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Volume 19, Number 6—June 2013

Volume 19, Number 6—June 2013   PDF Version [PDF - 8.32 MB - 195 pages]

Perspective

  • Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome PDF Version [PDF - 491 KB - 8 pages]
    P. Horby et al.
        View Abstract

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades.

        Cite This Article
    EID Horby P, Pfeiffer D, Oshitani H. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):853-860. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121783
    AMA Horby P, Pfeiffer D, Oshitani H. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):853-860. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121783.
    APA Horby, P., Pfeiffer, D., & Oshitani, H. (2013). Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 853-860. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121783.
  • Public Health Lessons from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome a Decade Later PDF Version [PDF - 361 KB - 3 pages]
    J. P. Koplan et al.
        View Abstract

    The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2002–2003 exacted considerable human and economic costs from countries involved. It also exposed major weaknesses in several of these countries in coping with an outbreak of a newly emerged infectious disease. In the 10 years since the outbreak, in addition to the increase in knowledge of the biology and epidemiology of this disease, a major lesson learned is the value of having a national public health institute that is prepared to control disease outbreaks and designed to coordinate a national response and assist localities in their responses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Koplan JP, Butler-Jones D, Tsang T, Yu W. Public Health Lessons from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome a Decade Later. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):861-863. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121426
    AMA Koplan JP, Butler-Jones D, Tsang T, et al. Public Health Lessons from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome a Decade Later. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):861-863. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121426.
    APA Koplan, J. P., Butler-Jones, D., Tsang, T., & Yu, W. (2013). Public Health Lessons from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome a Decade Later. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 861-863. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121426.

Synopses

  • Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome PDF Version [PDF - 378 KB - 6 pages]
    C. R. Braden et al.
        View Abstract

    Ten years have elapsed since the World Health Organization issued its first global alert for an unexplained illness named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The anniversary provides an opportunity to reflect on the international response to this new global microbial threat. While global surveillance and response capacity for public health threats have been strengthened, critical gaps remain. Of 194 World Health Organization member states that signed on to the International Health Regulations (2005), <20% had achieved compliance with the core capacities required by the deadline in June 2012. Lessons learned from the global SARS outbreak highlight the need to avoid complacency, strengthen efforts to improve global capacity to address the next pandemic using all available 21st century tools, and support research to develop new treatment options, countermeasures, and insights while striving to address the global inequities that are the root cause of many of these challenges.

        Cite This Article
    EID Braden CR, Dowell SF, Jernigan DB, Hughes JM. Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):864-869. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130192
    AMA Braden CR, Dowell SF, Jernigan DB, et al. Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):864-869. doi:10.3201/eid1906.130192.
    APA Braden, C. R., Dowell, S. F., Jernigan, D. B., & Hughes, J. M. (2013). Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 864-869. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130192.
  • New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae, United States PDF Version [PDF - 651 KB - 9 pages]
    J. Rasheed et al.
    View Summary

    Rapid and reliable methods for detection of these organisms are needed to prevent further dissemination.

        View Abstract

    We characterized 9 New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (5 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Escherichia coli, 1 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg) isolates identified in the United States and cultured from 8 patients in 5 states during April 2009–March 2011. Isolates were resistant to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides, demonstrated MICs ≤1 µg/mL of colistin and polymyxin, and yielded positive metallo-β-lactamase screening results. Eight isolates had blaNDM-1, and 1 isolate had a novel allele (blaNDM-6). All 8 patients had recently been in India or Pakistan, where 6 received inpatient health care. Plasmids carrying blaNDM frequently carried AmpC or extended spectrum β-lactamase genes. Two K. pneumoniae isolates and a K. pneumoniae isolate from Sweden shared incompatibility group A/C plasmids with indistinguishable restriction patterns and a common blaNDM fragment; all 3 were multilocus sequence type 14. Restriction profiles of the remaining New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase plasmids, including 2 from the same patient, were diverse.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rasheed J, Kitchel B, Zhu W, Anderson KF, Clark NC, Ferraro M, et al. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):870-878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121515
    AMA Rasheed J, Kitchel B, Zhu W, et al. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):870-878. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121515.
    APA Rasheed, J., Kitchel, B., Zhu, W., Anderson, K. F., Clark, N. C., Ferraro, M....Limbago, B. M. (2013). New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 870-878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121515.
  • Pandemic Influenza Planning, United States, 1978–2008 PDF Version [PDF - 414 KB - 7 pages]
    J. Iskander et al.
        View Abstract

    During the past century, 4 influenza pandemics occurred. After the emergence of a novel influenza virus of swine origin in 1976, national, state, and local US public health authorities began planning efforts to respond to future pandemics. Several events have since stimulated progress in public health emergency planning: the 1997 avian influenza A(H5N1) outbreak in Hong Kong, China; the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States; the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome; and the 2003 reemergence of influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in humans. We outline the evolution of US pandemic planning since the late 1970s, summarize planning accomplishments, and explain their ongoing importance. The public health community’s response to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic demonstrated the value of planning and provided insights into improving future plans and response efforts. Preparedness planning will enhance the collective, multilevel response to future public health crises.

