Volume 19, Number 9—September 2013
|Location, author, date (reference)||Major finding*|
|Tanzania, Aall-Jilek, 1965 (4)||Reported nodding as symptom in a description of epilepsy|
|Liberia, Van der Waals et al., 1983 (3)||Described seizure disorders as dorsoventral movements of the head|
|Uganda, Kaiser et al., 2000 (5)||Reported head nodding as 1 feature of complex partial seizures|
|Sudan, Tumwine, et al.2001–2002 (2)||Described nodding disease as a progressive epileptic encephalopathy; weak associations with measles, sorghum, and baboon brain consumption; stronger associations with testing for onchocerciasis and Mansonella perstans nematodes|
|Tanzania, Winkler et al., 2008 (9)||Reported clinical description of 62 patients; 48 CSF samples mostly clear, 2/10 EEG interictal changes (no recording of nodding episodes), and 8/12 nonspecific MRI changes|
|Uganda, Sejvar et al., 2009 (7)||Reported neurologic and clinical characterization of the syndrome, EEG documenting atonic seizure as cause for nodding, and negative CSF and MRI findings|
|Uganda, Foltz et al., 2009 (6)||Reported descriptive epidemiology and case–control results, and associations with munitions, crushed roots, and antibodies against Onchocerca spp. nematodes|
|Uganda, unpub. data, 2010||Reported follow up case–control results; associations with gun raids and antibodies against Onchocerca spp. nematodes; no differences for questions regarding consumption of crushed roots|
|Tanzania, Winkler et al., 2010 (10)||Provided additional detail on 62 aforementioned patients; unsatisfactory seizure control and cognitive impairment|
|South Sudan, Nyungura et al., 2011 (11)||Described features of 96 cases|
|South Sudan, Riek, 2011 (8)||Reported skin snip specimens with microfilaria more common among patients than controls.|
*CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; EEG, electroencephalography.
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