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Issue Cover for Volume 19, Number 3—March 2013

Volume 19, Number 3—March 2013

[PDF - 6.22 MB - 180 pages]

Perspective

Measles Elimination Efforts and 2008–2011 Outbreak, France [PDF - 1.58 MB - 8 pages]
D. Antona et al.

Although few measles cases were reported in France during 2006 and 2007, suggesting the country might have been close to eliminating the disease, a dramatic outbreak of >20,000 cases occurred during 2008–2011. Adolescents and young adults accounted for more than half of cases; median patient age increased from 12 to 16 years during the outbreak. The highest incidence rate was observed in children <1 year of age, reaching 135 cases/100,000 infants during the last epidemic wave. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalized, including 1,023 for severe pneumonia and 27 for encephalitis/myelitis; 10 patients died. More than 80% of the cases during this period occurred in unvaccinated persons, reflecting heterogeneous vaccination coverage, where pockets of susceptible persons still remain. Although vaccine coverage among children improved, convincing susceptible young adults to get vaccinated remains a critical issue if the target to eliminate the disease by 2015 is to be met.

EID Antona D, Lévy-Bruhl D, Baudon C, Freymuth F, Lamy M, Maine C, et al. Measles Elimination Efforts and 2008–2011 Outbreak, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):357-364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121360
AMA Antona D, Lévy-Bruhl D, Baudon C, et al. Measles Elimination Efforts and 2008–2011 Outbreak, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):357-364. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121360.
APA Antona, D., Lévy-Bruhl, D., Baudon, C., Freymuth, F., Lamy, M., Maine, C....Parent du Chatelet, I. (2013). Measles Elimination Efforts and 2008–2011 Outbreak, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 357-364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121360.
Synopses

Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection after Fractionated CO2 Laser Resurfacing [PDF - 1.40 MB - 6 pages]
D. A. Culton et al.

Nontuberculous mycobacteria are increasingly associated with cutaneous infections after cosmetic procedures. Fractionated CO2 resurfacing, a widely used technique for photorejuvenation, has been associated with a more favorable side effect profile than alternative procedures. We describe 2 cases of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection after treatment with a fractionated CO2 laser at a private clinic. Densely distributed erythematous papules and pustules developed within the treated area within 2 weeks of the laser procedure. Diagnosis was confirmed by histologic analysis and culture. Both infections responded to a 4-month course of a multidrug regimen. An environmental investigation of the clinic was performed, but no source of infection was found. The case isolates differed from each other and from isolates obtained from the clinic, suggesting that the infection was acquired by postprocedure exposure. Papules and pustules after fractionated CO2 resurfacing should raise the suspicion of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection.

EID Culton DA, Lachiewicz AM, Miller BA, Miller MB, MacKuen C, Groben P, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection after Fractionated CO2 Laser Resurfacing. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):365-370. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120880
AMA Culton DA, Lachiewicz AM, Miller BA, et al. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection after Fractionated CO2 Laser Resurfacing. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):365-370. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120880.
APA Culton, D. A., Lachiewicz, A. M., Miller, B. A., Miller, M. B., MacKuen, C., Groben, P....Stout, J. E. (2013). Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection after Fractionated CO2 Laser Resurfacing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 365-370. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120880.

Human Leptospirosis Trends, the Netherlands, 1925–2008 [PDF - 589 KB - 8 pages]
M. Goris et al.

To increase knowledge of leptospirosis in the Netherlands and identify changing trends of this disease over time, we analyzed historical passive surveillance reports for an 84-year period (1925–2008). We found that 2,553 mainly severe leptospirosis cases were diagnosed (average annual incidence rate 0.25 cases/100,000 population). The overall case-fatality rate for patients with reported leptospirosis was 6.5% but decreased over the period, probably because of improved treatment. Ninety percent of reported leptospirosis cases were in male patients. Most autochthonous leptospirosis infections were associated with recreational exposures, but 15.5% of the cases were attributed to accidents that resulted in injury and to concomitant water contact. Since the end of the 1950s, the proportion of imported infections gradually increased, reaching 53.1% of the total during 2005–2008. Most (80.1%) imported infections were associated with sporting and adventurous vacation activities.

EID Goris M, Boer KR, Duarte T, Kliffen SJ, Hartskeerl RA. Human Leptospirosis Trends, the Netherlands, 1925–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):371-378. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.111260
AMA Goris M, Boer KR, Duarte T, et al. Human Leptospirosis Trends, the Netherlands, 1925–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):371-378. doi:10.3201/eid1903.111260.
APA Goris, M., Boer, K. R., Duarte, T., Kliffen, S. J., & Hartskeerl, R. A. (2013). Human Leptospirosis Trends, the Netherlands, 1925–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 371-378. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.111260.

Parallels in Amphibian and Bat Declines from Pathogenic Fungi [PDF - 579 KB - 7 pages]
E. A. Eskew and B. D. Todd

Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species—the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats—are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host–pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases.

