Volume 20, Number 1—January 2014
CME ACTIVITY - Research
Raw Milk Consumption among Patients with Non–Outbreak-related Enteric Infections, Minnesota, USA, 2001–2010
|Pathogen||No. laboratory-confirmed cases||Multiplier to account for underdiagnosis (18)||Estimated no. actual cases|
|Escherichia coli O157
|Non-O157 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli
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- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections associated with drinking unpasteurized milk—Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Tennessee, 2002–2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003;52:613–5.
- Denny J, Bhat M, Eckman K. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with raw milk consumption in the Pacific Northwest. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2008;5:321–8.
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- Langer AJ, Ayers T, Grass J, Lynch M, Angulo FJ, Mahon BE. Nonpasteurized dairy products, disease outbreaks, and state laws—United States, 1993–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:385–91.
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- National Association of State Departments of Agriculture. NASDA releases raw milk survey. 2011 [cited 2012 March 2]. http://www.nasda.org/file.aspx?id=3916
- Minnesota Statutes 2013, section 32.393, subdivision 1. Pasteurization. 2013 [cited 2013 May 1] https://www.revisor.mn.gov/statutes/?id=32.393
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- Wood RC, MacDonald KL, Osterholm MT. Campylobacter enteritis outbreaks associated with drinking raw milk during youth activities. A 10-year review of outbreaks in the United States. JAMA. 1992;268:3228–30.
- Friedman CR, Hoekstra RM, Samuel M, Marcus R, Bender J, Shiferaw B, Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection in the United States: a case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(Suppl 3):S285–96.
- Hedberg CW, Smith KE, Besser JM, Boxrud DJ, Hennessy TW, Bender JB, Limitations of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for the routine surveillance of Campylobacter infections. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:242–4.
- Santín M, Trout JM, Fayer R. A longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to 2 years of age. Vet Parasitol. 2008;155:15–23.
- Yoder JS, Beach MJ. Cryptosporidium surveillance and risk factors in the United States. Exp Parasitol. 2010;124:31–9.
- Thomson MA, Benson JW, Wright PA. Two year study of Cryptosporidium infection. Arch Dis Child. 1987;62:559–63.
- Fretz R, Svoboda P, Ryan UM, Thompson RC, Tanners M, Baumgartner A. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from human stool samples in Switzerland. Epidemiol Infect. 2003;131:663–7.
- Pangloli P, Dje Y, Ahmed O, Doane CA, Oliver SP, Draughon FA. Seasonal incidence and molecular characterization of Salmonella from dairy cows, calves, and farm environment. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2008;5:87–96.
- Hussein HS, Bollinger LM. Prevalence of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli in beef cattle. J Food Prot. 2005;68:2224–41.
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