. (2012). Rhodococcus erythropolis Encephalitis in Patient Receiving Rituximab. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1378-1379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.110434.
  • Factors Influencing Emergence of Tularemia, Hungary, 1984–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 214 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Gyuranecz et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Gyuranecz M, Reiczigel J, Krisztalovics K, Monse L, Szabóné G, Szilágyi A, et al. Factors Influencing Emergence of Tularemia, Hungary, 1984–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1379-1381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111826
    AMA Gyuranecz M, Reiczigel J, Krisztalovics K, et al. Factors Influencing Emergence of Tularemia, Hungary, 1984–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1379-1381. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111826.
    APA Gyuranecz, M., Reiczigel, J., Krisztalovics, K., Monse, L., Szabóné, G., Szilágyi, A....Erdélyi, K. (2012). Factors Influencing Emergence of Tularemia, Hungary, 1984–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1379-1381. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111826.
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteria in Hospital, Singapore PDF Version [PDF - 165 KB - 3 pages]
    I. Venkatachalam et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Venkatachalam I, Teo J, Balm M, Fisher DA, Jureen R, Lin R, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteria in Hospital, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1381-1383. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.110893
    AMA Venkatachalam I, Teo J, Balm M, et al. Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteria in Hospital, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1381-1383. doi:10.3201/eid1808.110893.
    APA Venkatachalam, I., Teo, J., Balm, M., Fisher, D. A., Jureen, R., & Lin, R. (2012). Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteria in Hospital, Singapore. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1381-1383. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.110893.
  • bla–positive Klebsiella pneumoniae from Environment, Vietnam PDF Version [PDF - 225 KB - 3 pages]
    R. Isozumi et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Isozumi R, Yoshimatsu K, Yamashiro T, Hasebe F, Nguyen B, Ngo T, et al. blaNDM-1–positive Klebsiella pneumoniae from Environment, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1383-1385. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111816
    AMA Isozumi R, Yoshimatsu K, Yamashiro T, et al. blaNDM-1–positive Klebsiella pneumoniae from Environment, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1383-1385. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111816.
    APA Isozumi, R., Yoshimatsu, K., Yamashiro, T., Hasebe, F., Nguyen, B., Ngo, T....Arikawa, J. (2012). blaNDM-1–positive Klebsiella pneumoniae from Environment, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1383-1385. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111816.
  • Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Southern Ethiopia, 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 156 KB - 2 pages]
    O. Mediannikov et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Mediannikov O, Abdissa A, Diatta G, Trape J, Raoult D. Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Southern Ethiopia, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1385-1386. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111243
    AMA Mediannikov O, Abdissa A, Diatta G, et al. Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Southern Ethiopia, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1385-1386. doi:10.3201/eid1808.111243.
    APA Mediannikov, O., Abdissa, A., Diatta, G., Trape, J., & Raoult, D. (2012). Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Southern Ethiopia, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1385-1386. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.111243.
  • Identification of Cause of Posttransplant Cachexia by PCR PDF Version [PDF - 149 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Guitard et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Guitard J, Edouard S, Lepidi H, Segonds C, Grare M, Ranty-Quintyn M, et al. Identification of Cause of Posttransplant Cachexia by PCR. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1386-1388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120309
    AMA Guitard J, Edouard S, Lepidi H, et al. Identification of Cause of Posttransplant Cachexia by PCR. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1386-1388. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120309.
    APA Guitard, J., Edouard, S., Lepidi, H., Segonds, C., Grare, M., Ranty-Quintyn, M....Fenollar, F. (2012). Identification of Cause of Posttransplant Cachexia by PCR. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1386-1388. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120309.
  • Murine Typhus in Drug Detoxification Facility, Yunnan Province, China, 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 191 KB - 3 pages]
    W. Yang et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Yang W, Dong T, Zhang H, Wang S, Yu H, Zhang Y, et al. Murine Typhus in Drug Detoxification Facility, Yunnan Province, China, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1388-1390. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120060
    AMA Yang W, Dong T, Zhang H, et al. Murine Typhus in Drug Detoxification Facility, Yunnan Province, China, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1388-1390. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120060.
    APA Yang, W., Dong, T., Zhang, H., Wang, S., Yu, H., Zhang, Y....Zhang, L. (2012). Murine Typhus in Drug Detoxification Facility, Yunnan Province, China, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1388-1390. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120060.
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome with Paracoccidioidomycosis PDF Version [PDF - 188 KB - 3 pages]
    F. von Glehn et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID von Glehn F, Damasceno A, Miotto N, Naseri EP, Costallat L, França MC, et al. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome with Paracoccidioidomycosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1390-1392. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120153
    AMA von Glehn F, Damasceno A, Miotto N, et al. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome with Paracoccidioidomycosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1390-1392. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120153.
    APA von Glehn, F., Damasceno, A., Miotto, N., Naseri, E. P., Costallat, L., França, M. C....Ramos, M. C. (2012). Carpal Tunnel Syndrome with Paracoccidioidomycosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1390-1392. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120153.