EID Eskew EA, Todd BD. Parallels in Amphibian and Bat Declines from Pathogenic Fungi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):379-385. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120707
AMA Eskew EA, Todd BD. Parallels in Amphibian and Bat Declines from Pathogenic Fungi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):379-385. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120707.
APA Eskew, E. A., & Todd, B. D. (2013). Parallels in Amphibian and Bat Declines from Pathogenic Fungi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 379-385. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120707.
Research

Medscape CME Activity
Increasing Pneumocystis Pneumonia, England, UK, 2000–2010 [PDF - 570 KB - 7 pages]
R. Maini et al.

After an increase in the number of reported cases of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in England, we investigated data from 2000–2010 to verify the increase. We analyzed national databases for microbiological and clinical diagnoses of P. jirovecii pneumonia and associated deaths. We found that laboratory-confirmed cases in England had increased an average of 7% per year and that death certifications and hospital admissions also increased. Hospital admissions indicated increased P. jirovecii pneumonia diagnoses among patients not infected with HIV, particularly among those who had received a transplant or had a hematologic malignancy. A new risk was identified: preexisting lung disease. Infection rates among HIV-positive adults decreased. The results confirm that diagnoses of potentially preventable P. jirovecii pneumonia among persons outside the known risk group of persons with HIV infection have increased. This finding warrants further characterization of risk groups and a review of P. jirovecii pneumonia prevention strategies.

EID Maini R, Henderson KL, Sheridan EA, Lamagni T, Nichols G, Delpech V, et al. Increasing Pneumocystis Pneumonia, England, UK, 2000–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):386-392. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121151
AMA Maini R, Henderson KL, Sheridan EA, et al. Increasing Pneumocystis Pneumonia, England, UK, 2000–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):386-392. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121151.
APA Maini, R., Henderson, K. L., Sheridan, E. A., Lamagni, T., Nichols, G., Delpech, V....Phin, N. (2013). Increasing Pneumocystis Pneumonia, England, UK, 2000–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 386-392. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121151.

Medscape CME Activity
Clinical and Therapeutic Features of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [PDF - 530 KB - 7 pages]
K. Couto de Mello et al.

To identify clinical and therapeutic features of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease, we conducted a retrospective analysis of patients referred to the Brazilian reference center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who received a diagnosis of PNTM during 1993–2011 with at least 1 respiratory culture positive for NTM. Associated conditions included bronchiectasis (21.8%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20.7%), cardiovascular disease (15.5%), AIDS (9.8%), diabetes (9.8%), and hepatitis C (4.6%).Two patients had Hansen disease; 1 had Marfan syndrome. Four mycobacterial species comprised 85.6% of NTM infections: Mycobacterium kansasii, 59 cases (33.9%); M. avium complex, 53 (30.4%); M. abscessus, 23 (13.2%); and M. fortuitum, 14 (8.0%). A total of 42 (24.1%) cases were associated with rapidly growing mycobacteria. In countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, PNTM is likely misdiagnosed as tuberculosis, thus showing the need for improved capacity to diagnose mycobacterial disease as well as greater awareness of PNTM disease prevalence.

EID Couto de Mello K, Mello F, Borga L, Rolla V, Duarte RS, Sampaio EP, et al. Clinical and Therapeutic Features of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):393-399. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120735
AMA Couto de Mello K, Mello F, Borga L, et al. Clinical and Therapeutic Features of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):393-399. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120735.
APA Couto de Mello, K., Mello, F., Borga, L., Rolla, V., Duarte, R. S., Sampaio, E. P....Dalcolmo, M. P. (2013). Clinical and Therapeutic Features of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 393-399. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120735.

Medscape CME Activity
Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection, California, USA, 1993–2008 [PDF - 820 KB - 7 pages]
J. Z. Metcalfe et al.

To understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV co-infection in California, we cross-matched incident TB cases reported to state surveillance systems during 1993–2008 with cases in the state HIV/AIDS registry. Of 57,527 TB case-patients, 3,904 (7%) had known HIV infection. TB rates for persons with HIV declined from 437 to 126 cases/100,000 persons during 1993–2008; rates were highest for Hispanics (225/100,000) and Blacks (148/100,000). Patients co-infected with TB–HIV during 2001–2008 were significantly more likely than those infected before highly active antiretroviral therapy became available to be foreign born, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander and to have pyrazinamide-monoresistant TB. Death rates decreased after highly active antiretroviral therapy became available but remained twice that for TB patients without HIV infection and higher for women. In California, HIV-associated TB has concentrated among persons from low and middle income countries who often acquire HIV infection in the peri-immigration period.

EID Metcalfe JZ, Porco TC, Westenhouse J, Damesyn M, Facer M, Hill J, et al. Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection, California, USA, 1993–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):400-406. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121521
AMA Metcalfe JZ, Porco TC, Westenhouse J, et al. Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection, California, USA, 1993–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):400-406. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121521.
APA Metcalfe, J. Z., Porco, T. C., Westenhouse, J., Damesyn, M., Facer, M., Hill, J....Flood, J. (2013). Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection, California, USA, 1993–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 400-406. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121521.