        Cite This Article
    EID Iskander J, Strikas RA, Gensheimer KF, Cox NJ, Redd SC. Pandemic Influenza Planning, United States, 1978–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):879-885. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121478
    AMA Iskander J, Strikas RA, Gensheimer KF, et al. Pandemic Influenza Planning, United States, 1978–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):879-885. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121478.
    APA Iskander, J., Strikas, R. A., Gensheimer, K. F., Cox, N. J., & Redd, S. C. (2013). Pandemic Influenza Planning, United States, 1978–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 879-885. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121478.
  • Cell Culture and Electron Microscopy for Identifying Viruses in Diseases of Unknown Cause PDF Version [PDF - 642 KB - 6 pages]
    C. S. Goldsmith et al.
        View Abstract

    During outbreaks of infectious diseases or in cases of severely ill patients, it is imperative to identify the causative agent. This report describes several events in which virus isolation and identification by electron microscopy were critical to initial recognition of the etiologic agent, which was further analyzed by additional laboratory diagnostic assays. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and Nipah, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, West Nile, Cache Valley, and Heartland viruses. These cases illustrate the importance of the techniques of cell culture and electron microscopy in pathogen identification and recognition of emerging diseases.

        Cite This Article
    EID Goldsmith CS, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Comer JA, Nicholson WL, Peret T, et al. Cell Culture and Electron Microscopy for Identifying Viruses in Diseases of Unknown Cause. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):886-891. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130173
    AMA Goldsmith CS, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, et al. Cell Culture and Electron Microscopy for Identifying Viruses in Diseases of Unknown Cause. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):886-891. doi:10.3201/eid1906.130173.
    APA Goldsmith, C. S., Ksiazek, T. G., Rollin, P. E., Comer, J. A., Nicholson, W. L., Peret, T....Zaki, S. R. (2013). Cell Culture and Electron Microscopy for Identifying Viruses in Diseases of Unknown Cause. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 886-891. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130173.
  • Zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis–induced Tuberculosis in Humans PDF Version [PDF - 595 KB - 10 pages]
    B. Müller et al.
    View Summary

    A systematic review of the global occurrence of zoonotic TB, suggesting a worldwide low incidence of the disease, even in high-risk, low-income countries.

        View Abstract

    We aimed to estimate the global occurrence of zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae infections in humans by performing a multilingual, systematic review and analysis of relevant scientific literature of the last 2 decades. Although information from many parts of the world was not available, data from 61 countries suggested a low global disease incidence. In regions outside Africa included in this study, overall median proportions of zoonotic TB of ≤1.4% in connection with overall TB incidence rates ≤71/100,000 population/year suggested low incidence rates. For countries of Africa included in the study, we multiplied the observed median proportion of zoonotic TB cases of 2.8% with the continental average overall TB incidence rate of 264/100,000 population/year, which resulted in a crude estimate of 7 zoonotic TB cases/100,000 population/year. These generally low incidence rates notwithstanding, available data indicated substantial consequences of this disease for some population groups and settings.

        Cite This Article
    EID Müller B, Dürr S, Alonso S, Hattendorf J, Laisse C, Parsons S, et al. Zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis–induced Tuberculosis in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):899-908. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120543
    AMA Müller B, Dürr S, Alonso S, et al. Zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis–induced Tuberculosis in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):899-908. doi:10.3201/eid1906.120543.
    APA Müller, B., Dürr, S., Alonso, S., Hattendorf, J., Laisse, C., Parsons, S....Zinsstag, J. (2013). Zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis–induced Tuberculosis in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 899-908. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120543.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Iatrogenic Blood-borne Viral Infections in Refugee Children from War and Transition Zones
    P. N. Goldwater
    View Summary

    Cases provide a stimulus to alert reception countries to a possible problem.

        View Abstract

    Pediatric infectious disease clinicians in industrialized countries may encounter iatrogenically transmitted HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in refugee children from Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consequences of political collapse and/or civil war—work migration, prostitution, intravenous drug use, defective public health resources, and poor access to good medical care—all contribute to the spread of blood-borne viruses. Inadequate infection control practices by medical establishments can lead to iatrogenic infection of children. Summaries of 4 cases in refugee children in Australia are a salient reminder of this problem.

        Cite This Article
    EID Goldwater PN. Iatrogenic Blood-borne Viral Infections in Refugee Children from War and Transition Zones. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):892-898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120806
    AMA Goldwater PN. Iatrogenic Blood-borne Viral Infections in Refugee Children from War and Transition Zones. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):892-898. doi:10.3201/eid1906.120806.
    APA Goldwater, P. N. (2013). Iatrogenic Blood-borne Viral Infections in Refugee Children from War and Transition Zones. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 892-898. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120806.

Research

  • Characteristics of Group A Streptococcus Strains Circulating during Scarlet Fever Epidemic, Beijing, China, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 547 KB - 7 pages]
    P. Yang et al.
        View Abstract

    Scarlet fever is one of a variety of diseases caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS). During 2011, a scarlet fever epidemic characterized by peak monthly incidence rates 2.9–6.7 times higher than those in 2006–2010 occurred in Beijing, China. During the epidemic, hospital-based enhanced surveillance for scarlet fever and pharyngitis was conducted to determine characteristics of circulating GAS strains. The surveillance identified 3,359 clinical cases of scarlet fever or pharyngitis. GAS was isolated from 647 of the patients; 76.4% of the strains were type emm12, and 17.1% were emm1. Almost all isolates harbored superantigens speC and ssa. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, and resistance rates were 96.1% to erythromycin, 93.7% to tetracycline, and 79.4% to clindamycin. Because emm12 type GAS is not the predominant type in other countries, wider surveillance for the possible spread of emm12 type GAS from China to other countries is warranted.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yang P, Peng X, Zhang D, Wu S, Liu Y, Cui S, et al. Characteristics of Group A Streptococcus Strains Circulating during Scarlet Fever Epidemic, Beijing, China, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):909-915. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121020
    AMA Yang P, Peng X, Zhang D, et al. Characteristics of Group A Streptococcus Strains Circulating during Scarlet Fever Epidemic, Beijing, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):909-915. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121020.
    APA Yang, P., Peng, X., Zhang, D., Wu, S., Liu, Y., Cui, S....Wang, Q. (2013). Characteristics of Group A Streptococcus Strains Circulating during Scarlet Fever Epidemic, Beijing, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 909-915. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121020.
  • Transmission Potential of Rift Valley Fever Virus over the Course of the 2010 Epidemic in South Africa PDF Version [PDF - 1.17 MB - 9 pages]
    R. Métras et al.
    View Summary

    Epidemic fade-out occurred as susceptible hosts were depleted and vector-suitable environmental conditions declined.

