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Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013
Perspective

Norovirus Disease in the United States

Aron J. HallComments to Author , Ben A. Lopman, Daniel C. Payne, Manish M. Patel, Paul A. Gastañaduy, Jan Vinjé, and Umesh D. Parashar
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Studies estimating incidence of norovirus disease, United States*

Study (reference) Age group, y Norovirus-associated outcome Data source Data period Method
Mead et al. (4) All Deaths, hospitalizations, illnesses NHDS, FoodNet 1979–1997 Attributable proportion extrapolation
Patel et al. (2) <5 Hospitalizations, ED visits, outpatient visits NHDS, NAMCS/NHAMCS 1993–2002 Attributable proportion extrapolation
Scallan et al. (6) All Deaths, hospitalizations, illnesses NVSS, HCUP-NIS, NHDS, NAMCS/NHAMCS, FoodNet 2000–2006 Attributable proportion extrapolation
Hall et al. (7) All Outpatient visits, illnesses HMO passive surveillance, FoodNet 2004–2005 Laboratory-confirmed population-based surveillance
Payne et al. (8) <5 Hospitalizations, ED visits, outpatient visits NVSN active surveillance, NAMCS/NHAMCS 2008–2010 Laboratory-confirmed population-based surveillance
Hall et al. (9) <5, 5–64, ≥65 Deaths NVSS 1999–2007 Indirect attribution from regression modeling
Lopman et al. (10) <5, 5–17, 18–64, 65–74, 75–84, ≥85 Hospitalizations HCUP-NIS 1996–2007 Indirect attribution from regression modeling
Gastañaduy et al. (11) <5, 5–17, 18–64, ≥65 ED visits, outpatient visits MarketScan 2001–2009 Indirect attribution from regression modeling

*NHDS, National Hospital Discharge Survey; ED, emergency department; NAMCS/NHAMCS, National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey/National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey; NVSS, National Vital Statistics System; HCUP-NIS, Healthcare Cost Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample; FoodNet, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network; HMO, health maintenance organization; NVSN, New Vaccine Surveillance Network.

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References
  1. Matthews  JE, Dickey  BW, Miller  RD, Felzer  JR, Dawson  BP, Lee  AS, The epidemiology of published norovirus outbreaks: a review of risk factors associated with attack rate and genogroup. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:116172 and. DOIPubMed
  2. Patel  MM, Widdowson  MA, Glass  RI, Akazawa  K, Vinje  J, Parashar  UD. Systematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:122431 and. DOIPubMed
  3. Yen  C, Hall  AJ. Challenges to estimating norovirus disease burden. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc. 2013;2:61–2
  4. Mead  PS, Slutsker  L, Dietz  V, McCaig  LF, Bresee  JS, Shapiro  C, Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:60725 and. DOIPubMed
  5. Richardson  C, Bargatze  RF, Goodwin  R, Mendelman  PM. Norovirus virus-like particle vaccines for the prevention of acute gastroenteritis. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:15567 and. DOIPubMed
  6. Scallan  E, Hoekstra  RM, Angulo  FJ, Tauxe  RV, Widdowson  M-A, Roy  SL, Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:715 .PubMed
  7. Hall  AJ, Rosenthal  M, Gregoricus  N, Greene  SA, Ferguson  J, Henao  OL, Incidence of acute gastroenteritis and role of norovirus, Georgia, USA, 2004–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:13818 .PubMed
  8. Payne  DC, Vinje  J, Szilagyi  PG, Edwards  KM, Staat  MA, Weinberg  GA, Norovirus and medically attended gastroenteritis in US children. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:112130 and. DOIPubMed
  9. Hall  AJ, Curns  AT, McDonald  LC, Parashar  UD, Lopman  BA. The roles of Clostridium difficile and norovirus among gastroenteritis-associated deaths in the United States, 1999–2007. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:21623 and. DOIPubMed
  10. Lopman  BA, Hall  AJ, Curns  AT, Parashar  UD. Increasing rates of gastroenteritis hospital discharges in US adults and the contribution of norovirus, 1996–2007. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:46674 and. DOIPubMed
  11. Gastañaduy  PA, Hall  AJ, Curns  AT, Parashar  UD, Lopman  BA. Burden of norovirus gastroenteritis in the ambulatory setting–United States, 2001–2009. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:105865 and. DOIPubMed
  12. National Center for Health Statistics. National health care surveys, January 24, 2013 [cited 2013 Mar 12]. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/dhcs.htm
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  16. Karsten  C, Baumgarte  S, Friedrich  AW, von Eiff  C, Becker  K, Wosniok  W, Incidence and risk factors for community-acquired acute gastroenteritis in north-west Germany in 2004. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:93543 and. DOIPubMed
  17. Thomas  MK, Murray  R, Flockhart  L, Pintar  K, Pollari  F, Fazil  A, Estimates of the burden of foodborne illness in Canada for 30 specified pathogens and unspecified agents, circa 2006. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2013 May 9 [Epub ahead of print]
  18. Patel  MM, Tate  JE, Selvarangan  R, Daskalaki  I, Jackson  MA, Curns  AT, Routine laboratory testing data for surveillance of rotavirus hospitalizations to evaluate the impact of vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:9149 and. DOIPubMed
  19. Zheng  DP, Widdowson  MA, Glass  RI, Vinje  J. Molecular epidemiology of genogroup II-genotype 4 noroviruses in the United States between 1994 and 2006. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:16877 and. DOIPubMed
  20. Yen  C, Wikswo  ME, Lopman  BA, Vinje  J, Parashar  UD, Hall  AJ. Impact of an emergent norovirus variant in 2009 on norovirus outbreak activity in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:56871 and. DOIPubMed
  21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Norovirus activity—United States, 2006–2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56:8426 .PubMed

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Page created: July 18, 2013
Page updated: July 18, 2013
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The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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