Attribution of Foodborne Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths to Food Commodities by using Outbreak Data, United States, 1998–2008 [PDF - 1.36 MB - 9 pages]
J. A. Painter et al.

Each year, >9 million foodborne illnesses are estimated to be caused by major pathogens acquired in the United States. Preventing these illnesses is challenging because resources are limited and linking individual illnesses to a particular food is rarely possible except during an outbreak. We developed a method of attributing illnesses to food commodities that uses data from outbreaks associated with both simple and complex foods. Using data from outbreak-associated illnesses for 1998–2008, we estimated annual US foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths attributable to each of 17 food commodities. We attributed 46% of illnesses to produce and found that more deaths were attributed to poultry than to any other commodity. To the extent that these estimates reflect the commodities causing all foodborne illness, they indicate that efforts are particularly needed to prevent contamination of produce and poultry. Methods to incorporate data from other sources are needed to improve attribution estimates for some commodities and agents.

EID Painter JA, Hoekstra RM, Ayers T, Tauxe RV, Braden CR, Angulo FJ, et al. Attribution of Foodborne Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths to Food Commodities by using Outbreak Data, United States, 1998–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):407-415. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.111866
AMA Painter JA, Hoekstra RM, Ayers T, et al. Attribution of Foodborne Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths to Food Commodities by using Outbreak Data, United States, 1998–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):407-415. doi:10.3201/eid1903.111866.
APA Painter, J. A., Hoekstra, R. M., Ayers, T., Tauxe, R. V., Braden, C. R., Angulo, F. J....Griffin, P. M. (2013). Attribution of Foodborne Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths to Food Commodities by using Outbreak Data, United States, 1998–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 407-415. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.111866.

Treatment Outcomes for Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection [PDF - 581 KB - 9 pages]
M. R. O’Donnell et al.

High mortality rates have been reported for patients co-infected with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and HIV, but treatment outcomes have not been reported. We report treatment outcomes for adult XDR TB patients in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Initial data were obtained retrospectively, and outcomes were obtained prospectively during 24 months of treatment. A total of 114 XDR TB patients were treated (median 6 drugs, range 3–9 drugs); 82 (73%) were HIV positive and 50 (61%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy. After receiving treatment for 24 months, 48 (42%) of 114 patients died, 25 (22%) were cured or successfully completed treatment, 19 (17%) defaulted from the study, and 22 (19%) showed treatment failure. A higher number of deaths occurred among HIV-positive patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy and among patients who did not show sputum culture conversion. Culture conversion was a major predictor of survival but was poorly predictive (51%) of successful treatment outcome.

EID O’Donnell MR, Padayatchi N, Kvasnovsky C, Werner L, Master I, Horsburgh C. Treatment Outcomes for Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):416-424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120998
AMA O’Donnell MR, Padayatchi N, Kvasnovsky C, et al. Treatment Outcomes for Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):416-424. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120998.
APA O’Donnell, M. R., Padayatchi, N., Kvasnovsky, C., Werner, L., Master, I., & Horsburgh, C. (2013). Treatment Outcomes for Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and HIV Co-infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 416-424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120998.

Foodborne Disease Prevention and Broiler Chickens with Reduced Campylobacter Infection [PDF - 2.48 MB - 6 pages]
S. Bahrndorff et al.

Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003–2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006–2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.–positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks.

EID Bahrndorff S, Rangstrup-Christensen L, Nordentoft S, Hald B. Foodborne Disease Prevention and Broiler Chickens with Reduced Campylobacter Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):425-430. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.111593
AMA Bahrndorff S, Rangstrup-Christensen L, Nordentoft S, et al. Foodborne Disease Prevention and Broiler Chickens with Reduced Campylobacter Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):425-430. doi:10.3201/eid1903.111593.
APA Bahrndorff, S., Rangstrup-Christensen, L., Nordentoft, S., & Hald, B. (2013). Foodborne Disease Prevention and Broiler Chickens with Reduced Campylobacter Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 425-430. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.111593.

Lack of Norovirus Replication and Histo-Blood Group Antigen Expression in 3-Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cells [PDF - 4.08 MB - 8 pages]
M. M. Herbst-Kralovetz et al.

Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. An in vitro model for NoV replication remains elusive, making study of the virus difficult. A previous study, which used a 3-dimensional (3-D) intestinal model derived from INT-407 cells reported NoV replication and extensive cytopathic effects (CPE). Using the same 3-D model, but with highly purified Norwalk virus (NV), we attempted to replicate this study. Our results showed no evidence of NV replication by real-time PCR of viral RNA or by immunocytochemical detection of viral structural and nonstructural proteins. Immunocytochemical analysis of the 3-D cultures also showed no detectable presence of histo-blood group antigens that participate in NV binding and host tropism. To determine the potential cause of CPE observed in the previous study, we exposed 3-D cultures to lipopolysaccharide concentrations consistent with contaminated stool samples and observed morphologic features similar to CPE. We conclude that the 3-D INT-407 model does not support NV replication.