        View Abstract

    A Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic affecting animals on domestic livestock farms was reported in South Africa during January–August 2010. The first cases occurred after heavy rainfall, and the virus subsequently spread countrywide. To determine the possible effect of environmental conditions and vaccination on RVF virus transmissibility, we estimated the effective reproduction number (Re) for the virus over the course of the epidemic by extending the Wallinga and Teunis algorithm with spatial information. Re reached its highest value in mid-February and fell below unity around mid-March, when vaccination coverage was 7.5%–45.7% and vector-suitable environmental conditions were maintained. The epidemic fade-out likely resulted first from the immunization of animals following natural infection or vaccination. The decline in vector-suitable environmental conditions from April onwards and further vaccination helped maintain Re below unity. Increased availability of vaccine use data would enable evaluation of the effect of RVF vaccination campaigns.

        Cite This Article
    EID Métras R, Baguelin M, Edmunds W, Thompson PN, Kemp A, Pfeiffer DU, et al. Transmission Potential of Rift Valley Fever Virus over the Course of the 2010 Epidemic in South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):916-924. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121641
    AMA Métras R, Baguelin M, Edmunds W, et al. Transmission Potential of Rift Valley Fever Virus over the Course of the 2010 Epidemic in South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):916-924. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121641.
    APA Métras, R., Baguelin, M., Edmunds, W., Thompson, P. N., Kemp, A., Pfeiffer, D. U....White, R. G. (2013). Transmission Potential of Rift Valley Fever Virus over the Course of the 2010 Epidemic in South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 916-924. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121641.
  • Effect of Travel on Influenza Epidemiology PDF Version [PDF - 403 KB - 7 pages]
    S. Belderok et al.
    View Summary

    Short-term travelers often visit (sub)tropical regions where influenza viruses continuously circulate and after contracting the disease they could become vectors that further spread the virus worldwide.

        View Abstract

    To assess the attack and incidence rates for influenza virus infections, during October 2006–October 2007 we prospectively studied 1,190 adult short-term travelers from the Netherlands to tropical and subtropical countries. Participants donated blood samples before and after travel and kept a travel diary. The samples were serologically tested for the epidemic strains during the study period. The attack rate for all infections was 7% (86 travelers) and for influenza-like illness (ILI), 0.8%. The incidence rate for all infections was 8.9 per 100 person-months and for ILI, 0.9%. Risk factors for infection were birth in a non-Western country, age 55–64 years, and ILI. In 15 travelers with fever or ILI, influenza virus infection was serologically confirmed; 7 of these travelers were considered contagious or incubating the infection while traveling home. Given the large number of travelers to (sub)tropical countries, travel-related infection most likely contributes to importation and further influenza spread worldwide.

        Cite This Article
    EID Belderok S, Rimmelzwaan GF, van den Hoek A, Sonder G. Effect of Travel on Influenza Epidemiology. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):925-931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.111864
    AMA Belderok S, Rimmelzwaan GF, van den Hoek A, et al. Effect of Travel on Influenza Epidemiology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):925-931. doi:10.3201/eid1906.111864.
    APA Belderok, S., Rimmelzwaan, G. F., van den Hoek, A., & Sonder, G. (2013). Effect of Travel on Influenza Epidemiology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 925-931. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.111864.
  • Haemophilus influenzae Serotype a Invasive Disease, Alaska, USA, 1983–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 375 KB - 6 pages]
    M. G. Bruce et al.
        View Abstract

    Before introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines, rates of Hib disease in Alaska’s indigenous people were among the highest in the world. Vaccination reduced rates dramatically; however, invasive H. influenzae type a (Hia) disease has emerged. Cases of invasive disease were identified through Alaska statewide surveillance during1983–2011. Of 866 isolates analyzed for serotype, 32 (4%) were Hia. No Hia disease was identified before 2002; 32 cases occurred during 2002–2011 (p<0.001). Median age of case-patients was 0.7 years; 3 infants died. Incidence of Hia infection (2002–2011) among children <5 years was 5.4/100,000; 27 cases occurred in Alaska Native children (18/100,000) versus 2 cases in non-Native children (0.5/100,000) (risk ratio = 36, p<0.001). From 12/2009 to 12/2011, 15 cases of Hia disease occurred in southwestern Alaska (in children <5 years, rate = 204/100,000). Since introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, Hia infection has become a major invasive bacterial disease in Alaska Native children.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bruce MG, Zulz T, DeByle C, Singleton R, Hurlburt D, Bruden D, et al. Haemophilus influenzae Serotype a Invasive Disease, Alaska, USA, 1983–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):932-937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121805
    AMA Bruce MG, Zulz T, DeByle C, et al. Haemophilus influenzae Serotype a Invasive Disease, Alaska, USA, 1983–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):932-937. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121805.
    APA Bruce, M. G., Zulz, T., DeByle, C., Singleton, R., Hurlburt, D., Bruden, D....Wenger, J. D. (2013). Haemophilus influenzae Serotype a Invasive Disease, Alaska, USA, 1983–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 932-937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121805.
  • Effect of Winter School Breaks on Influenza-like Illness, Argentina, 2005–2008 PDF Version [PDF - 554 KB - 7 pages]
    R. C. Garza et al.
        View Abstract

