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Volume 18, Number 8—August 2012


Chloroquine-Resistant Malaria in Travelers Returning from Haiti after 2010 Earthquake

Myriam GharbiComments to Author , Dylan R. Pillai, Rachel Lau, Véronique Hubert, Krishna Khairnar, Alexandre Existe, Eric Kendjo, Sabina Dahlström, Philippe J. Guérin, Jacques Le Bras, and members of the French National Reference Center for Imported Malaria Study
Author affiliations: Université Paris-Descartes, Paris, France (M. Gharbi, J. Le Bras); École des Hautes Études en Santé Publique, Rennes, France (M. Gharbi, P.J. Guérin); Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, Paris (M. Gharbi, S. Dahlström, J. Le Bras); Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (D.R. Pillai, R. Lau, K. Khairnar); University of Calgary; Calgary, Alberta, Canada (D.R. Pillai); Hospital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris (V. Hubert, J. Le Bras); Laboratoire National de Santé Publique, Port-au-Prince, Haiti (A. Existe); Centre National de Référence Paludisme, Paris (V. Hubert, E. Kendjo, J. La Bras); Hospital Pitié-Salpétrière, Paris (E. Kendjo); Université Pierre et Marie-Curie-Paris VI, Paris (E. Kendjo); Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, Oxford, UK (P.J. Guérin); Centre for Tropical Medicine, Oxford (P.J. Guérin); University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (P.J. Guérin); and Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris (P.J. Guérin)

Main Article

Table 2

Molecular genotypes and in vitro susceptibility for Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients returning to France and Canada from Haiti

Characteristics Before earthquake, n = 49 After earthquake, n = 30
In vitro analysis n = 24 n = 10
IC50 for chloroquine, nmol/L (mean 95% CI) 27 (23–31) 35 (12–105)*
No. isolates resistant†


0 2


24 8
Molecular marker analysis, no. (%) isolates n = 29 n = 19


29 17 (89.5)

PfCRT K76+76T

0 2 (10.5)


0 0

*The 2 resistant isolates are included with an IC50 of 506 nmol/L and 708 nmol/L. IC50, 50% inhibitory concentration.
†A threshold of IC50 = 100 nmol/L is applied to determine resistant isolates (consensus between the laboratories in France and Canada) and in vitro susceptibility (IC50) for the isolates from patients returning from Haiti.

Main Article

1Members of the French National Reference Center for Imported Malaria Study who contributed data are listed at the end of this article.