Books and Media

  • Fundamental Medical Mycology PDF Version [PDF - 146 KB - 1 page]
    T. G. Mitchell
            Cite This Article
    EID Mitchell TG. Fundamental Medical Mycology. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1393. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120521
    AMA Mitchell TG. Fundamental Medical Mycology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1393. doi:10.3201/eid1808.120521.
    APA Mitchell, T. G. (2012). Fundamental Medical Mycology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1393. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.120521.

About the Cover

  • Heart Fastened to a Dying Animal PDF Version [PDF - 166 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. Heart Fastened to a Dying Animal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1394-1395. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.AC1808
    AMA Potter P. Heart Fastened to a Dying Animal. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1394-1395. doi:10.3201/eid1808.AC1808.
    APA Potter, P. (2012). Heart Fastened to a Dying Animal. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1394-1395. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.AC1808.

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: Pseudomonas PDF Version [PDF - 189 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Etymologia: Pseudomonas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(8):1241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.ET1808
    AMA Etymologia: Pseudomonas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1241. doi:10.3201/eid1808.ET1808.
    APA (2012). Etymologia: Pseudomonas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1808.ET1808.

Online Reports

  • Peer Reviewed Report Available Online Only
    Infectious Disease Transmission during Organ and Tissue Transplantation
    M. A. Greenwald et al.
    View Summary

    Transplantation of organs and tissues (bone, tendon, skin, cornea) will always be associated with some risk for transmission of infectious diseases from donor to recipient. Understanding and minimizing this risk is difficult for many reasons: donor screening processes vary, screening for every infectious organism is not possible, and assessment of recipient health after transplantation to determine possibility of disease transmission is often not adequate. In May 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration held a meeting to address these challenges and establish a research agenda for minimizing these transplant transmission risks. Attendees agreed that the focus should be on standardizing donor screening, compiling disease transmissibility data, monitoring of transplant recipients’ health, and assessing effectiveness of measures to minimize disease transmission. Collaboration and sharing of perspectives, experiences, and resources of all stakeholders in the transplantation process (government, private industry, and health care providers) can improve the safety of organ and tissue transplantation.

        View Abstract

    Infectious disease transmission through organ and tissue transplantation has been associated with severe complications in recipients. Determination of donor-derived infectious risk associated with organ and tissue transplantation is challenging and limited by availability and performance characteristics of current donor epidemiologic screening (e.g., questionnaire) and laboratory testing tools. Common methods and standards for evaluating potential donors of organs and tissues are needed to facilitate effective data collection for assessing the risk for infectious disease transmission. Research programs can use advanced microbiological technologies to define infectious risks posed by pathogens that are known to be transplant transmissible and provide insights into transmission potential of emerging infectious diseases for which transmission characteristics are unknown. Key research needs are explored. Stakeholder collaboration for surveillance and research infrastructure is required to enhance transplant safety.

       
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