    School closures are used to reduce seasonal and pandemic influenza transmission, yet evidence of their effectiveness is sparse. In Argentina, annual winter school breaks occur during the influenza season, providing an opportunity to study this intervention. We used 2005–2008 national weekly surveillance data of visits to a health care provider for influenza-like illness (ILI) from all provinces. Using Serfling-specified Poisson regressions and population-based census denominators, we developed incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for the 3 weeks before, 2 weeks during, and 3 weeks after the break. For persons 5–64 years of age, IRRs were <1 for at least 1 week after the break. Observed rates returned to expected by the third week after the break; overall decrease among persons of all ages was 14%. The largest decrease was among children 5–14 years of age during the week after the break (37% lower IRR). Among adults, effects were weaker and delayed. Two-week winter school breaks significantly decreased visits to a health care provider for ILI among school-aged children and nonelderly adults.

        Cite This Article
    EID Garza RC, Basurto-Dávila R, Ortega-Sanchez IR, Carlino L, Meltzer MI, Albalak R, et al. Effect of Winter School Breaks on Influenza-like Illness, Argentina, 2005–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):938-944. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120916
    AMA Garza RC, Basurto-Dávila R, Ortega-Sanchez IR, et al. Effect of Winter School Breaks on Influenza-like Illness, Argentina, 2005–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):938-944. doi:10.3201/eid1906.120916.
    APA Garza, R. C., Basurto-Dávila, R., Ortega-Sanchez, I. R., Carlino, L., Meltzer, M. I., Albalak, R....Averhoff, F. (2013). Effect of Winter School Breaks on Influenza-like Illness, Argentina, 2005–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 938-944. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120916.
  • Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dengue Epidemics, Southern Vietnam PDF Version [PDF - 501 KB - 9 pages]
    H. Cuong et al.
    View Summary

    Control efforts could be targeted according to dry season incidence and proximity to known epidemic hotspots.

        View Abstract

    An improved understanding of heterogeneities in dengue virus transmission might provide insights into biological and ecologic drivers and facilitate predictions of the magnitude, timing, and location of future dengue epidemics. To investigate dengue dynamics in urban Ho Chi Minh City and neighboring rural provinces in Vietnam, we analyzed a 10-year monthly time series of dengue surveillance data from southern Vietnam. The per capita incidence of dengue was lower in Ho Chi Minh City than in most rural provinces; annual epidemics occurred 1–3 months later in Ho Chi Minh City than elsewhere. The timing and the magnitude of annual epidemics were significantly more correlated in nearby districts than in remote districts, suggesting that local biological and ecologic drivers operate at a scale of 50–100 km. Dengue incidence during the dry season accounted for 63% of variability in epidemic magnitude. These findings can aid the targeting of vector-control interventions and the planning for dengue vaccine implementation.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cuong H, Vu N, Cazelles B, Boni MF, Thai K, Rabaa MA, et al. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dengue Epidemics, Southern Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):945-953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121323
    AMA Cuong H, Vu N, Cazelles B, et al. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dengue Epidemics, Southern Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):945-953. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121323.
    APA Cuong, H., Vu, N., Cazelles, B., Boni, M. F., Thai, K., Rabaa, M. A....Anders, K. L. (2013). Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dengue Epidemics, Southern Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 945-953. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121323.
  • Active Surveillance for Influenza A Virus among Swine, Midwestern United States, 2009–2011 PDF Version [PDF - 480 KB - 7 pages]
    C. A. Corzo et al.
    View Summary

    Different influenza viruses circulate simultaneously among pig populations throughout the year.

        View Abstract

    Veterinary diagnostic laboratories identify and characterize influenza A viruses primarily through passive surveillance. However, additional surveillance programs are needed. To meet this need, an active surveillance program was conducted at pig farms throughout the midwestern United States. From June 2009 through December 2011, nasal swab samples were collected monthly from among 540 groups of growing pigs and tested for influenza A virus by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Of 16,170 samples, 746 were positive for influenza A virus; of these, 18.0% were subtype H1N1, 16.0% H1N2, 7.6% H3N2, and 14.5% (H1N1)pdm09. An influenza (H3N2) and (H1N1)pdm09 virus were identified simultaneously in 8 groups. This active influenza A virus surveillance program provided quality data and increased the understanding of the current situation of circulating viruses in the midwestern US pig population.

        Cite This Article
    EID Corzo CA, Culhane M, Juleen K, Stigger-Rosser E, Ducatez MF, Webby RJ, et al. Active Surveillance for Influenza A Virus among Swine, Midwestern United States, 2009–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):954-960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121637
    AMA Corzo CA, Culhane M, Juleen K, et al. Active Surveillance for Influenza A Virus among Swine, Midwestern United States, 2009–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):954-960. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121637.
    APA Corzo, C. A., Culhane, M., Juleen, K., Stigger-Rosser, E., Ducatez, M. F., Webby, R. J....Lowe, J. F. (2013). Active Surveillance for Influenza A Virus among Swine, Midwestern United States, 2009–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 954-960. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121637.
  • Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolate from a Wild Chimpanzee PDF Version [PDF - 1.07 MB - 8 pages]
    M. Coscolla et al.
    View Summary

    This lineage is more closely related to human-associated than to classical animal-associated M. tuberculosis complex strains.