EID Herbst-Kralovetz MM, Radtke AL, Lay MK, Hjelm BE, Bolick AN, Sarker SS, et al. Lack of Norovirus Replication and Histo-Blood Group Antigen Expression in 3-Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cells. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):431-438. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121029
AMA Herbst-Kralovetz MM, Radtke AL, Lay MK, et al. Lack of Norovirus Replication and Histo-Blood Group Antigen Expression in 3-Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cells. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):431-438. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121029.
APA Herbst-Kralovetz, M. M., Radtke, A. L., Lay, M. K., Hjelm, B. E., Bolick, A. N., Sarker, S. S....Nickerson, C. A. (2013). Lack of Norovirus Replication and Histo-Blood Group Antigen Expression in 3-Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cells. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 431-438. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121029.

Effects of Vaccine Program against Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, United States, 2009–2010 [PDF - 653 KB - 10 pages]
R. H. Borse et al.

In April 2009, the United States began a response to the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus strain: A(H1N1)pdm09. Vaccination began in October 2009. By using US surveillance data (April 12, 2009–April 10, 2010) and vaccine coverage estimates (October 3, 2009–April 18, 2010), we estimated that the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus vaccination program prevented 700,000–1,500,000 clinical cases, 4,000–10,000 hospitalizations, and 200–500 deaths. We found that the national health effects were greatly influenced by the timing of vaccine administration and the effectiveness of the vaccine. We estimated that recommendations for priority vaccination of targeted priority groups were not inferior to other vaccination prioritization strategies. These results emphasize the need for relevant surveillance data to facilitate a rapid evaluation of vaccine recommendations and effects.

EID Borse RH, Shrestha SS, Fiore AE, Atkins CY, Singleton JA, Furlow C, et al. Effects of Vaccine Program against Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, United States, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):439-448. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120394
AMA Borse RH, Shrestha SS, Fiore AE, et al. Effects of Vaccine Program against Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, United States, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):439-448. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120394.
APA Borse, R. H., Shrestha, S. S., Fiore, A. E., Atkins, C. Y., Singleton, J. A., Furlow, C....Meltzer, M. I. (2013). Effects of Vaccine Program against Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, United States, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 439-448. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120394.

Emergence and Spread of Extensively and Totally Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, South Africa [PDF - 1.48 MB - 7 pages]
M. Klopper et al.

Factors driving the increase in drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, are not understood. A convenience sample of 309 drug-susceptible and 342 multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB isolates, collected July 2008–July 2009, were characterized by spoligotyping, DNA fingerprinting, insertion site mapping, and targeted DNA sequencing. Analysis of molecular-based data showed diverse genetic backgrounds among drug-sensitive and MDR TB sensu stricto isolates in contrast to restricted genetic backgrounds among pre–extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR) TB and XDR TB isolates. Second-line drug resistance was significantly associated with the atypical Beijing genotype. DNA fingerprinting and sequencing demonstrated that the pre-XDR and XDR atypical Beijing isolates evolved from a common progenitor; 85% and 92%, respectively, were clustered, indicating transmission. Ninety-three percent of atypical XDR Beijing isolates had mutations that confer resistance to 10 anti-TB drugs, and some isolates also were resistant to para-aminosalicylic acid. These findings suggest the emergence of totally drug-resistant TB.

EID Klopper M, Warren R, Hayes C, Gey van Pittius N, Streicher E, Müller B, et al. Emergence and Spread of Extensively and Totally Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):449-455. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120246
AMA Klopper M, Warren R, Hayes C, et al. Emergence and Spread of Extensively and Totally Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):449-455. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120246.
APA Klopper, M., Warren, R., Hayes, C., Gey van Pittius, N., Streicher, E., Müller, B....Trollip, A. (2013). Emergence and Spread of Extensively and Totally Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 449-455. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120246.
Dispatches

Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe [PDF - 3.41 MB - 5 pages]
A. Annan et al.

We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats.

EID Annan A, Baldwin HJ, Corman V, Klose SM, Owusu M, Nkrumah E, et al. Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):456-459. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121503
AMA Annan A, Baldwin HJ, Corman V, et al. Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):456-459. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121503.
APA Annan, A., Baldwin, H. J., Corman, V., Klose, S. M., Owusu, M., Nkrumah, E....Drexler, J. (2013). Human Betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012–related Viruses in Bats, Ghana and Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 456-459. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121503.

Mycobacterial Lineages Causing Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Ethiopia [PDF - 467 KB - 4 pages]
R. Firdessa et al.

Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa.

EID Firdessa R, Berg S, Hailu E, Schelling E, Gumi B, Erenso G, et al. Mycobacterial Lineages Causing Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Ethiopia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):460-463. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120256
AMA Firdessa R, Berg S, Hailu E, et al. Mycobacterial Lineages Causing Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):460-463. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120256.
APA Firdessa, R., Berg, S., Hailu, E., Schelling, E., Gumi, B., Erenso, G....Aseffa, A. (2013). Mycobacterial Lineages Causing Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 460-463. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120256.

