Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 19, Number 6—June 2013

Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

Peter W, HorbyComments to Author , Dirk Pfeiffer, and Hitoshi Oshitani
Author affiliations: Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hanoi, Vietnam (P.W. Horby); University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (P.W. Horby); National University of Singapore (P.W. Horby); Singapore; Royal Veterinary College, London, UK (D. Pfeiffer); Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan (H. Oshitani)

Main Article


Emerging and reemerging infectious disease events detected in East and Southeast Asia, 2004–2011*

Year, pathogen Pathogen type Driver of resistance Location Ref
Influenza A(H5N1)
Agricultural industry changes
East and Southeast Asia
Streptococcus suis serotype 2
Agricultural industry changes/co-infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
Melaka virus Reovirus Improved detection Malaysia (8)
Kampar virus
Improved detection
Artemisinin-resistant malaria Protozoa Artemisinin or artesunate monotherapy Cambodia (10)
Reston Ebola virus† Filovirus Improved detection/co-infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Philippines (11)
Severe fever with 
thrombocytopenia syndrome Bunyavirus Unknown China (12)

*Ref, reference.
†Detected in swine but not shown to cause human disease.

Main Article

  1. Zhong  NS, Zheng  BJ, Li  YM, Poon  LLM, Xie  ZH, Chan  KH, Epidemiology and cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Guangdong, People’s Republic of China, in February, 2003. Lancet. 2003;362:13538 . DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Liu  L, Johnson  HL, Cousens  S, Perin  J, Scott  S, Lawn  JE, Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000. Lancet. 2012;379:215161 . DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Guernier  V, Hochberg  ME, Guegan  JF. Ecology drives the worldwide distribution of human diseases. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:e141. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Jones  KE, Patel  NG, Levy  MA, Storeygard  A, Balk  D, Gittleman  JL, Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature. 2008;451:9903 . DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hien  TT, Liem  NT, Dung  NT, San  LT, Mai  PP, Chau  NV. et al. Avian influenza A (H5N1) in 10 patients in Vietnam. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1179–88.
  6. Hoa  NT, Chieu  TT, Do Dung  S, Long  NT, Hieu  TQ, Luc  NT, Streptococcus suis and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:3313. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Tang  J, Wang  C, Feng  Y, Yang  W, Song  H, Chen  Z, Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus suis serotype 2. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e151 . DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chua  KB, Crameri  G, Hyatt  A, Yu  M, Tompang  MR, Rosli  J, A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:114249. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chua  KB, Voon  K, Crameri  G, Tan  HS, Rosli  J, McEachern  JA, Identification and characterization of a new orthoreovirus from patients with acute respiratory infections. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3803 . DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dondorp  AM, Nosten  F, Yi  P, Das  D, Phyo  AP, Tarning  J, Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:45567. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrette  RW, Metwally  SA, Rowland  JM, Xu  L, Zaki  SR, Nichol  ST, Discovery of swine as a host for the Reston ebolavirus. Science. 2009;325:2046. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Yu  XJ, Liang  MF, Zhang  SY, Liu  Y, Li  JD, Sun  YL, Fever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:152332 . DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. State of the world’s forests, 2011 [cited 2013 Mar 25].
  14. Keesing  F, Belden  LK, Daszak  P, Dobson  A, Harvell  CD, Holt  RD, Impacts of biodiversity on the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. Nature. 2010;468:64752 . DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The state of the world’s land and water resources for food and agriculture: managing systems at risk. Rome: The Organization; 2011.
  16. Johnson  PTJ, Townsend  AR, Cleveland  CC, Glibert  PM, Howarth  RW, McKenzie  VJ, Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife. Ecol Appl. 2010;20:1629. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The state of food and agriculture 2010–2011. Women in agriculture: closing the gender gap for development [cited 2013 Mar 25].
  18. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT. 2012 [cited 2012 Aug 11].
  19. Robinson  TP, Pozzi  F. Mapping supply and demand for animal-source foods to 2030 Rome; 2011.
  20. King  KC, Lively  CM. Does genetic diversity limit disease spread in natural host populations? Heredity. 2012;109:199203. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Marshall  BM, Levy  SB. Food animals and antimicrobials: impacts on human health. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:71833. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang  H, McEntire  JC, Zhang  L, Li  X, Doyle  M. The transfer of antibiotic resistance from food to humans: facts, implications and future directions. Rev Sci Tech. 2012;31:24960 .PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Thornton  PK. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2010;365:285367. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang  LF, Eaton  BT. Bats, civets and the emergence of SARS. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2007;315:32544. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Van Borm  S, Thomas  I, Hanquet  G, Lambrecht  B, Boschmans  M, Dupont  G, Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in smuggled Thai eagles, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:7025. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Rosen  GE, Smith  KF. Summarizing the evidence on the international trade in illegal wildlife. EcoHealth. 2010;7:2432. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Eisenberg  JN, Cevallos  W, Ponce  K, Levy  K, Bates  SJ, Scott  JC, Environmental change and infectious disease: how new roads affect the transmission of diarrheal pathogens in rural Ecuador. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:194605. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World urbanization prospects: the 2011 revision. 2012 [cited 2013 Mar 25].
  29. United Nations Habitat. State of the world’s cities: 2010/2011—cities for all: bridging the urban divide. 2010 [cited 2013 Mar 25].
  30. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Population distribution, urbanization, internal migration and development: an international perspective. 2011 [cited 2013 Mar 25].
  31. Lestari  ES, Severin  JA, Verbrugh  HA. Antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2012;43:385422 .PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Heymann  DL, Rodier  GR. Hot spots in a wired world: WHO surveillance of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Lancet Infect Dis. 2001;1:34553. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. World Health Organization. Summary of 2011 States Parties report on IHR core capacity implementation [cited 2013 Mar 25].
  34. National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Influenza weekly report. Overview of influenza surveillance in China [cited 2013 Mar 25]. 2009 Oct 24; version 1.0.
  35. Kandun  IN, Samaan  G, Santoso  H, Kushadiwijaya  H, Juwita  R, Mohadir  A, Strengthening Indonesia’s Field Epidemiology Training Programme to address International Health Regulations requirements. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88:2115. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Chan  EH, Brewer  TF, Madoff  LC, Pollack  MP, Sonricker  AL, Keller  M, Global capacity for emerging infectious disease detection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:217016. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hanvoravongchai  P, Adisasmito  W, Chau  PN, Conseil  A, de Sa  J, Krumkamp  R, Pandemic influenza preparedness and health systems challenges in Asia: results from rapid analyses in 6 Asian countries. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:32. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Rudge  JW, Hanvoravongchai  P, Krumkamp  R, Chavez  I, Adisasmito  W, Chau  PN, Health system resource gaps and associated mortality from pandemic influenza across six Asian territories. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31800. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Wertheim  HF, Puthavathana  P, Nghiem  NM, van Doorn  HR, Nguyen  TV, Pham  HV, Laboratory capacity building in Asia for infectious disease research: experiences from the South East Asia Infectious Disease Clinical Research Network (SEAICRN). PLoS Med. 2010;7:e1000231. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Bond  KC, Macfarlane  SB, Burke  C, Ungchusak  K, Wibulpolprasert  S. The evolution and expansion of regional disease surveillance networks and their role in mitigating the threat of infectious disease outbreaks. Emerg Health Threats J. 2013;6:19913.

Main Article

Page created: May 20, 2013
Page updated: May 20, 2013
Page reviewed: May 20, 2013
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.