        View Abstract

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by gram-positive bacteria known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). MTBC include several human-associated lineages and several variants adapted to domestic and, more rarely, wild animal species. We report an M. tuberculosis strain isolated from a wild chimpanzee in Côte d’Ivoire that was shown by comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses to belong to a new lineage of MTBC, closer to the human-associated lineage 6 (also known as M. africanum West Africa 2) than to the other classical animal-associated MTBC strains. These results show that the general view of the genetic diversity of MTBC is limited and support the possibility that other MTBC variants exist, particularly in wild mammals in Africa. Exploring this diversity is crucial to the understanding of the biology and evolutionary history of this widespread infectious disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Coscolla M, Lewin A, Metzger S, Maetz-Rennsing K, Calvignac-Spencer S, Nitsche A, et al. Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolate from a Wild Chimpanzee. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):969-976. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121012
    AMA Coscolla M, Lewin A, Metzger S, et al. Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolate from a Wild Chimpanzee. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):969-976. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121012.
    APA Coscolla, M., Lewin, A., Metzger, S., Maetz-Rennsing, K., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Nitsche, A....Leendertz, F. H. (2013). Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolate from a Wild Chimpanzee. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 969-976. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121012.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Foodborne Botulism in Canada, 1985–2005
    D. Leclair et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Leclair D, Fung J, Isaac-Renton JL, Proulx J, May-Hadford J, Ellis A, et al. Foodborne Botulism in Canada, 1985–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):961-968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120873
    AMA Leclair D, Fung J, Isaac-Renton JL, et al. Foodborne Botulism in Canada, 1985–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):961-968. doi:10.3201/eid1906.120873.
    APA Leclair, D., Fung, J., Isaac-Renton, J. L., Proulx, J., May-Hadford, J., Ellis, A....Austin, J. W. (2013). Foodborne Botulism in Canada, 1985–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 961-968. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120873.

Dispatches

  • Endemic Norovirus Infections in Children, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2009–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 382 KB - 4 pages]
    P. My et al.
        View Abstract

    We performed a case–control investigation to identify risk factors for norovirus infections among children in Vietnam. Of samples from 1,419 children who had diarrhea and 609 who were asymptomatic, 20.6% and 2.8%, respectively, were norovirus positive. Risk factors included residential crowding and symptomatic contacts, indicating person-to-person transmission of norovirus.

        Cite This Article
    EID My P, Thompson C, Phuc H, Tuyet P, Vinh H, Hoang N, et al. Endemic Norovirus Infections in Children, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):977-980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.111862
    AMA My P, Thompson C, Phuc H, et al. Endemic Norovirus Infections in Children, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):977-980. doi:10.3201/eid1906.111862.
    APA My, P., Thompson, C., Phuc, H., Tuyet, P., Vinh, H., Hoang, N....Baker, S. (2013). Endemic Norovirus Infections in Children, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 977-980. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.111862.
  • Human Melioidosis, Malawi, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 351 KB - 4 pages]
    T. Katangwe et al.
        View Abstract

    A case of human melioidosis caused by a novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei occurred in a child in Malawi, southern Africa. A literature review showed that human cases reported from the continent have been increasing.

        Cite This Article
    EID Katangwe T, Purcell J, Bar-Zeev N, Denis B, Montgomery J, Alaerts M, et al. Human Melioidosis, Malawi, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):981-984. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120717
    AMA Katangwe T, Purcell J, Bar-Zeev N, et al. Human Melioidosis, Malawi, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):981-984. doi:10.3201/eid1906.120717.
    APA Katangwe, T., Purcell, J., Bar-Zeev, N., Denis, B., Montgomery, J., Alaerts, M....Moxon, C. (2013). Human Melioidosis, Malawi, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 981-984. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120717.
  • BSE-associated Prion-Amyloid Cardiomyopathy in Primates PDF Version [PDF - 348 KB - 4 pages]
    S. Krasemann et al.
        View Abstract

    Prion amyloidosis occurred in the heart of 1 of 3 macaques intraperitoneally inoculated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions. This macaque had a remarkably long duration of disease and signs of cardiac distress. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, caused by transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to humans, may manifest with cardiac symptoms from prion-amyloid cardiomyopathy.

        Cite This Article
    EID Krasemann S, Mearini G, Krämer E, Wagenführ K, Schulz-Schaeffer W, Neumann M, et al. BSE-associated Prion-Amyloid Cardiomyopathy in Primates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):985-988. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120906
    AMA Krasemann S, Mearini G, Krämer E, et al. BSE-associated Prion-Amyloid Cardiomyopathy in Primates. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):985-988. doi:10.3201/eid1906.120906.
    APA Krasemann, S., Mearini, G., Krämer, E., Wagenführ, K., Schulz-Schaeffer, W., Neumann, M....Glatzel, M. (2013). BSE-associated Prion-Amyloid Cardiomyopathy in Primates. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 985-988. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120906.
  • Novel SARS-like Betacoronaviruses in Bats, China, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 295 KB - 3 pages]
    L. Yang et al.
        View Abstract

    To clarify the evolutionary relationships among betavoronaviruses that infect bats, we analyzed samples collected during 2010–2011 from 14 insectivorous bat species in China. We identified complete genomes of 2 novel betacoronaviruses in Rhinolophus pusillus and Chaerephon plicata bats, which showed close genetic relationships with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yang L, Wu Z, Ren X, Yang F, He G, Zhang J, et al. Novel SARS-like Betacoronaviruses in Bats, China, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):989-991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121648
    AMA Yang L, Wu Z, Ren X, et al. Novel SARS-like Betacoronaviruses in Bats, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):989-991. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121648.
    APA Yang, L., Wu, Z., Ren, X., Yang, F., He, G., Zhang, J....Jin, Q. (2013). Novel SARS-like Betacoronaviruses in Bats, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 989-991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121648.
  • Human Papillomavirus Genital Infections among Men, China, 2007–2009 PDF Version [PDF - 318 KB - 4 pages]
    Z. He et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners.