Vibrio cholerae Non-O1, Non-O139 Serogroups and Cholera-like Diarrhea, Kolkata, India [PDF - 2.23 MB - 4 pages]
D. Dutta et al.

We identified 281 Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains from patients with diarrhea in Kolkata, India. Cholera-like diarrhea was the major symptom (66.0%); some patients (20.3%) had severe dehydration. These strains lacked the ctxA gene but many had hlyA, rtxA, and rtxC genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed no genetic link among strains.

EID Dutta D, Chowdhury G, Pazhani GP, Guin S, Dutta S, Ghosh S, et al. Vibrio cholerae Non-O1, Non-O139 Serogroups and Cholera-like Diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):464-467. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121156
AMA Dutta D, Chowdhury G, Pazhani GP, et al. Vibrio cholerae Non-O1, Non-O139 Serogroups and Cholera-like Diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):464-467. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121156.
APA Dutta, D., Chowdhury, G., Pazhani, G. P., Guin, S., Dutta, S., Ghosh, S....Ramamurthy, T. (2013). Vibrio cholerae Non-O1, Non-O139 Serogroups and Cholera-like Diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 464-467. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121156.

Hepatitis E Virus Mixed Infection in Immunocompetent Patient [PDF - 400 KB - 3 pages]
D. B. Smith et al.

We detected 2 hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains in an acutely infected immunocompetent patient. Two populations of genotype 3 virus were observed in the hypervariable regions and open reading frames 2 and 3, indicating multiple infection with hepatitis E virus. Persons with mixed infections may provide the opportunity for virus recombination.

EID Smith DB, Vanek J, Wellington L, Johannessen I, Ramalingam S, Simmonds P. Hepatitis E Virus Mixed Infection in Immunocompetent Patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):468-470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121510
AMA Smith DB, Vanek J, Wellington L, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Mixed Infection in Immunocompetent Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):468-470. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121510.
APA Smith, D. B., Vanek, J., Wellington, L., Johannessen, I., Ramalingam, S., & Simmonds, P. (2013). Hepatitis E Virus Mixed Infection in Immunocompetent Patient. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 468-470. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121510.

Virulence of Pertactin-Negative Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Infants, France [PDF - 3.59 MB - 4 pages]
H. Bodilis and N. Guiso

Bordetella pertussis isolates that do not express pertactin (PRN) are increasing in regions where acellular pertussis vaccines have been used for >7 years. We analyzed data from France and compared clinical symptoms among infants <6 months old infected by PRN-positive or PRN-negative isolates. No major clinical differences were found between the 2 groups.

EID Bodilis H, Guiso N. Virulence of Pertactin-Negative Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Infants, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):471-474. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121475
AMA Bodilis H, Guiso N. Virulence of Pertactin-Negative Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Infants, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):471-474. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121475.
APA Bodilis, H., & Guiso, N. (2013). Virulence of Pertactin-Negative Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Infants, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 471-474. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121475.

Unexpected Increase of Alveolar Echincoccosis, Austria, 2011 [PDF - 389 KB - 3 pages]
R. Schneider et al.

Austria is part of the classical area of central Europe to which alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is endemic. Annual incidences in Austria were 2.4 and 2.8 cases/100,000 population during 1991–2000 and 2001–2010, respectively. Hence, the registration of 13 new AE patients in 2011 was unexpected. Increasing fox populations and past AE underreporting might have caused this increase.

EID Schneider R, Aspöck H, Auer H. Unexpected Increase of Alveolar Echincoccosis, Austria, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):475-477. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120595
AMA Schneider R, Aspöck H, Auer H. Unexpected Increase of Alveolar Echincoccosis, Austria, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):475-477. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120595.
APA Schneider, R., Aspöck, H., & Auer, H. (2013). Unexpected Increase of Alveolar Echincoccosis, Austria, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 475-477. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120595.

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Somalia, 2010–2011 [PDF - 683 KB - 3 pages]
I. Sindani et al.

In a nationwide survey in 2011, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was found in 5.2% and 40.8% of patients with new and previously treated TB, respectively. These levels of drug resistance are among the highest ever documented in Africa and the Middle East. This finding presents a serious challenge for TB control in Somalia.

EID Sindani I, Fitzpatrick C, Falzon D, Suleiman B, Arube P, Adam I, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Somalia, 2010–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):478-480. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121287
AMA Sindani I, Fitzpatrick C, Falzon D, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Somalia, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):478-480. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121287.
APA Sindani, I., Fitzpatrick, C., Falzon, D., Suleiman, B., Arube, P., Adam, I....Zignol, M. (2013). Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Somalia, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 478-480. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121287.

Swine Influenza in Sri Lanka [PDF - 758 KB - 4 pages]
H. Perera et al.

