Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013
Norovirus Disease in the United States
|Outcome||Study (reference)||Country||Rate/10,000 population (uncertainty bounds)†|
|Deaths||Scallan et al. (6)||United States||0.019 (0.011–0.029)|
|Hall et al. (9)||United States||0.027 (0.023–0.031)|
|Verhoef et al. (13)
|Hospitalizations||Scallan et al. (6)||United States||1.9 (1.1–2.9)|
|Lopman et al. (10)||United States||2.4 (NR)|
|Verhoef et al. (13)
|Emergency department visits
||Gastañaduy et al. (11)
|Outpatient visits||Hall et al. (7)||United States||64.0 (36.0–120.0)|
|Gastañaduy et al. (11)||United States||57.0 (40.0–74)|
|Verhoef et al. (13)||The Netherlands||92.0 (50.0–150)|
|Phillips et al. (14)||United Kingdom||54.0 (48.0–60)|
|Tam et al. (15)||United Kingdom||21.0 (14.0–30)|
|Karsten et al. (16)
|Total illnesses||Scallan et al. (6)||United States||698.0 (430.0–1,028)|
|Hall et al. (7)||United States||650.0 (370.0–1,200)|
|Verhoef et al. (13)||The Netherlands||380.0 (264.0–544)|
|Phillips et al. (14)||United Kingdom||450.0 (380.0–520)|
|Tam et al. (15)||United Kingdom||470.0 (391.0–565)|
|Thomas et al. (17)||Canada||1,040.0 (924.0–1,163)|
- Matthews JE, Dickey BW, Miller RD, Felzer JR, Dawson BP, Lee AS, The epidemiology of published norovirus outbreaks: a review of risk factors associated with attack rate and genogroup. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1161–72 and.
- Patel MM, Widdowson MA, Glass RI, Akazawa K, Vinje J, Parashar UD. Systematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1224–31 and.
- Yen C, Hall AJ. Challenges to estimating norovirus disease burden. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc. 2013;2:61–2
- Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:607–25 and.
- Richardson C, Bargatze RF, Goodwin R, Mendelman PM. Norovirus virus-like particle vaccines for the prevention of acute gastroenteritis. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12:155–67 and.
- Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson M-A, Roy SL, Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:7–15 .
- Hall AJ, Rosenthal M, Gregoricus N, Greene SA, Ferguson J, Henao OL, Incidence of acute gastroenteritis and role of norovirus, Georgia, USA, 2004–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1381–8 .
- Payne DC, Vinje J, Szilagyi PG, Edwards KM, Staat MA, Weinberg GA, Norovirus and medically attended gastroenteritis in US children. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1121–30 and.
- Hall AJ, Curns AT, McDonald LC, Parashar UD, Lopman BA. The roles of Clostridium difficile and norovirus among gastroenteritis-associated deaths in the United States, 1999–2007. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:216–23 and.
- Lopman BA, Hall AJ, Curns AT, Parashar UD. Increasing rates of gastroenteritis hospital discharges in US adults and the contribution of norovirus, 1996–2007. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:466–74 and.
- Gastañaduy PA, Hall AJ, Curns AT, Parashar UD, Lopman BA. Burden of norovirus gastroenteritis in the ambulatory setting–United States, 2001–2009. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:1058–65 and.
- National Center for Health Statistics. National health care surveys, January 24, 2013 [cited 2013 Mar 12]. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/dhcs.htm
- Verhoef L, Koopmans M, Van Pelt W, Duizer E, Haagsma J, Werber D, The estimated disease burden of norovirus in the Netherlands. [Epub ahead of print].. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;•••:1–11.
- Phillips G, Tam CC, Conti S, Rodrigues LC, Brown D, Iturriza-Gomara M, Community incidence of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in England: improved estimates using viral load for norovirus diagnosis. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171:1014–22 and.
- Tam CC, Rodrigues LC, Viviani L, Dodds JP, Evans MR, Hunter PR, Longitudinal study of infectious intestinal disease in the UK (IID2 study): incidence in the community and presenting to general practice. Gut. 2012;61:69–77 and.
- Karsten C, Baumgarte S, Friedrich AW, von Eiff C, Becker K, Wosniok W, Incidence and risk factors for community-acquired acute gastroenteritis in north-west Germany in 2004. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:935–43 and.
- Patel MM, Tate JE, Selvarangan R, Daskalaki I, Jackson MA, Curns AT, Routine laboratory testing data for surveillance of rotavirus hospitalizations to evaluate the impact of vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:914–9 and.
- Zheng DP, Widdowson MA, Glass RI, Vinje J. Molecular epidemiology of genogroup II-genotype 4 noroviruses in the United States between 1994 and 2006. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:168–77 and.
- Yen C, Wikswo ME, Lopman BA, Vinje J, Parashar UD, Hall AJ. Impact of an emergent norovirus variant in 2009 on norovirus outbreak activity in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:568–71 and.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Norovirus activity—United States, 2006–2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56:842–6 .
Page created: July 18, 2013
Page updated: July 18, 2013
Page reviewed: July 18, 2013
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.