        Cite This Article
    EID He Z, Liu Y, Sun Y, Xi L, Chen K, Zhao Y, et al. Human Papillomavirus Genital Infections among Men, China, 2007–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):992-995. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.111597
    AMA He Z, Liu Y, Sun Y, et al. Human Papillomavirus Genital Infections among Men, China, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):992-995. doi:10.3201/eid1906.111597.
    APA He, Z., Liu, Y., Sun, Y., Xi, L., Chen, K., Zhao, Y....Ke, Y. (2013). Human Papillomavirus Genital Infections among Men, China, 2007–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 992-995. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.111597.
  • Treatment of Tularemia in Pregnant Woman, France PDF Version [PDF - 410 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Dentan et al.
        View Abstract

    A pregnant woman who had oropharyngeal tularemia underwent treatment with azithromycin and lymph node resection and recovered without obstetrical complication or infection in the child. Azithromycin represents a first-line treatment option for tularemia during pregnancy in regions where the infecting strains of Francisella tularensis have no natural resistance to macrolides.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dentan C, Pavese P, Pelloux I, Boisset S, Brion J, Stahl J, et al. Treatment of Tularemia in Pregnant Woman, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):996-998. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130138
    AMA Dentan C, Pavese P, Pelloux I, et al. Treatment of Tularemia in Pregnant Woman, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):996-998. doi:10.3201/eid1906.130138.
    APA Dentan, C., Pavese, P., Pelloux, I., Boisset, S., Brion, J., Stahl, J....Maurin, M. (2013). Treatment of Tularemia in Pregnant Woman, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 996-998. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130138.
  • Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky in Canada PDF Version [PDF - 326 KB - 3 pages]
    M. R. Mulvey et al.
        View Abstract

    We report emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky in Canada during 2003–2009. All isolates had similar macrorestriction patterns and were multilocus sequence type ST198, which has been observed in Europe and Africa. Ciprofloxacin-resistant S. enterica serovar Kentucky represents 66% of all ciprofloxacin-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella sp. isolates observed in Canada since 2003.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mulvey MR, Boyd DA, Finley R, Fakharuddin K, Langner S, Allen V, et al. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky in Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):999-1001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121351
    AMA Mulvey MR, Boyd DA, Finley R, et al. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky in Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):999-1001. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121351.
    APA Mulvey, M. R., Boyd, D. A., Finley, R., Fakharuddin, K., Langner, S., Allen, V....Wylie, J. (2013). Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky in Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 999-1001. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121351.
  • Novel Poxvirus in Big Brown Bats, Northwestern United States PDF Version [PDF - 362 KB - 3 pages]
    G. L. Emerson et al.
        View Abstract

    A wildlife hospital and rehabilitation center in northwestern United States received several big brown bats with necrosuppurative osteomyelitis in multiple joints. Wing and joint tissues were positive by PCR for poxvirus. Thin-section electron microscopy showed poxvirus particles within A-type inclusions. Phylogenetic comparison supports establishment of a new genus of Poxviridae.

        Cite This Article
    EID Emerson GL, Nordhausen R, Garner MM, Huckabee JR, Johnson S, Wohrle RD, et al. Novel Poxvirus in Big Brown Bats, Northwestern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1002-1004. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121713
    AMA Emerson GL, Nordhausen R, Garner MM, et al. Novel Poxvirus in Big Brown Bats, Northwestern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1002-1004. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121713.
    APA Emerson, G. L., Nordhausen, R., Garner, M. M., Huckabee, J. R., Johnson, S., Wohrle, R. D....Carroll, D. S. (2013). Novel Poxvirus in Big Brown Bats, Northwestern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1002-1004. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121713.
  • Fatal Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Encephalopathy in Immunocompetent Man PDF Version [PDF - 791 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Simon et al.
        View Abstract

    We report an immunocompetent patient who had fatal encephalopathy after mild influenza. He rapidly died after unusual symptoms related to intracerebral thrombosis and hemorrhage. A brain biopsy specimen was positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus RNA, but a lung biopsy specimen and cerebrospinal spinal fluid samples were negative.

        Cite This Article
    EID Simon M, Hernu R, Cour M, Casalegno J, Lina B, Argaud L, et al. Fatal Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Encephalopathy in Immunocompetent Man. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1005-1007. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130062
    AMA Simon M, Hernu R, Cour M, et al. Fatal Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Encephalopathy in Immunocompetent Man. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1005-1007. doi:10.3201/eid1906.130062.
    APA Simon, M., Hernu, R., Cour, M., Casalegno, J., Lina, B., & Argaud, L. (2013). Fatal Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Encephalopathy in Immunocompetent Man. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1005-1007. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130062.