To study influenza viruses in pigs in Sri Lanka, we examined samples from pigs at slaughterhouses. Influenza (H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were prevalent during 2004–2005 and 2009–2012, respectively. Genetic and epidemiologic analyses of human and swine influenza viruses indicated 2 events of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus spillover from humans to pigs.

EID Perera H, Wickramasinghe G, Cheung CL, Nishiura H, Smith DK, Poon L, et al. Swine Influenza in Sri Lanka. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):481-484. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120945
AMA Perera H, Wickramasinghe G, Cheung CL, et al. Swine Influenza in Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):481-484. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120945.
APA Perera, H., Wickramasinghe, G., Cheung, C. L., Nishiura, H., Smith, D. K., Poon, L....Peiris, J. (2013). Swine Influenza in Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 481-484. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120945.

Tuberculosis Outbreak in a Primary School, Milan, Italy [PDF - 403 KB - 3 pages]
M. Faccini et al.

Investigation of an outbreak of tuberculosis (TB) in a primary school in Milan, Italy, found 15 schoolchildren had active TB disease and 173 had latent TB infection. TB was also identified in 2 homeless men near the school. Diagnostic delay, particularly in the index case-patient, contributed to the transmission of infection.

EID Faccini M, Codecasa L, Ciconali G, Cammarata S, Borriello C, De Gioia C, et al. Tuberculosis Outbreak in a Primary School, Milan, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):485-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120527
AMA Faccini M, Codecasa L, Ciconali G, et al. Tuberculosis Outbreak in a Primary School, Milan, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):485-487. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120527.
APA Faccini, M., Codecasa, L., Ciconali, G., Cammarata, S., Borriello, C., De Gioia, C....Castaldi, S. (2013). Tuberculosis Outbreak in a Primary School, Milan, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 485-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120527.

Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Screened for Pharyngeal and Rectal Infection, Germany [PDF - 751 KB - 5 pages]
K. Haar et al.

To determine prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Germany, we conducted a multicenter study during 2009–2010 and found high rates of rectal and pharyngeal infection in men positive for the causative agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. Many infections were asymptomatic. An adjusted C. trachomatis screening policy is justified in Germany.

EID Haar K, Dudareva-Vizule S, Wisplinghoff H, Wisplinghoff F, Sailer A, Jansen K, et al. Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Screened for Pharyngeal and Rectal Infection, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):488-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121028
AMA Haar K, Dudareva-Vizule S, Wisplinghoff H, et al. Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Screened for Pharyngeal and Rectal Infection, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):488-492. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121028.
APA Haar, K., Dudareva-Vizule, S., Wisplinghoff, H., Wisplinghoff, F., Sailer, A., Jansen, K....Marcus, U. (2013). Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Screened for Pharyngeal and Rectal Infection, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 488-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121028.

Prioritizing Tuberculosis Clusters by Genotype for Public Health Action, Washington, USA [PDF - 420 KB - 4 pages]
S. Lindquist et al.

Groups of tuberculosis cases with indistinguishable Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes (clusters) might represent recent transmission. We compared geospatial concentration of genotype clusters with independent priority rankings determined by local public health officials; findings were highly correlated. Routine use of geospatial statistics could help health departments identify recent disease transmission.

EID Lindquist S, Allen S, Field K, Ghosh S, Haddad MB, Narita M, et al. Prioritizing Tuberculosis Clusters by Genotype for Public Health Action, Washington, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):493-495. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121453
AMA Lindquist S, Allen S, Field K, et al. Prioritizing Tuberculosis Clusters by Genotype for Public Health Action, Washington, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):493-495. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121453.
APA Lindquist, S., Allen, S., Field, K., Ghosh, S., Haddad, M. B., Narita, M....Oren, E. (2013). Prioritizing Tuberculosis Clusters by Genotype for Public Health Action, Washington, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 493-495. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121453.

Anisakiasis and Gastroallergic Reactions Associated with Anisakis pegreffii Infection, Italy [PDF - 1.39 MB - 4 pages]
S. Mattiucci et al.

Human cases of gastric anisakiasis caused by the zoonotic parasite Anisakis pegreffii are increasing in Italy. The disease is caused by ingestion of larval nematodes in lightly cooked or raw seafood. Because symptoms are vague and serodiagnosis is difficult, the disease is often misdiagnosed and cases are understimated.

EID Mattiucci S, Fazii P, De Rosa A, Paoletti M, Megna A, Glielmo A, et al. Anisakiasis and Gastroallergic Reactions Associated with Anisakis pegreffii Infection, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):496-499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121017
AMA Mattiucci S, Fazii P, De Rosa A, et al. Anisakiasis and Gastroallergic Reactions Associated with Anisakis pegreffii Infection, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):496-499. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121017.
APA Mattiucci, S., Fazii, P., De Rosa, A., Paoletti, M., Megna, A., Glielmo, A....Nascetti, G. (2013). Anisakiasis and Gastroallergic Reactions Associated with Anisakis pegreffii Infection, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 496-499. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121017.
Letters

Bordetella hinzii in Rodents, Southeast Asia [PDF - 345 KB - 2 pages]
T. Jiyipong et al.
EID Jiyipong T, Morand S, Jittapalapong S, Raoult D, Rolain J. Bordetella hinzii in Rodents, Southeast Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):502-503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120987
AMA Jiyipong T, Morand S, Jittapalapong S, et al. Bordetella hinzii in Rodents, Southeast Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):502-503. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120987.
APA Jiyipong, T., Morand, S., Jittapalapong, S., Raoult, D., & Rolain, J. (2013). Bordetella hinzii in Rodents, Southeast Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 502-503. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120987.

