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Volume 19, Number 3—March 2013


Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe

Augustina Annan1, Heather J. Baldwin1, Victor Max Corman1, Stefan M. Klose, Michael Owusu, Evans Ewald Nkrumah, Ebenezer Kofi Badu, Priscilla Anti, Olivia Agbenyega, Benjamin Meyer, Samuel Oppong, Yaw Adu Sarkodie, Elisabeth K.V. Kalko2, Peter H.C. Lina, Elena V. Godlevska, Chantal Reusken, Antje Seebens, Florian Gloza-Rausch, Peter Vallo, Marco Tschapka, Christian Drosten, and Jan Felix DrexlerComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kumasi, Ghana (A. Annan, M. Owusu); Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (H.J. Baldwin); University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany (H.J. Baldwin, S.M. Klose, E.K.V. Kalko, P. Vallo, M. Tschapka); University of Bonn Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany (V.M. Corman, B. Meyer, F. Gloza-Rausch, C. Drosten, J.F. Drexler); Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (E.E. Nkrumah, E.K. Badu, P. Anti, O. Agbenyega, S. Oppong, Y.A. Sarkodie); Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panama (E.K.V. Kalko, M. Tschapka); Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, the Netherlands (P.H.C. Lina); Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev, Ukraine (E.V. Godlevska); Netherlands Center for Infectious Disease Control, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (C. Reusken); Noctalis, Centre for Bat Protection and Information, Bad Segeberg, Germany (A. Seebens, F. Gloza-Rausch); Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Brno, Czech Republic (P. Vallo)

Main Article

Table 2

Possible factors predictive of 2c betacoronavirus detection in Nycteris cf. gambiensis bats, Ghana and Europe*

Variable No. tested CoV positive, no. (%) χ2 p value Odds ratio (95% CI)
Juvenile 22 10 (45.4) 5.49 0.02 2.89 (1.16–7.24)
36 (22.4)

F 79 16 (20.3) 0.01 0.91 1.04 (0.50–2.17)
20 (24.4)

Lactation status, F
Lactating 25 11 (44.0) 12.77 0.0004 7.70 (2.29–25.89)
5 (9.3)

Gravidity, F
Gravid 13 0 3.95 0.06† 0
16 (24.2)

Reproductive status, M
Active 56 15 (26.8) 0.55 0.46 1.54 (0.49–4.81)
Nonreproductive 26 5 (19.2)

*All analyses, except for the gravity parameter (because 1 of the expected values was <5), were done by using uncorrected χ2 tests (2-tailed) in Epi Info 7 ( All analyses except age excluded juvenile bats.
†Fisher exact test.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.