Letters

  • Reemergence of Recombinant Vaccine–derived Polioviruses in Healthy Children, Madagascar PDF Version [PDF - 323 KB - 3 pages]
    R. Razafindratsimandresy et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Razafindratsimandresy R, Joffret M, Rabemanantsoa S, Andriamamonjy S, Heraud J, Delpeyroux F, et al. Reemergence of Recombinant Vaccine–derived Polioviruses in Healthy Children, Madagascar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1008-1010. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130080
    AMA Razafindratsimandresy R, Joffret M, Rabemanantsoa S, et al. Reemergence of Recombinant Vaccine–derived Polioviruses in Healthy Children, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1008-1010. doi:10.3201/eid1906.130080.
    APA Razafindratsimandresy, R., Joffret, M., Rabemanantsoa, S., Andriamamonjy, S., Heraud, J., & Delpeyroux, F. (2013). Reemergence of Recombinant Vaccine–derived Polioviruses in Healthy Children, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1008-1010. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130080.
  • Hepatitis E Outbreak, Dadaab Refugee Camp, Kenya, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 374 KB - 3 pages]
    J. A. Ahmed et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Ahmed JA, Moturi E, Spiegel P, Schilperoord M, Burton W, Kassim NH, et al. Hepatitis E Outbreak, Dadaab Refugee Camp, Kenya, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1010-1011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130275
    AMA Ahmed JA, Moturi E, Spiegel P, et al. Hepatitis E Outbreak, Dadaab Refugee Camp, Kenya, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1010-1011. doi:10.3201/eid1906.130275.
    APA Ahmed, J. A., Moturi, E., Spiegel, P., Schilperoord, M., Burton, W., Kassim, N. H....Marano, N. (2013). Hepatitis E Outbreak, Dadaab Refugee Camp, Kenya, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1010-1011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130275.
  • Wild Poliovirus Importation, Central African Republic PDF Version [PDF - 358 KB - 2 pages]
    I. Gouandjika-Vasilache et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Gouandjika-Vasilache I, Mazitchi A, Gumede N, Manirakiza A, Manenegu C, Koyazegbe T, et al. Wild Poliovirus Importation, Central African Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1012-1013. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121821
    AMA Gouandjika-Vasilache I, Mazitchi A, Gumede N, et al. Wild Poliovirus Importation, Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1012-1013. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121821.
    APA Gouandjika-Vasilache, I., Mazitchi, A., Gumede, N., Manirakiza, A., Manenegu, C., Koyazegbe, T....Burns, C. (2013). Wild Poliovirus Importation, Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1012-1013. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121821.
  • Human Gyrovirus in Healthy Blood Donors, France PDF Version [PDF - 328 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Biagini et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Biagini P, Bédarida S, Touinssi M, Galicher V. Human Gyrovirus in Healthy Blood Donors, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1014-1015. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130228
    AMA Biagini P, Bédarida S, Touinssi M, et al. Human Gyrovirus in Healthy Blood Donors, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1014-1015. doi:10.3201/eid1906.130228.
    APA Biagini, P., Bédarida, S., Touinssi, M., & Galicher, V. (2013). Human Gyrovirus in Healthy Blood Donors, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1014-1015. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130228.
  • Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolate with Novel Genetic Background, Thailand–Myanmar PDF Version [PDF - 341 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Okada et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Okada K, Roobthaisong A, Swaddiwudhipong W, Hamada S, Chantaroj S. Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolate with Novel Genetic Background, Thailand–Myanmar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1015-1017. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120345
    AMA Okada K, Roobthaisong A, Swaddiwudhipong W, et al. Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolate with Novel Genetic Background, Thailand–Myanmar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1015-1017. doi:10.3201/eid1906.120345.
    APA Okada, K., Roobthaisong, A., Swaddiwudhipong, W., Hamada, S., & Chantaroj, S. (2013). Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolate with Novel Genetic Background, Thailand–Myanmar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1015-1017. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120345.
  • Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Asia-2 Genotype, Pakistan PDF Version [PDF - 394 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Alam et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Alam M, Khurshid A, Sharif S, Shaukat S, Suleman R, Angez M, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Asia-2 Genotype, Pakistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1017-1019. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120771
    AMA Alam M, Khurshid A, Sharif S, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Asia-2 Genotype, Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1017-1019. doi:10.3201/eid1906.120771.
    APA Alam, M., Khurshid, A., Sharif, S., Shaukat, S., Suleman, R., Angez, M....Zaidi, S. (2013). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Asia-2 Genotype, Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1017-1019. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120771.
  • Shewanella haliotis Associated with Severe Soft Tissue Infection, Thailand, 2012 PDF Version [PDF - 316 KB - 3 pages]
    K. Poovorawan et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Poovorawan K, Chatsuwan T, Lakananurak N, Chansaenroj J, Komolmit P, Poovorawan Y, et al. Shewanella haliotis Associated with Severe Soft Tissue Infection, Thailand, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1019-1021. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121607
    AMA Poovorawan K, Chatsuwan T, Lakananurak N, et al. Shewanella haliotis Associated with Severe Soft Tissue Infection, Thailand, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1019-1021. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121607.
    APA Poovorawan, K., Chatsuwan, T., Lakananurak, N., Chansaenroj, J., Komolmit, P., & Poovorawan, Y. (2013). Shewanella haliotis Associated with Severe Soft Tissue Infection, Thailand, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1019-1021. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121607.
  • Murine Typhus in Humans, Yucatan, Mexico PDF Version [PDF - 398 KB - 2 pages]
    K. Dzul-Rosado et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Dzul-Rosado K, González-Martínez P, Peniche-Lara G, Zavala-Velázquez J, Zavala-Castro J. Murine Typhus in Humans, Yucatan, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1021-1022. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121400
    AMA Dzul-Rosado K, González-Martínez P, Peniche-Lara G, et al. Murine Typhus in Humans, Yucatan, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1021-1022. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121400.
    APA Dzul-Rosado, K., González-Martínez, P., Peniche-Lara, G., Zavala-Velázquez, J., & Zavala-Castro, J. (2013). Murine Typhus in Humans, Yucatan, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1021-1022. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121400.
  • Flaviviruses in Game Birds, Southern Spain, 2011–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 351 KB - 3 pages]