Melioidosis and Hairy Cell Leukemia in 2 Travelers Returning from Thailand [PDF - 606 KB - 3 pages]
B. Rossi et al.
EID Rossi B, Epelboin L, Jauréguiberry S, Lecso M, Roos-Weil D, Gabarre J, et al. Melioidosis and Hairy Cell Leukemia in 2 Travelers Returning from Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):503-505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121329
AMA Rossi B, Epelboin L, Jauréguiberry S, et al. Melioidosis and Hairy Cell Leukemia in 2 Travelers Returning from Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):503-505. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121329.
APA Rossi, B., Epelboin, L., Jauréguiberry, S., Lecso, M., Roos-Weil, D., Gabarre, J....Caumes, E. (2013). Melioidosis and Hairy Cell Leukemia in 2 Travelers Returning from Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 503-505. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121329.

Plague Epidemics and Lice, Democratic Republic of the Congo [PDF - 253 KB - 2 pages]
R. Piarroux et al.
EID Piarroux R, Abedi A, Shako J, Kebela B, Karhemere S, Diatta G, et al. Plague Epidemics and Lice, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):505-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121542
AMA Piarroux R, Abedi A, Shako J, et al. Plague Epidemics and Lice, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):505-506. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121542.
APA Piarroux, R., Abedi, A., Shako, J., Kebela, B., Karhemere, S., Diatta, G....Drancourt, M. (2013). Plague Epidemics and Lice, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 505-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121542.

Armillifer armillatus Pentastomiasis in African Immigrant, Germany [PDF - 1.71 MB - 2 pages]
D. Tappe et al.
EID Tappe D, Haeupler A, Schäfer H, Racz P, Cramer JP, Poppert S. Armillifer armillatus Pentastomiasis in African Immigrant, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):507-508. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121508
AMA Tappe D, Haeupler A, Schäfer H, et al. Armillifer armillatus Pentastomiasis in African Immigrant, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):507-508. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121508.
APA Tappe, D., Haeupler, A., Schäfer, H., Racz, P., Cramer, J. P., & Poppert, S. (2013). Armillifer armillatus Pentastomiasis in African Immigrant, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 507-508. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121508.

Mycobacterium kyorinense Infection [PDF - 313 KB - 3 pages]
H. Ohnishi et al.
EID Ohnishi H, Yonetani S, Matsushima S, Wada H, Takeshita K, Kuramochi D, et al. Mycobacterium kyorinense Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):508-510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120591
AMA Ohnishi H, Yonetani S, Matsushima S, et al. Mycobacterium kyorinense Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):508-510. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120591.
APA Ohnishi, H., Yonetani, S., Matsushima, S., Wada, H., Takeshita, K., Kuramochi, D....Watanabe, T. (2013). Mycobacterium kyorinense Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 508-510. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120591.

Recurring Influenza B Virus Infections in Seals [PDF - 429 KB - 2 pages]
R. Bodewes et al.
EID Bodewes R, Morick D, de Mutsert G, Osinga N, Bestebroer T, van der Vliet S, et al. Recurring Influenza B Virus Infections in Seals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):511-512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120965
AMA Bodewes R, Morick D, de Mutsert G, et al. Recurring Influenza B Virus Infections in Seals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):511-512. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120965.
APA Bodewes, R., Morick, D., de Mutsert, G., Osinga, N., Bestebroer, T., van der Vliet, S....Osterhaus, A. (2013). Recurring Influenza B Virus Infections in Seals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 511-512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120965.

Reemerging Schmallenberg Virus Infections, Germany, 2012 [PDF - 801 KB - 2 pages]
F. J. Conraths et al.
EID Conraths FJ, Kämer D, Teske K, Hoffmann B, Mettenleiter TC, Beer M. Reemerging Schmallenberg Virus Infections, Germany, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):513-514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121324
AMA Conraths FJ, Kämer D, Teske K, et al. Reemerging Schmallenberg Virus Infections, Germany, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):513-514. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121324.
APA Conraths, F. J., Kämer, D., Teske, K., Hoffmann, B., Mettenleiter, T. C., & Beer, M. (2013). Reemerging Schmallenberg Virus Infections, Germany, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 513-514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121324.

Peritoneal Tuberculosis in a Pregnant Woman from Haiti, United States [PDF - 339 KB - 3 pages]
K. L. Ard et al.
EID Ard KL, Chan BT, Milner DA, Farmer PE, Koenig SP. Peritoneal Tuberculosis in a Pregnant Woman from Haiti, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):514-516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121109
AMA Ard KL, Chan BT, Milner DA, et al. Peritoneal Tuberculosis in a Pregnant Woman from Haiti, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):514-516. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121109.
APA Ard, K. L., Chan, B. T., Milner, D. A., Farmer, P. E., & Koenig, S. P. (2013). Peritoneal Tuberculosis in a Pregnant Woman from Haiti, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 514-516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121109.

Microsporidial Keratoconjunctivitis Outbreak among Athletes from Hong Kong Who Visited Singapore, 2012 [PDF - 270 KB - 2 pages]
T. Lam et al.
EID Lam T, Wong M, Chuang S. Microsporidial Keratoconjunctivitis Outbreak among Athletes from Hong Kong Who Visited Singapore, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):516-517. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121150
AMA Lam T, Wong M, Chuang S. Microsporidial Keratoconjunctivitis Outbreak among Athletes from Hong Kong Who Visited Singapore, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):516-517. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121150.
APA Lam, T., Wong, M., & Chuang, S. (2013). Microsporidial Keratoconjunctivitis Outbreak among Athletes from Hong Kong Who Visited Singapore, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 516-517. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121150.

Mycobacterium fortuitum Endocarditis Associated with Cardiac Surgery, Serbia [PDF - 316 KB - 3 pages]
D. Vuković et al.
EID Vuković D, Parezanović V, Savić B, Dakić I, Laban-Nestorović S, Ilić S, et al. Mycobacterium fortuitum Endocarditis Associated with Cardiac Surgery, Serbia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):517-519. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120763
AMA Vuković D, Parezanović V, Savić B, et al. Mycobacterium fortuitum Endocarditis Associated with Cardiac Surgery, Serbia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):517-519. doi:10.3201/eid1903.120763.
APA Vuković, D., Parezanović, V., Savić, B., Dakić, I., Laban-Nestorović, S., Ilić, S....Stepanović, S. (2013). Mycobacterium fortuitum Endocarditis Associated with Cardiac Surgery, Serbia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 517-519. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.120763.

Cryptococcus gattii, Florida, USA, 2011 [PDF - 379 KB - 3 pages]
R. Kunadharaju et al.
EID Kunadharaju R, Choe U, Harris JR, Lockhart SR, Greene JN. Cryptococcus gattii, Florida, USA, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):519-521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121399
AMA Kunadharaju R, Choe U, Harris JR, et al. Cryptococcus gattii, Florida, USA, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):519-521. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121399.
APA Kunadharaju, R., Choe, U., Harris, J. R., Lockhart, S. R., & Greene, J. N. (2013). Cryptococcus gattii, Florida, USA, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 519-521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121399.

Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis [PDF - 260 KB - 2 pages]
J. van Ingen et al.
EID van Ingen J, Brosch R, van Soolingen D. Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):521-522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121005
AMA van Ingen J, Brosch R, van Soolingen D. Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):521-522. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121005.
APA van Ingen, J., Brosch, R., & van Soolingen, D. (2013). Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 521-522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121005.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Type Mutation Frequency [PDF - 585 KB - 2 pages]
J. Werngren
EID Werngren J. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Type Mutation Frequency. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121001
AMA Werngren J. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Type Mutation Frequency. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):522. doi:10.3201/eid1903.121001.
APA Werngren, J. (2013). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Type Mutation Frequency. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 522. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.121001.
Another Dimension

HUS Surveillance Notes—Sarah’s Story [PDF - 1.84 MB - 2 pages]
K. Pollock
EID Pollock K. HUS Surveillance Notes—Sarah’s Story. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):500-501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.ad1903
AMA Pollock K. HUS Surveillance Notes—Sarah’s Story. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):500-501. doi:10.3201/eid1903.ad1903.
APA Pollock, K. (2013). HUS Surveillance Notes—Sarah’s Story. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 500-501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.ad1903.
About the Cover

Captain Consumption and the Collector of Souls [PDF - 719 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Captain Consumption and the Collector of Souls. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):524-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.ac1903
AMA Potter P. Captain Consumption and the Collector of Souls. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):524-525. doi:10.3201/eid1903.ac1903.
APA Potter, P. (2013). Captain Consumption and the Collector of Souls. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 524-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.ac1903.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Leptospira [PDF - 889 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Leptospira. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):392. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.et1903
AMA Etymologia: Leptospira. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):392. doi:10.3201/eid1903.et1903.
APA (2013). Etymologia: Leptospira. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 392. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.et1903.
Conference Summaries

Issues in the Development of a Research and Education Framework for One Health
L. M. Gargano et al.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 18, No. 8 [PDF - 524 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 18, No. 8. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(3):523. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.c11903
AMA Correction: Vol. 18, No. 8. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):523. doi:10.3201/eid1903.c11903.
APA (2013). Correction: Vol. 18, No. 8. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(3), 523. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1903.c11903.
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Page updated: March 21, 2013
Page reviewed: March 21, 2013
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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