    F. Llorente et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Llorente F, Pérez-Ramírez E, Fernández-Pinero J, Soriguer R, Figuerola J, Jiménez-Clavero M, et al. Flaviviruses in Game Birds, Southern Spain, 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1023-1025. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130122
    AMA Llorente F, Pérez-Ramírez E, Fernández-Pinero J, et al. Flaviviruses in Game Birds, Southern Spain, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1023-1025. doi:10.3201/eid1906.130122.
    APA Llorente, F., Pérez-Ramírez, E., Fernández-Pinero, J., Soriguer, R., Figuerola, J., & Jiménez-Clavero, M. (2013). Flaviviruses in Game Birds, Southern Spain, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1023-1025. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130122.
  • Absence of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Wild Small Mammals, Madagascar PDF Version [PDF - 386 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Olive et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Olive M, Razafindralambo N, Barivelo T, Rafisandratantsoa J, Soarimalala V, Goodman SM, et al. Absence of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Wild Small Mammals, Madagascar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1025-1027. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121074
    AMA Olive M, Razafindralambo N, Barivelo T, et al. Absence of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Wild Small Mammals, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1025-1027. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121074.
    APA Olive, M., Razafindralambo, N., Barivelo, T., Rafisandratantsoa, J., Soarimalala, V., Goodman, S. M....Reynes, J. (2013). Absence of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Wild Small Mammals, Madagascar. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1025-1027. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121074.
  • Colostrum Replacer and Bovine Leukemia Virus Seropositivity in Calves PDF Version [PDF - 290 KB - 2 pages]
    B. Choudhury et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Choudhury B, Finnegan C, Frossard J, Venables C, Steinbach F. Colostrum Replacer and Bovine Leukemia Virus Seropositivity in Calves. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1027-1028. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121523
    AMA Choudhury B, Finnegan C, Frossard J, et al. Colostrum Replacer and Bovine Leukemia Virus Seropositivity in Calves. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1027-1028. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121523.
    APA Choudhury, B., Finnegan, C., Frossard, J., Venables, C., & Steinbach, F. (2013). Colostrum Replacer and Bovine Leukemia Virus Seropositivity in Calves. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1027-1028. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121523.
  • Novel Respiratory Syncytial Virus A Genotype, Germany, 2011–2012 PDF Version [PDF - 352 KB - 2 pages]
    C. Prifert et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Prifert C, Streng A, Krempl CD, Liese J, Weissbrich B. Novel Respiratory Syncytial Virus A Genotype, Germany, 2011–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1029-1030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121582
    AMA Prifert C, Streng A, Krempl CD, et al. Novel Respiratory Syncytial Virus A Genotype, Germany, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1029-1030. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121582.
    APA Prifert, C., Streng, A., Krempl, C. D., Liese, J., & Weissbrich, B. (2013). Novel Respiratory Syncytial Virus A Genotype, Germany, 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1029-1030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121582.
  • Travel-related Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 Infection, France PDF Version [PDF - 330 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Taha et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Taha M, Kacou-N’Douba A, Hong E, Deghmane A, Giorgini D, Okpo S, et al. Travel-related Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 Infection, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1030-1032. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120515
    AMA Taha M, Kacou-N’Douba A, Hong E, et al. Travel-related Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 Infection, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1030-1032. doi:10.3201/eid1906.120515.
    APA Taha, M., Kacou-N’Douba, A., Hong, E., Deghmane, A., Giorgini, D., Okpo, S....Dosso, M. (2013). Travel-related Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 Infection, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1030-1032. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.120515.
  • Clostridium difficile Infection Associated with Pig Farms PDF Version [PDF - 300 KB - 3 pages]
    E. C. Keessen et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Keessen EC, Harmanus C, Dohmen W, Lipman L. Clostridium difficile Infection Associated with Pig Farms. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1032-1034. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121645
    AMA Keessen EC, Harmanus C, Dohmen W, et al. Clostridium difficile Infection Associated with Pig Farms. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1032-1034. doi:10.3201/eid1906.121645.
    APA Keessen, E. C., Harmanus, C., Dohmen, W., & Lipman, L. (2013). Clostridium difficile Infection Associated with Pig Farms. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1032-1034. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.121645.
  • Prolonged Incubation Period for Cryptococcus gattii Infection in Cat, Alaska, USA PDF Version [PDF - 312 KB - 2 pages]
    L. J. Castrodale et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Castrodale LJ, Gerlach RF, Preziosi DE, Frederickson P, Lockhart SR. Prolonged Incubation Period for Cryptococcus gattii Infection in Cat, Alaska, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1034-1035. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130006
    AMA Castrodale LJ, Gerlach RF, Preziosi DE, et al. Prolonged Incubation Period for Cryptococcus gattii Infection in Cat, Alaska, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1034-1035. doi:10.3201/eid1906.130006.
    APA Castrodale, L. J., Gerlach, R. F., Preziosi, D. E., Frederickson, P., & Lockhart, S. R. (2013). Prolonged Incubation Period for Cryptococcus gattii Infection in Cat, Alaska, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1034-1035. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.130006.

About the Cover

  • More Is More PDF Version [PDF - 576 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. More Is More. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1036-1037. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.AC1906
    AMA Potter P. More Is More. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1036-1037. doi:10.3201/eid1906.AC1906.
    APA Potter, P. (2013). More Is More. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1036-1037. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.AC1906.

Etymologia

  • Etymologia: Shewanella haliotis PDF Version [PDF - 277 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Etymologia: Shewanella haliotis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(6):1035. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.ET1906
    AMA Etymologia: Shewanella haliotis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(6):1035. doi:10.3201/eid1906.ET1906.
    APA (2013). Etymologia: Shewanella haliotis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19(6), 1035. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1906.ET1906.
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